44 terms

AP Gov Chapter 1 terms

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aristocracy
a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
politics
The struggle over power or influence within organizations or informal groups that can grant or withhold benefits or privileges
institution
an ongoing organization that performs certain functions for society
government
the institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces binding decisions on citizens.
order
a state of peace and security. Maintaining order by protecting members of society from violence and criminal activity is the oldest purpose of government.
liberty
the greatest freedom of individuals that is consistent with the freedom of other individuals in the society
authority
The right and power of a government or other entity to enforce its decisions and compel obedience
legitimacy
popular acceptance of the right and power of a government or other entity to exercise authority.
totalitarian regime
A form of government that controls all aspects of the political and social life of a nation.
authoritarian
a type of regime in which only the government itself is fully controlled by the ruler. social and economic institutions exist that are not under the government's control
aristocracy
a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
democracy
government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.
direct democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
representative democracy
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
legislature
A governmental body primarily responsible for the making of laws.
initiative
Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
referendum
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
recall
the act of removing an official by petition
consent of the people
The idea that governments and laws derive their legitimacy from the consent of the governed.
republic
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them, as opposed to a king or monarch
popular sovreignty
a principle which states that all government power comes from the people
democratic republic
A republic in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies.
representative democracy
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people, may retain the monarchy in a ceremonial role, aka england
universal suffrage
the right of all adults to vote for their representatives
majority
(elections) more than half of the votes
majority rule
a basic principle of democracy asserting that the greatest number of citizens in any political unit should select officials and determine policies
limited government
The idea that certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect the natural rights of citizens
majoritarianism
a political theory holding that in a democracy, the government ought to do what the majority of the people want.
elite theory
a perspective holding that society is ruled by a small number of people who exercise power to further their self-interest.
pluralism
A theory that views politics as a conflict among interest groups. Political decision making is characterized by bargaining and compromise.
political culture
Commonly shared attitudes, beliefs, and core values about how government should operate. beliefs are held by nation or community aka large group
political socialization
The process - most notably in families and schools - by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.
dominant culture
the values, customs, and language established by the group or groups that traditionally have controlled politics and government in a society
equality
as a political value, the idea that all people are of equal worth.
property
Anything that is or may be subject to ownership. As conceived by the political philosopher John Locke, the right to property is a natural right superior to human law (laws made by government).
capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit.
ideology
a comprehensive set of beliefs about the nature of people and about the role of an institution or government.
conservation
beliefs that includes a limited role for the government in helping individuals. support for traditional values and lifestyles, and a cautious response to change
liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
socalism
a political ideology based on strong support for economic an social equality. socialists traditionally envisioned a society in which major business are taken over by the government or by employee cooperatives
libertarianism
A political ideology based on skepticism or opposition toward most government activities.
communism
A political system characterized by a centrally planned economy with all economic and political power resting in the hands of the central government
fascism
a twentieth century ideology--often totalitarian--that exalts the national collective united behind an absolute an absolute ruler. fascism rejects liberal individualism, values action over national deliberation, and glorifies war
hispanic
Someone who can claim a heritage from a Spanish-speaking country (other than Spain). The term is used only in the United States or other countries that receive immigrants—Spanish-speaking persons living in Spanishspeaking countries do not normally apply the term to themselves.