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Chapter 6 Government
Terms in this set (46)
Official roles of the president: (listed under the Constitution)
- chief executive
- chief administrator
- commander in chief
- foreign policy leader
- chief agenda setter
Role as chief executive
President's responsibility to see that the government programs are carried out and that the laws passed by Congress are implemented
Role as chief administrator
Manager of the 15 executive departments and the numerous federal agencies that help carry out government policy
Role as commander in chief
President has the authority to order troops into action and to call them back home
Role as foreign policy leader
President has job of formulating the nation's plans and procedures for dealing with other countries; this can involve negotiating treaties and receiving foreign ambassadors > also directs the activities of the country's ambassadors and diplomatic efforts
What is the term for the art of negotiating with foreign governments called?
Role as chief agenda setter
President will outline the government's things (set the government's agenda) to do during a State of the Union address; also helps Congress prepare the annual federal budget
Unofficial roles of the President: (not listed in the Constitution)
- chief of state
- party leader
- chief citizen
Role as chief of state
(Head of state) takes on roles of the symbolic figure head of the USA
Role as party leader
Takes the lead in shaping and then promoting the party platform (of his or her political party); may also help raise money and build support for fellow party members around the country
Role as chief citizen(s) (including VP)
The primary representatives of the nation; should be seen as models of good citizenship and are held to high standard
Written qualifications for the Presidency:
- at least 35 years old
- have lived in the country for 14 years
- be a natural-born U.S. citizen
What is the difference between a natural-born citizen and naturalized citizen?
Natural-born: a person who has been born a citizen of a country; persons born of U.S. citizens overseas or people who are born on U.S. soil, territories, or military basis overseas.
Naturalized: a person made a citizen by law, after his or her birth
Why did the Framers restrict the presidency to natural-born citizens?
They saw it as a way to safeguard the gains of the American Revolution. They feared that without it, a rich duke or king could come to the U.S. and assume the presidency.
How many terms can a president serve?
Two four-year terms
Who is the president that served over 2 terms?
FDR 1940 after WWII
What amendment passed after FDR?
1951 - 22 amendment; 2 full terms and no more than 10 years in office
Why did the Framers create the electoral college?
Was a product of the Constitutional Convention compromise; it would help maintain the balance between the large and small states and ensure that the president would he elected by a cross-section of the country's voters
How is the amount of electors in each state decided?
A number = to the number of its members in the House and the Senate
535 electors + 3 electors from D.C. =
Which 2 states do not use the "winner-take-all" rule?
Maine and Nebraska
Which amendment states the order of succession?
First 4 in the succession process:
1. Vice President
2. Speaker of the House
3. President Pro Tempore of the Senate
4. Sec. of State
What is the president's annual salary?
Benefits of being President:
- doctors who are always on call
- special tax deductions
- has access to numerous cars and Air Force One (private plane)
- travel allowances
Unwritten qualifications of the President:
- presidential backgrounds
- personal qualities (likable, persuasive, able to communicate their ideas effectively, etc.)
- appear dignified, confident, poised, and should demonstrate a certain degree of charisma
What are executive orders?
(Chief executive) A formal rule or regulation instructing executive branch officials on how to carry out their jobs; have the force of law; give the president great power to interpret laws passed by Congress
What is executive privilege?
(Chief executive) Allows a president to refuse to release information to Congress or a court; claim this in order to shield information in the interest of national security
What are executive agreements?
(Foreign policy leader) Agreements between a president and the head of a foreign government
(Foreign policy leader) The president has the power to formally recognize the legitimacy of a foreign government
(Commander in chief) The president has the responsibility to ensure the defense and security of the nation and its interests around the world; Congress gives president power to declare war > must report to Congress within 48 hours to explain the reasons for the action
Legislative powers of the president:
- chief agenda setter (annual state of the Union address and the federal budget proposal)
- main power = veto
Judicial powers of the president:
- may nominate the people who become federal judges and justices
- may alter the sentences of people convicted of crimes through their powers of clemency, or mercy
Postpones the carrying out of a sentence, or the length of time a person is put in jail
Releases a convicted criminal from having to fulfill a sentence
What does it mean to offer amnesty?
It grants a group of offenders a general pardon for offenses committed
2 main informal powers of the president:
1. Access to the media
2. The president's position as party leader
Formal checks on the President's powers:
- subject to Judicial review
- checked by Congress (Congress can choose to override presidential veto)
Informal checks on the President's powers:
- primary source: the media
- public approval
What are the 2 factors that have driven the changes in Presidential power?
1. The growth of government itself in response to new challenges and changing situations
2. The growth of the nation as a world power
Executive Office of the President
EOP consists of a number of separate offices that help the president formulate policy; didn't exist 100 years ago; many of the top officials belong here; often some of the most influential people in a president's administration
The White House Office
The heart of the EOP; consists of the president's key personal and political staff
Who manages the White House Office?
The chief of staff (who is appointed by the president)
National Security Council
NSC; one of the most important parts of the EOP; brings together the top military, foreign affairs, and intelligence officials in the administration to coordinate U.S. national security policy
Council of Economic Advisors
Congress created the CEA; provides the president with expert analysis of the economy; its members examine the economy to see how trends and events may affect the president's economic policy as well as how economic policy is affecting the economy; consists of 3 members nominated by the president
Office of Management and Budget
OMB; help develop the deferral budget and to oversee its execution by the agencies in the executive branch; largest organization in the EOP (500+ employees)
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