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Fashion Fundamentals: Final
Terms in this set (51)
What are some of the apparel shows/markets/trade associations or groups in the US? Which is the largest?
-The New York Market
-The California Market (Los Angeles, San Francisco)
-The Dallas Market
-The Miami Market
A firm that performs all of the operations required to produce a garment.
A firm whose sole function is to supply sewing services to the apparel industry.
A firm that handles the designing, planning, and purchasing of materials, and usually the cutting, selling, and shipping of apparel, but does not handle the actual garment sewing.
Identify designers/ labels/ brands in each of the different price classifications:
1. National/ Designer Brand
2. Private Label
3. Retail Store Brand
National/ Designer Brand
National- Those that are owned by a manufacturer who advertises them nationally. Ex. Fruit of the Loom, Levi's, Hanes, Juicy Couture
Designer- Carry the name of the designer. Ex. Ralph Lauren, Calvin Klein, Donna Karan, Tommy Hilfiger
One that is owned by a retailer and found only in its stores. Ex. Jaclyn Smith at Kmart, American Rag at Macy's, Arizona Jean Company at J.C. Penny
Retail Store Brand
The name of a chain that is used as the exclusive label on most of the items in the store or catalog. Ex. GAP, The limited, Ann Taylor, Victoria's Secret
A label to which customers attach little or no importance. Ex. Discount and off- price stores
The 6 stages of the product development process:
1. Planning the line
2. Creating the design concept
3. Developing the designs
4. Planning production
6. Distributing the line
Explain some of the new technologies used by the apparel industry:
-Product Lifecycle Management
-Supply Chain Management
-Bar codes, scanners, and radio frequency identification
-Electronic data interchange
Product Lifecycle Management
PLM; A strategic system that links information within a manufacturing company to increase efficiency and manage the life of a product.
Supply Chain Management
SCM; Allows companies to share forecasting, point-of-sales data, inventory information, and the supply and demand for materials or products.
Bar Codes, Scanners, and Radio Frequency Identification
-Bar codes- Made up of a pattern of dark bars and white spaces of varying widths.
-Scanners- Read the bar code.
-RFID- Item-level tagging device that stores data.
Electronic Data Interchange
The electronic exchange of machine- readable data in standard formats between one company's computers and another company's computers.
The idea is to tailor the product to fit one particular customer and to supply thousands of individuals at mass prices, not custom- made prices.
Has evolved to help manufacturers, retailers, and customers to get a better fit.
Why do manufacturers decide to retail their clothing instead of contracting the retail work?
The manufacturer can sell the product to consumers at full retail price rather than at the whole- sale price required by retail customers.
A strategy in which a company uses a successful brand name to launch new or modified products.
It is necessary for companies in the fashion industry to harness technology as they strive to push costs out of the entire product distribution pipeline rather than to just push costs onto their trading partners.
The globalization of the fashion business has made it necessary for companies both large and small to have a worldview, a global perspective that helps them to see the possibilities for their businesses.
How do apparel unions impact the growth of the US apparel industry?
The success of the industry in the early twentieth century came about largely because the manufacturers were able to draw upon a substantial supply of immigrant labor.
-Garments were either custom- made, fitted to them, or homemade
-Growth of ready-to-wear.
-Some manufacturers began to mass- produce cloaks and mantles for women.
-The rise of Unions.
-Manufacturers and contractors demanded long hours from workers, yet paid low wages
-Factory working conditions deteriorated
-Workers rebelled against working hours, conditions, and pay.
-During the war the entire apparel industry was given over to the war effort.
-Restrictions were placed on the design and use of fabrics.
-Once the war ended the restrictions were ended and a long era of prosperity began.
-Levi Strauss designed his first pair of blue jeans.
-The sewing machine was introduced by Elias Howe and modified with a treadle by Singer.
How do trunk shows benefit the designer and/or the manufacturer of an apparel product?
Customers see clothes as the designer planned them and coordinated them, and they experience some glamour of the fashion industry. The retailer enjoys the dramatic influx of customers who come to such personal appearances and shows and any profits that result as clothes are ordered.
Describe "lead time"
The amount of time that elapses between when a process starts and when it is completed.
Is there a difference in "lead time" amongst categories of apparel?
What are the divisions of the women's apparel industry based on price of merchandise?
1. Designer Signature
7. High End
What are the basic categories of women's apparel and the types of garments generally included in each?
-Outerwear (coats, rainwear, jackets)
-Dresses (one or two-piece designs)
-Blouses (dress and tailored)
-Suits (jacket/skirts, jacket/pants)
-After 5 and evening clothes (formal and prom)
-Bridal wear (gowns and dresses for brides)
-Sportswear and separates (pants, shorts, tops)
-Activewear (sports and athletic activities)
-Uniforms and aprons
-Innerwear (intimate apparel)
-Special needs (for elderly or physically challenged)
Who are the largest retailers of each category of apparel?
-Formal wear- Marchesa, Roberto Cavalli
-Bridal- Vera Wang
-Maternity- Destination Maternity Corporation
Explain trends of women's and men's apparel. How do these trends work together across different genders?
What factor contributed most to the early growth of men's apparel manufacturing?
Which apparel industry was the first to move to machine/ factory production? When did this occur?
Identify the 5 main market segments in menswear.
1. Tailored clothing
Explain the production process/ time needed for each segment
-Tailored- Delivery of fabric takes 9 months, then line is presented to buyers
-Sportswear- Short run, the production of a limited number of units of a particular item, fewer than would normally be considered an average number to produce.
-Contemporary- Produced by both tailored- clothing and sportswear firms.
What major factors contribute to the wholesale price of a garment?
-The quality of materials
-The quality of workmanship
-The amount and type of labor required in the production process
-The executive and sales position structure of the organization
-Showroom rent and business overhead
Emphasizes the ability of the company to provide one or more products to a particular customer market or type.
Off- shore production
The importation of goods by domestic apparel producers, either from their own plants operating in cheap, labor- rich foreign areas, or through their long-term supply arrangements with foreign producers.
An arrangement whereby firms are given permission to produce and market merchandise in the name of the licensor, who is paid a percentage of sales for permitting his or her name to be used.
A name associated with the first shops offering men's ready-to-wear in this country. Garments lacked careful fit and detail work found in custom tailored clothing of the period.
Garment factories owned and operated by menswear manufacturers who perform all the operations required to produce finished garments.
A manufacturer's policy of selling goods at both wholesale and retail.
Section work/ piecework
The division of labor in apparel manufacturing whereby each sewing- machine operator sews only a certain section of the garment, such as a sleeve or a hem.
Designer & Corporate Initiatives
Campaigns that involve ethical, ecological, or sustainable perspective, finding a way to design and produce pieces in their line.
Community & Fair Trade
Social, environmental and economic standards that work to promote safe, healthy working conditions, protect the environment, enable transparency, and empower communities to build strong, thriving businesses.
Ecological & Slow Design
A return to traditional craft techniques and practices
New Models for Sustainability
The need to take personal responsibility for ecological and social change in the midst of global warming and climate crisis.
Recycling, Reuse, and Redesign
The idea that second-hand and recycled items pass on their life experiences is what it imbues redesigned clothing with its sense of value.
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