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Chap 17

Sponges
STUDY
PLAY
1. Sponges:

a. Are the simplest animals
b. Are plants
c. Are the most complex protists
d. Are prokaryotic bacteria
e. Are not alive
a. Are the simplest animals
2. A protective layer made of rigid or elastic protein strips surrounding the cell membrane of euglenoids is a:

a. Flagellum
b. Cell wall
c. Pellicle
d. Pseudopodium
e. Gullet
c. Pellicle
3. Silica walls are characteristic of:

a. Diatoms
b. Euglenoids
c. Red algae
d. Brown algae
e. Slime molds
a. Diatoms
4. A jellylike substance produced by red marine algae and used as a culture medium for microorganisms is:

a. Red ooze
b. Carageenan
c. Gelatin
d. Agar
e. Algin
d. Agar
5. A substance produced by brown algae that is used as an emulsifying and thickening agent in many foods and other products is:

a. Agar
b. Red ooze
c. Gelatin
d. Carageenan
e. Algin
e. Algin
6. The Irish potato famine in the mid 1840s was caused by which heterotrophic protist decomposer that secreted digestive enzymes onto potatoes?

a. A water mold
b. A red algae
c. A nematode worm
d. A protozoan
e. A fungus
a. A water mold
7. Cytoplasmic extensions by which some protozoa move are:

a. Cilia
b. Flagella
c. Pseudopodia
d. Axial filaments
e. Pili
c. Pseudopodia
8. In malaria, Plasmodium falciparum grow inside of which human cells?

a. Liver and red blood cells
b. Liver cells
c. Red blood cells
d. Intestinal cells
e. Liver and intestinal cells
a. Liver and red blood cell
9. A pregnant woman was told by her doctor that while she is pregnant she might want to let someone else care for her cats so she would not contract toxoplasmosis through which mechanism?

a. Cats may have fleas that transmit toxoplasmosis
b. Scratches from infected claws
c. Exposure to infected cat feces
d. Infection from saliva
e. Infection from mice the cat may bring into the house
c. Exposure to infected cat feces
10. Chloroplasts in algae are thought to have arisen from which source?

a. Cyanobacteria
b. Aerobic bacteria
c. Anaerobic bacteria
d. Photosynthetic viruses
e. Aerobic fungi
a. Cyanobacteria
11. Entamoeba histolytica can cause amoebic dysentery. It moves using pseudopodia, can only feed by phagocytosis and is unicellular. Entamoeba histolytica is which of the following?

a. A protozoa
b. An algae
c. A slime mold
d. A diatom
e. An apicomplexan
a. A protozoa
12. Trichonympha is a unicellular flagellated protist that lives within termites and allows the termite to be able to "digest" wood. Trichonympha is which of the following?

a. An apicomplexan
b. An algae
c. A slime mold
d. A diatom
e. A protozoa
e. A protozoa
13. Trichonympha is a unicellular flagellated protist that lives within termites and allows the termite to be able to "digest" wood. Trichonympha is which of the following?

a. An autotroph
b. A heterotroph and autotroph
c. A detritovore
d. A heterotroph
e. A heterotroph and detritovore
d. A heterotroph
14. African sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma brucei, a unicellular flagellated protist infects red blood cells after being injected into the blood stream. African sleeping sickness is transmitted by:

a. Ingesting food
b. Contaminated water
c. Sexual intercourse
d. The bite of an insect
e. Exhaled aerosols
d. The bite of an insect
15. Malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, a non-motile protist that contains a cluster of microtubules at one end of the cell. Once injected into the blood stream, these microtubules are used to attach to red blood cells. Malaria is transmitted by:

a. The bite of a tsetse fly
b. The bite of a mosquito
c. The bite of a sand fly
d. The bite of a kissing bug
e. Ingesting food
b. The bite of a mosquito
16. Malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, a non-motile protist that contains a cluster of microtubules at one end of the cell. Once injected into the blood stream, these microtubules are used to attach to red blood cells. Plasmodium falciparum is which of the following?

a. A protozoa
b. An algae
c. A slime mold
d. A diatom
e. An apicomplexan
e. An apicomplexan
17. One reason that malaria continues to be the world's most significant infectious disease is because Plasmodium falciparum continues to develop resistance to the drugs that have been used to treat malaria. This is due to which of the following?

a. Some Plasmodium falciparum have pre-existing mutations that make them resistant to antimalarial drugs
b. Some mosquitoes have pre-existing mutations that make them resistant to antimalarial drugs
c. Some people have pre-existing mutations that make them resistant to antimalarial drugs
d. The antimalarial drugs cause mutations to occur in Plasmodium falciparum
e. The antimalarial drugs cause mutations to occur in the mosquito
a. Some Plasmodium falciparum have pre-existing mutations that make them resistant to antimalarial drugs
18. Cryptosporidium is an apicomplexian that can contaminate water supplies. Which of the following would you predict to be the case of a Cryptosporidium outbreak?

