12 terms

Why did the Bolsheviks (Reds) win the Civil War?

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Leadership (Reds)
-Superb leader = Trotsky
-Introduced conscription for men over 18
-Brought in nearly 50,000 experienced former Tsarist officers
-Appointed political Commissars to each unit of men --> to ensure that officers and soldiers carried out orders
-Brave and motivational
Strength of Army (Reds)
-Compulsory conscription 18-40 year olds
-22,000 officers commanded 330,000 men
-War Communism meant that resources were given to the army
-Trotsky established brutal discipline
-Any officers who tried to desert would find their family taken hostage
-Effective and united fighting force by end of 1919
-5 million troops
Fear and Use of Terror (Reds)
-Dzerzhinsky, head of Cheka, began Red Terror in 1918
-Cheka was feared by even loyal Bolsheviks
-Lenin shot in August 1918 by Kaplan, a member of the SR's
-Cheka beat, hung and shot everyone suspected of helping of fighting with the Whites
-Trotsky promised death to deserters in 1918
-Estimated 50,000 killed
Common Aim (Reds)
-Stay in power to build a new socialist society
-Fought for establishment of first communist government in the world
Logistics and Land (Reds)
-Held central area of Western Russia, which contained most of the large industrial centres able to produce munitions and war supplies.
-Had control of railway lines, easy to send soldiers to and fro
Use of Propaganda (Reds)
-Used to portray Whites as cruel oppressor operating on behalf of foreign capitalist powers
-Reds shown as defending Russian national interests against invading countries
-Trotsky displayed propaganda films and he wanted to raise morale by making speeches
Leadership (Whites)
-Commanders were cruel and bad leaders
-Treated men with disrespect
-Set bad examples by taking drugs and drinking
-White generals did not trust each other and would not co-ordinate their attacks
Strength of the Army (Whites)
-Trained army generals
-Fought over large areas so it was difficult to co-ordinate attacks
-Had supplies from foreigners but were not united so ineffective
Fear and the Use of Terror (Whites)
-A platoon punished villages who supported the Reds by burning them
-In one village, a hole was made in the ice and every villager was pushed under
-Just as cruel and merciless as the Reds
Common Aim (Whites)
-No common aim
-Fighting for different reasons and causes
Logistics and Land (Whites)
-Scattered around central area
-Hundreds of miles separating different armies
-Communications were difficult
Use of Propaganda (Whites)
-Showing violence that the Reds were prepared to do
-Made people unhappy but instilled fear which gave the Bolsheviks control
-Ineffective portrayal due to language barriers, poor leadership and divided aims
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