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Psychology Final Exam Ch. 10
Terms in this set (50)
the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual
changing one's own behavior to match that of other people
Groupthink occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned.
changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change
Consumer psychology: branch of psychology that studies the habits of consumers in the marketplace, including compliance
Foot-in-the-door technique: asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment
Door-in-the-face technique: asking for a large commitment and then, after being refused, asking for a smaller commitment
Lowball technique: getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment
Attitude: a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation
Three Components of an Attitude
•Affective (emotional) component
Attitudes (2 of 2)
Attitudes are often poor predictors of behavior unless the attitude is very specific or very strong.
Formation Of Attitudes
Direct contact with the person, situation, object, or idea
Direct instruction from parents or others
Interacting with other people who hold a certain attitude
Vicarious conditioning: watching the actions and reactions of others to ideas, people, objects, and situations
is devoted to figure out how to get people to buy things that someone is selling
Affective Component of Attitudes
the way a person feels toward the person, object, or situation. Affect is used in psychology to mean, "emotions" or "feelings", so the affective component is the emotional component. For example, some people might feel that country music is fun and uplifting.
is the action that a person takes in regard to the person, object, or situation. For example, a person who feels that country music is fun is likely to listen, buy country music and go to a country music concert.
the way a person thinks about the person, object, or situation. These thoughts, or cognitions, include beliefs and ideas about the focus of the attitude. For example, the country music lover might believe that country music is superior to other forms of music.
process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation
Key elements in persuasion are the source of the message, the message itself, the target audience, and the medium.
Persuasion (2 of 3)
Elaboration Likelihood Model
People will either elaborate on the persuasive message or fail to elaborate on it.
The future actions of those who do elaborate are more predictable than the actions of those who do not.
Persuasion (3 of 3)
Elaboration Likelihood Model (continued)
Central-route processing: involves attending to the content of the message itself
Peripheral-route processing: involves attending to factors not involved in the message, such as the expertise of the source of the message, the length of the message, and other non-content factors
Central Route Processing
In which people attend to the content of the message
Peripheral Route Processing
a style of info processing that relies on peripheral cues such as the expertise of the message source, length of the message, and other factors that have nothing to do with the message content
the sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person's behavior does not correspond to that person's impression
Lessened by changing the conflicting behavior, changing the conflicting attitude, or forming a new attitude to justify the behavior
Social Categorization (1 of 2)
Impression formation: the development of the first knowledge a person has about another person
Primacy effect: the very first impression one has about a person tends to persist even in the face of evidence to the contrary
Social Categorization (2 of 2)
Social categorization: the assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past
Stereotype: a set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category
the forming of the first knowledge a person has about another person.
Implicit Personality Theories
Implicit personality theory: sets of assumptions about how different types of people, personality traits, and actions are related to each other
Implicit Association Test (I A T): measures the degree of association between concepts
Schemas: mental patterns that represent what a person believes about certain types of people
Schemas can become stereotypes.
Attributions (1 of 3)
Attribution: the process of explaining one's own behavior and the behavior of others
Attribution theory: the theory of how people make attributions
Attributions (2 of 3)
Situational cause: cause of behavior attributed to external factors
Action of others
Some other aspect of the situation
Dispositional cause: cause of behavior attributed to internal factors
Attributions (3 of 3)
Fundamental attribution error (actor-observer bias): the tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors
Prejudice and Discrimination (1-3)
Prejudice: negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group
Discrimination: treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong
Forms of prejudice include ageism, sexism, racism, and prejudice against those who are too fat or too thin.
In-groups: social groups with whom a person identifies; "us"
Out-groups: social groups with whom a person does not identify; "them"
Scapegoating: tendency to direct prejudice and discrimination at out-group members who have little social power or influence
Stopping Prejudice (1 Through 5)
Social cognitive theory: theorists of this school view prejudice as an attitude acquired through direct instruction, modeling, and other social influences
Realistic conflict theory: this theory posits that conflict between groups increases prejudice and discrimination
Social identity theory: this theory states that the formation of a person's identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison
Social identity: the part of the self-concept that includes one's view of self as a member of a particular social category
Social comparison: the comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one's self-esteem
Stereotype vulnerability: the effect that people's awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior
Self-fulfilling prophecy: the tendency of one's expectations to affect one's behavior in such a way as to make the expectation more likely to occur
Equal status contact: contact between groups in which the groups have equal status, with neither group having power over the other
Stopping Prejudice (5 of 5)
"Jigsaw classroom": educational technique in which each individual is given only part of the information needed to solve a problem, forcing individuals to work together to find the solution
Stress and Social Factors (1 of 3)
Social factors increasing the effects of stress include:
Stresses on the job or in the workplace
Entering a majority culture that is different from one's culture of origin
Acculturative stress: results from the need to change and adapt to the majority culture
Four Methods of Acculturation
•Integration: maintaining a sense of the original culture while forming positive relationship with the majority culture
•Assimilation: giving up the original cultural identity and adopting the majority culture
•Separation: rejecting the majority culture's ways
•Marginalization: maintaining no ties with one's original or majority cultures
Stress and Social Factors (3 of 3)
Social support system: the network of family, friends, neighbors, coworkers, and others who can offer support, comfort, or aid to a person in need
Religiosity and Stress
People with religious beliefs have been found to cope better with stressful events.
Interpersonal attraction: liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person
Proximity: physical or geographical nearness
People like people who are similar to themselves or who are different from themselves (complementary).
Reciprocity of liking: the tendency of people to like other people who like them in return
refers to being physically near someone else. People choose friends and lovers from the pool of people available to them, and availability depends heavily on proximity
Love (1 of 2)
Love: a strong affection for another person due to kinship, personal ties, sexual attraction, admiration, or common interests
Sternberg's Three Components of Love
Love (2 of 2)
Romantic love: consists of intimacy and passion
Companionate love: consists of intimacy and commitment
Consummate love: ideal love, in which all three components are present
Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love
A diagram represents Sternberg's triangular theory of love and the seven different kinds of love, summarized below, that can result from combining the three components of love: intimacy, passion, and commitment.
Romantic Love: Intimacy + Passion
Infatuation: Passion only
Liking: Intimacy only
Fatuous Love: Passion + Commitment
Empty Love: Commitment only
Companionate: Intimacy + Commitment
Consummate Love: Intimacy + Passion + Commitment
Aggression (1 of 2)
Aggression: behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person
Frustration-aggression hypothesis: aggression is a reaction to frustration
Konrad Lorenz saw aggression as an instinct for fighting to promote the survival of our species.
Aggression 2 of 2
Biological influences on aggression may include genetics, the amygdala and limbic system, and testosterone and serotonin levels.
Social role: the pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position
Violent T V shows, movies, and videogames are related to aggression
Prosocial behavior: socially desirable behavior that benefits others
Altruism: prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself
The temporoparietal junction (T P J) is larger in individuals who make altruistic choices.
Bystander Effect: Kitty Genovese (1 of 2)
Bystander effect: the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help
Help becomes less likely as the number of bystanders increases.
Bystander Effect: Kitty Genovese (2 of 2)
Diffusion of responsibility: a person fails to take responsibility for action or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility
Diffusion of Responsibility (1 of 2)
Researchers Latané and Darley found that people who were alone were more likely to help in an emergency than people who were with others.
One bystander cannot diffuse responsibility.
Diffusion of Responsibility (2 of 2)
Five Steps in Making a Decision to Help
Defining an emergency
Planning a course of action
Social neuroscience: the study of how biological processes influence social behavior
Studies use f M R I and other imaging techniques to discover areas of the brain involved in social actions.
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