61 terms

Final Exam

test 1
What is/are the typical effect(s) of psychedelic substances?
altered perception and awareness as well as hallucinations
Which of the following statements is characteristic of alcohol? It:
may cause congenital defects in infants born to alcoholic mothers
What is physiologic dependence?
adaptation of the body to a drug resulting in withdrawal signs after the drug is discontinued
What is a common indication of substance abuse?
behavioral change
A patient who has developed a tolerance for codeine will:
require a larger dose than expected to control pain
Chemical dependency has been associated with all the following EXCEPT:
increased work productivity
Chronic alcoholism is likely to cause all EXCEPT
respiratory failure
Which of the following apply to abuse of anabolic steroids? They
often cause permanent damage to the cardiovascular system
Which of the following is likely to result from lead poisoning?
damage to the brain and peripheral nerves
During the development of hyperthermia, the state of heat exhaustion is indicated when
hypovolemia and fainting occur
Which of the following types of cells are most likely to be damaged by exposure to radiation?
epithelial tissue and bone marrow
Which statement applies to food poisoning?
1. It results from consuming contaminated food and water.
2. It often causes gastroenteritis, including vomiting and diarrhea.
3. Outbreaks occur frequently in institutions.
Institutions frequently have outbreaks of infection associated with poultry products contaminated by:
The term pica refers to:
the consumption of nonfood substances such as clay
Inhalants can be:
a particulate such as asbestos
gaseous, such as sulfur dioxide
a solvent, such as benzene
During the development of hyperthermia, the stage of heat exhaustion is marked by
dizziness, fainting, and headache
Bites from both wild and domesticated animals may cause:
Which of the following is considered carcinogenic?
inhaled particulates
Radiation damage may occur from repeated exposure to
ultraviolet rays
radioactive substances
Which of the following would result from a reduced number of erythrocytes in the blood?
decreased hematocrit
Following hemolysis, which part of the hemoglobin molecule produces bilirubin?
Vitamin K is required by the liver to synthesize
Chronic blood loss causes anemia because of the
smaller amount of recycled iron available
What is the cause of sickle-cell anemia?
a defective gene inherited from both parents
Which of the following best describes the characteristic erythrocyte associated with pernicious anemia?
megaloblastic or macrocytic nucleated cells
Choose the typical early general signs/symptoms of anemia
pallor, dyspnea, and fatigue
What is the cause of oral ulcerations and delayed healing occurring with any severe anemia?
deficit of oxygen for epithelial cell mitosis
In individuals with pernicious anemia, antibodies form to:
intrinsic factor or parietal cells
In cases of polycythemia vera, blood pressure is elevated due to
increased blood volume
Petechiae and purpura are common signs of:
increased bleeding tendencies
Which statement applies to the disorder hemophilia A?
Hematomas and hemarthroses are common.
In individuals with acute leukemia, the increased number of malignant leukocytes leads to:
decreased hemoglobin
Multiple opportunistic infections develop with acute leukemia primarily because:
many circulating leukocytes are immature
Why is excessive bleeding a common occurrence with acute leukemia?
decreased platelets
Predisposing factors to leukemia commonly include:
exposure to radiation
Which of the following is typical of Hodgkin's disease?
initial tumor is single, painless, enlarged lymph node, often cervical
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma differs from Hodgkin's lymphoma in that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma usually presents as:
multiple, scattered, enlarged and painless lymph nodes
Multiple myeloma is a malignant tumor involving:
plasma cells
Secondary polycythemia may be associated with:
severe chronic bronchitis
All of the following apply to vitamin K EXCEPT:
the bone marrow requires it to synthesize hemoglobin
The Reed-Sternberg cell is diagnostic for:
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Leukemia is sometimes linked to chromosome abnormalities, as evidenced by
the presence of Philadelphia chromosome translocation in cases of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
Iron-deficiency anemia frequently results from any of the following EXCEPT
diabetes mellitus
Which of the following applies to the leukemias?
Chronic leukemias are more common in older people
A high percentage of blast cells in the leukocyte population indicates a poor prognosis for an individual with:
acute myelogenous leukemia
Which of the following applies to erythropoietin?
It stimulates production of red blood cells.
In which blood dyscrasia does pancytopenia develop?
aplastic anemia
Which stage of Hodgkin's lymphoma would be identified when several malignant lymph nodes are found in two regions on the same side of the diaphragm?
Stage II
Which of the following is a synthetic opioid that prevents withdrawal symptoms and improves function?
Which of the following drugs causes headache and vomiting when an alcoholic ingests small amounts of alcohol?
What is/are signs of hypothermia?
lethargy and confusion
Choose the correct effects of exposure of the ears to very cold temperatures
loss of sensation, vascular occlusions
Which of the following is a potential effect of a bite or sting?
A common illness for tourists in developing countries is "traveler's diarrhea," often caused by:
E. coli
What term is used to describe a deficit of all types of blood cells
Which of the following is considered to be a compensation mechanism for individuals with anemia?
What causes numbness and tingling in the fingers of individuals with untreated pernicious anemia?
vitamin B12 deficit causing peripheral nerve demyelination
Which of the following is present with pernicious anemia
What is the basic abnormality in thalassemia?
There is failure to synthesize either the alpha or beta chains in the hemoglobin molecule.
Which of the following substances is classified as an anticoagulant?
Which of the following statements apply to hemochromocytosis? It is:
a metabolic error leads to excess amounts of hemosiderin, causing damage to organs