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Chapter 1: History of heath care and trends in health care
Terms in this set (60)
Disease and illness was caused by evil spirits and demons, average life span 20 years
First people to record health records
had a strong belief in the need to cure the spirit and nourish the entire body, used acupuncture to relieve pain and congestion
stressed that a good diet and cleanliness would prevent disease, used therapies such as massage, art therapy, and herbal treatment
Father of Medicine, established that disease is caused by natural causes, Hippocratic Oath
began public health and sanitation systems (built aqueducts and sewers, used filtering systems, drained marshes). First organized med care by providing care for injured soldiers
Four humors, body regulated by four humors (blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile) imbalance in humors caused illness
Dissected animals,called founder of comparative anatomy
Prayer and Divine intervention were main forms of treatment used for illnesses and disease. Sick was taken care of by monks/priests, study of medicine was prohibited, medicine = herbal mixtures
medical universities, bubonic plauge killed 3/4 of population in Europe and Asia
Major Diseases: small pox, diphtheria, tuberculosis, typhoid, malaria
Called the "Rebirth of the science medicine," body was drawn accurately. The major source of new information about the human body was a result of accepting and allowing human dissection.
French surgeon, father of modern surgery
identified the fallopian tubes in the female, described the tympanic membrane in the ear
described the circulation of blood to and from the heart
identified the eustachian tube leading from the ear to the throat
Invented bifocals for glasses
first female physician in U.S.
industrial revolution, vaccines: Roux's diphtheria, Wrights typhoid
most rapid growth in healthcare, x-rays, insulin for diabetes, conjoined twins separated, HIPPA, OBRA, first test tube baby
Vaccines: Antibiotics- polio vaccine, hepatitis, herpes, chicken pox
Human Genome Project, WHO
Disadvantages: bioterrorism, biologic agent weapons to infect humans, new viruses, epidemics, fear pandemics
Trying to control the rising cost of health care, directed toward achieving the maximum benefit for every dollar spent
Reasons to contain heath care costs:
-the aging population
-mass or bulk purchasing
-early intervention and preventive services
-combo of services
Diagnostic related groups (DRGS)
Patients with certain diagnoses who are admitted to hospitals are classified in one payment group. Establishes the amount that would be paid to health care agencies for specific diagnoses.
Patients receive care w/o being admitted to hospitals or heath care facilities
monitoring the use of energy to control costs and conserve resources
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA)
led to the development of many regulations regarding long term care and home health care
the state of being in optimum health w/ a balanced relationships between physical mental and social health
Alternative methods of health care
used in place of biomedical therapies
began using disinfectants and antiseptics during surgery
an arab physician who began the use of animal gut for suture material
Discovered Xrays in 1895
developed the culture plate method to identify pathogens, "father of microbiology"
Founded the American Red Cross in 1881
Created the first mercury thermometer in 1714
Established the patterns of heredity and dominant/recessive patterns
Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin
Developed the Polio Vaccine in 1952
Leonardo da Vinci
Artist who used dissection to draw the human body
began pasteurizing milk to kill bacteria "the father of microbiology"
studies formed the basis for psychology and psychiatry. Influenza pandemic killed more than 21 million people in the 1920s
Sir Alexander Fleming
Discovered penicillin "PCN" in 1928
Invented the stethoscope
outbreak of a disease over a wide geographic area (such as a continent) & affects a high proportion of the population.
Current trends: Identify 3 viruses that are a threat for a pandemic today
Hantavirus, SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), monkeypox, Ebola virus, Marburg Virus
Founder of modern nursing
Developed a vaccine for smallpox in 1796
appointed Superintendent of Female Nurses of the Army in 1861. International Red Cross founded in 1863
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Father of Microbiology; invented the microscope in 1666
A pandemic that killed 3/4 of the population in the Middle Ages
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
1st identified as a disease in 1981
Current trends: name 2 major threats to health care today
bioterrorism and pandemics
Francis Crick and James Watson
Described the structure of DNA and the way it carries genetic information
What time frame were health care plans started to help pay for the costs of health care?
Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR)
Researches the quality of health care delivery and identifies the standards of treatment that should be provided
Holistic Health Care
Care that promotes physical, emotional, and social well-being
Methods of treatment that is used in conjunction (or in combination) with conventional (bio-medical) therapies
believe in the ability of the body to heal itself through the actions of the immune system
Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM)
creates the laws that govern the use of CAM therapies
involves the insertion of very thin needles into specific points along the meridians in the body to stimulate and balance the flow of energy.
based on the belief that illness is an imbalance in an individual's energy field
World Health Organization
International agency sponsored by the United Nations that is constantly monitoring health problems throughout the world and taking steps to prevent pandemics?
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