a. It can only be transmitted by insect bites because it is nonmotile
b. It can grow in any water supply because it is photosynthetic
c. It will be difficult to treat with chlorine because it forms spores
d. It spreads rapidly because it has flagella
e. It will enter a person's body through their respiratory tract
c. It will be difficult to treat with chlorine because it forms spores
19. The white cliffs of Dover are composed mostly of foraminiferans shells. These organisms move by pseudopodia and feed by phagocytosis. Foraminiferans are an example of which of the following?

a. A protozoa
b. An apicomplexan
c. An algae
d. A slime mold
e. A diatom
a. A protozoa
20. The white cliffs of Dover are composed mostly of foraminiferans shells. These organisms move by pseudopodia and feed by phagocytosis. Foraminiferan shells are made of which of the following?

a. Cellulose
b. Calcium carbonate
c. Chitin
d. Peptidoglycan
e. Silica
b. Calcium carbonate
21. Dictyostelium discoideum is an unusual organism, one that straddles the boundary between the unicellular and the multicellular. Its feeding phase consists of individual amoeba-like cells that move independently, feeding on bacteria by phagocytosis. When the food runs out, cells begin to aggregate into a multicelled structure that migrates toward light. The cells differentiate into a base, stalk, and spores; only the spores survive to colonize a new habitat. Dictyostelium discoideum is which of the following?

a. An autotroph
b. A heterotroph and autotroph
c. A heterotroph
d. A detritovore
e. A heterotroph and detritovore
c. A heterotroph
22. Dictyostelium discoideum is an unusual organism, one that straddles the boundary between the unicellular and the multicellular. Its feeding phase consists of individual amoeba-like cells that move independently, feeding on bacteria by phagocytosis. When the food runs out, cells begin to aggregate into a multicelled structure that migrates toward light. The cells differentiate into a base, stalk, and spores; only the spores survive to colonize a new habitat. Dictyostelium discoideum is which of the following?

a. A protozoa
b. An apicomplexan
c. An algae
d. A diatom
e. A slime mold
e. A slime mold
23. Dictyostelium discoideum is an unusual organism, one that straddles the boundary between the unicellular and the multicellular. Its feeding phase consists of individual amoeba-like cells that move independently, feeding on bacteria by phagocytosis. When the food runs out, cells begin to aggregate into a multicelled structure that migrates toward light. The cells differentiate into a base, stalk, and spores; only the spores survive to colonize a new habitat. What is the advantage of forming spores?

a. The spores will eat the other cells
b. The spores are photosynthetic
c. Spores are smaller and can be transported to new habitats
d. Spores can mate with other species
e. Spores have flagella and can swim to new habitats
c. Spores are smaller and can be transported to new habitats
24. Where in a diatom would you find their yellowish photosynthetic pigment?

a. In the plasma membrane
b. In the cytoplasm
c. In the cell wall
d. In the nucleus
e. In chloroplasts
e. In chloroplasts
25. Based on the theory of endosymbiosis, which of the following would you expect to find in a chloroplast?

a. Cellulose
b. A nucleus
c. Silica
d. DNA
e. A mitochondria
d. DNA
26. In addition to visual comparison, which of the following would be the best way to determine that S. niagarae and S. yellowstonensis are separate species?

a. Look for the presence of chloroplasts
b. By the presence of a silica shell
c. By their location in different lakes
d. Compare their DNA sequences
e. Carbon date them
d. Compare their DNA sequences
27. Spines increase a cell's surface area, so the spiniest diatoms should be the most buoyant. Which selective force below might explain the observed shift in spine number?

a. More predators were present during the ice age, favoring diatoms with more spines
b. Endothermic animals in colder climates tend to have smaller surface area to volume ratios to conserve heat
c. Diatoms with more spines could swim better allowing them to stay afloat in colder water
d. As Yellowstone Lake warmed up the water density decreased, favoring less buoyant diatoms
e. During the ice age Yellowstone Lake would have received more light from reflection off of the snow, allowing diatoms to live at greater depths
d. As Yellowstone Lake warmed up the water density decreased, favoring less buoyant diatoms
28. As more CO2 is released into the atmosphere, which of the following would you predict may happen to S. yellowstonensis diatoms in Yellowstone Lake?

a. Their shells would get thicker
b. There would be no effect because CO2 does not dissolve into water
c. Photosynthesis would decrease
d. They would grow more spines
e. They would revert back to S. niagarae
a. Their shells would get thicker
29. In figure 17.20, the plant community changed from alpine tundra grasses to coniferous forest as temperatures warmed up. In this figure lodgepole pines are occupying which of the following?

a. A realized niche
b. A community
c. A population
d. A fundamental niche
e. A biome
d. A fundamental niche
30. If S. niagarae did evolve into S. yellowstonensis this would be an example of which of the following?

a. Directional selection
b. Stabilizing selection
c. Disruptive selection
d. Artificial selection
a. Directional selection