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Ch. 14 Study Guide WITH EVERYTHING I STAYED UP LATE TO MAKE THIS
Terms in this set (64)
What determines pitch?
What determines loudness?
What are characteristics of longer wavelengths?
Lower pitch and frequency (they are the same thing).
What are characteristics of shorter wavelengths?
Higher pitch and frequency (they are the same thing).
What is a wave measured by?
Amplitude (loudness) which is the height of the wave (distance from the top of the crest to the bottom of the trough). So the louder a sound, the taller the waves and greater the amplitude. Also it can be measured by wavelengths.
What is a wavelength?
The distance from the middle of the crest of one wave to the middle of the next crest.
How does the wavelength change across the Electromagnetic Spectrum, where is each wave type?
(copy and paste link for awesome picture http://www.lcse.umn.edu/specs/labs/glossary_items/em_spectrum.html)
Radio, microwaves, infrared, visible light (ROY G BIV), ultraviolet, x-ray, and gamma rays. This is the order of the waves in the electromagnetic spectrum from lowest frequency to highest frequency or longest wavelength to shortest wavelength.
How do musical instruments produce sound?
It creates sound when a part of it vibrates rapidly. This vibration produces sound waves in the air, which we hear as musical notes. It pushes on the air molecules next to it. This push compresses, or squeezes together, molecules of the air, forming the compression part of a sound wave. The sound wave moves away from the instrument through the air.
What is kinetic energy? Example?
It is energy that a body possesses by being in motion. The heavier a thing is, and the faster it moves, the more kinetic energy it has. For example, an asteroid falling to earth at incredible speeds has an enormous amount of kinetic energy.
What is potential energy? Example?
It is energy possessed by a body from its position relative to others and mass. This potential energy is a result of gravity pulling downwards. An example is an archer's bow with the string pulled back.
What is reflection? Example?
It is when an object blocks the straight path of light, causing it to bounce off the surface at an angle. An example is when it's sunny and you look down the water, you'll see the sun, because the light is reflected.
What is refraction? Example?
It is the bending of light as it passes from one material to another (changing speeds). It occurs each time light passes across a boundary from one substance to another, such as from air into water. As light crosses that boundary, the rays bend at different angles depending on the wavelength (color) of light. Also, if you put a pen in a glass of water, the pen will "bend".
What is diffraction? Example?
It is the change in direction in a wave's direction as it travels between or around barriers, often accompanies by interference. An example is when light comes through a window and the light spread through the entire room, but there are shadows from interference.
What are some forms of energy?
Electrical, thermal, sound, chemical, solar, potential, kinetic,
What are forms of energy that can be changed into electrical energy?
Solar energy, chemical potential energy, wind energy from turbines, nuclear energy, ethanol plants, and energy of moving water.
What is the most important idea of the law of conservation of energy?
Energy can be created or destroyed.
What is the amount of diffraction in a wave dependent on?
The wavelength of the wave.
What is the energy transformation that takes place in the process of burning fuel as a source of energy?
At other generating stations, a fuel, such as oil, is burned. The chemical energy in the fuel is changed first into thermal energy, which changes liquid water into steam that turns large turbines, and finally into electrical energy.
What kind of energy is stored in a battery?
Disturbances that carry energy through space or matter.
What are the two parts of a wave?
The crest (top) and the trough (bottom)
What are two properties that can be used to describe a sound?
Pitch (frequency, measured in hertz) and loudness (amplitude, measured in decibals)
Name three things Earth gets from the sun's light energy.
Life (plants, animals, humans), the water cycle, sand heat.
What are some different kinds of waves?
Mechanical waves (need matter to move through space) such as sound waves, water waves, and earthquake waves. There are also waves that can move through space without matter such as all the electromagnetic waves.
What does sound need to travel through to produce sound?
Will a bigger or smaller rock cause a bigger wave?
Bigger because it causes a bigger disturbance in the water, and the water is forced to carry more energy through space.
