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size of fist, weight= 250 g (females) 300g (males), 25% of weight is mitochondria

Heart Cambers

atria (upper), ventricles (lower)


hyper-fill ventricles- receiving chambers

Right atria

receives blood from the body and pumps into the right ventricle

Left atria

receives blood from the lungs and pumps blood into the left ventricles


distributing chambers

Right ventricles

pumps blood into the lungs for gas exchange

Left ventricles

pumps blood throughout the body


(1) atrioventricular (2) semilunar

Atrioventricular valve

separate the atria from the ventricles

Characteristics of atrioventricular valves

(1) passively are open and closed when ventricular pressure is grater than atrial pressure (2) tricuspid is on the right side (3) mitral or bicuspid valve is on the left side

semilunar valve

separate the great arteries from the ventricles

characteristics of semilunar valves

(1) passively are closed and open when the ventricular pressure is grater than arterial pressure (2) pulmonary valve separates the right ventricle form the pulmonary trunk (3) aortic valve separates the left ventricle from the aorta


(1) pulmonary (2) systemic


blood pumped from right side of heart, oxygenated and returned to left atrium


blood pumped from the left side of heart and returned to the right atrium, deoxygenated


heart chamber is relaxed


heart chamber is contracted


(1) fibrous pericardium (2) serous pericardium (3) pericardial space/cavity

fibrous pericardium

loose fitting dense irreregular CT, encloses and protects heart

functions of fibrous pericardium

Protects heart, anchors heart to surrounding structures, Prevents overfilling with blood

Serous pericardium

(1) parietal layer (2) visceral layer

serous pericardium- parietal layer

lines internal surface of fibrous pericardium, thin-slippery serous membrane. attaches to the large arteries at superior margin of heart

serous pericardium- visceral layer

continuous with parietal pericardium, the two layers of serous pericardium allows for frictionless environment for heart beating

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