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16 terms

Enlightenment Philosophers/Theories/Theories of Government

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Baron de Montesquieu
Believed in separation of powers; author of Spirit of Laws
John Locke
Believed that all people were born with natural rights, and it was the government's job to protect those rights and not to infringe upon them; believed the social contract could be broken if the government became corrupt
Thomas Hobbes
Believed that life in a state of nature was "nasty, brutish, and short," and that people created government in order to preserve their natural rights; favored an autocratic government (dictatorship, absolute monarchy) and believed citizens could never break the social contract
Social Contract
People give up some rights in order to receive protection
The Social Contract (book)
Written by Jean Jacques Rousseau
Jean Jacques Rousseau
"man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains," saw the social contract as a relationship among people as opposed to an agreement between the people and their government
Voltaire
Strong advocate for freedom of speech and religion; exiled from his home country
Evolutionary Theory of Government
Government evolved when one person took control of a group for survival
Force Theory of Government
Government emerged when one individual took control of a region through force
Divine Right Theory of Government
An individual believes they have the right to govern because their authority comes from God or a group of gods
Two Treatises of Government
Book written by John Locke
Niccolo Machiavelli
Wrote "The Prince" in which he ridiculed the absolute power of government leaders during the 1500s
Voltaire
Wrote Candide
John Locke
Wrote "Two Treatises of Government"
Tabula Rasa
Locke believed that every person was born with a blank slate and is formed by their experiences; people needed the government to protect their rights
Natural Rights Theory
All people are born with three rights - the right to life, liberty, and property