How do you measure one complete wavelength?
Crest to crest
What causes blue marble to look blue?
It reflects blue light and absorbs all other wavelengths in white light.
What causes you to be able to see through a transparent object?
Light because almost all of it passes through transparent objects, allowing you to see through them.
What can affect the path of a light beam?
A material that interferes with the straight path of light causes it to reflect on its own surface as well as absorb some of it. When light passes from one material to another, it refracts. When an object blocks the path of light, the object diffracts. When a transparent object blocks light, most of the light will pass through. When a translucent object blocks light, some of the light will get through and some will be absorbed. Opaque things absorb and reflect light, but do not allow any to pass through.
Is a fogged window transparent, translucent, or opaque?
Translucent because the window is transparent but there is fog in the way which is translucent so only some light is able to get through, not all.
How can light change direction?
It can reflect, refract, or diffract.
Would refraction be different through a diamond than glass?
Yes, due to the two different materials. Light will travel slower through a diamond because it is denser than glass.
Which color absorbs all wavelengths and which color reflects all?
Black absorbs all and white reflects all.
The energy of motion is ____.
A material that allows some light to pass through is _____.
The distance from the resting position to the top of a crest or the bottom of a trough is wave's _____.
A material that allows almost all light to pass through is _____.
Light and other waves like it make up the _____.
A disturbance that carries energy through matter or space is called a _____.
Energy of position or condition is called _____.
A material that does not allow any light to pass through it is _____.
Which energy transformation occurs as a boulder rolls down a hill?
Potential to kinetic energy
Which form of energy is not produced when chemical energy stored in a firework is transformed?
A. electrical energy
B. light energy
C. sound energy
D. thermal energy
A. electrical energy
Which of these absorbs the smallest amount of light energy?
A. clay brick
C. clear glass
C. clear glass
Which kind of wave is produced when air molecules vibrate?
F. light wave
G. infrared wave
J. sound wave
J. sound wave
Which is the decibel level of the loudest sound a human can safely hear over time?
A. 1 dB
B. 10 dB
C. 80 dB
D. 100 dB
C. 80 dB
Tam can sing a higher note than anyone else in her class. What kind of sound quality do Tam's highest notes have?
F. low amplitude
G. low energy
H. high frequency
J. long wavelength
H. high frequency
Why do you often observe bright colors during a sunrise or a sunset?
Particles and chemicals in the atmosphere diffract these parts of the spectrum when the sun is at just the right angle.
When you stand in front of a window, why can you sometime see yourself?
The windows are transparent so you can see inside but not all the light goes through; some of it bounces of the window (reflects) and you can see yourself.
The ability to cause change in matter
The number of vibrations or waves pass a certain point in a given amount of time
All the energy waves that travel at the speed of light
Potential and kinetic example
The amount of potential energy an object has depends on its position and how massive it is. A thick layer of snow at the top of a mountain has a huge amount of potential energy because it is so high. If that snow mass begins to slide down the mountain in an avalanche, its potential energy quickly changes into kinetic energy. The faster the snow moves downhill, the more kinetic energy it has. The moving snow has so much kinetic energy that it can destroy buildings and trees in its path.
What is the range of pitches a human can hear?
Most people can hear sounds that have frequencies between 20 hertz and 20,000 hertz.
What are hertz?
The number of waves per second
When you play a guitar, you can change the length of a string by pressing on it. That shortens the string and makes the frequency higher. The guitar produces a sound with a higher pitch.
What are infrared waves?
What are radio waves?
Used for long distance communication
What are microwaves?
Microwaves are used in radar, in communications, and for heating in microwave ovens and in various industrial processes.
What are UV rays?
They are from the sun and can damage your skin and eyes.
What are gamma rays?
These waves are generated by radioactive atoms and in nuclear explosions.
What are x-rays?
X rays are used to record images of the inside of the human body.
Why can we see the moon?
It reflects sunlight
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