emergency medical responder emergency medical technician advanced EMT paramedic
emergency response guidebook
Resource detailing common hazards and proper responses
The technique that an EMT uses to quickly remove a patient from danger
patient move that should be done quickly yet without any compromise of spinal integrity.
Emergency medical responder
very basic training and provides care before the ambulance arrives. e.g. law enforcement, fire fighters, park rangers, ski patrollers.
BLS training with automated external defibrillator, use of airway adjuncts and assisting patients with certain medications. requires 150 hrs.
has some training in ALS such as intravenous therapy and administration of some drugs. 200-400 hrs.
has extensive training in ALS, including endotracheal intubation, emergency pharmacology, cardiac monitoring and other skills. 1000-1300 hrs.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Every state follows the guidelines recommended for EMS training standards.
the EMT's initial evaluation of a scene to which he has been called
objective evaluation and determination of the status of patient
americans with disabilities act (ADA) of 1990
prohibits discrimination against the disabled
national EMS scope of practice model
Provides guidelines for skills at each level of EMS training. federal level
Can limit the scope of practice but cannot expand beyond state laws. described in a set of written standing orders and protocols.
automated external defibrillator (AED)
detect treatable life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias and deliver shock
public safety access point
Communications center where dispatchers dispatch emergency workers
emergency medical dispatch (emd)
assist disptchers in providing callers with vital instructions to help them deal with a medical emergency until ems arrive
primary service area
Designated area in which the EMS service is responsible for providing prehospital care
Either off-line (indirect) or online (direct), as authorized by the medical director. online is direction given over the phone or radio directly to the physician. offline is standing orders and protocols.
mobile integrated healthcare(MIH)
new method of delivering health care that uses the prehospital spectrum. improved access to healthcare at an affordable price. within community rather than doctor or hospital.
staff meets appropriate medical care standards
Continous Quality Improvement. internal and external reviews of ems system
rule establishes regulations for the use and disclosure of protected health information Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
A physical and mental response to a challenging or threatening situation.
A disease caused by the presence of a living thing in the body
A disease that can be spread from one person or species to another.
A physical object that serves to transmit an infectious agent from person to person.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration a department of labor that sets and enforces occupation health and safety rules.
Rules developed by the CDC to prevent the spread of infection
patient with a rapid beating of the heart, defined as over 100 beats/minute
acute stress reaction
reaction to stress that occurs during a stressful situation
delayed stress reaction
Reaction to stress that occurs after a stressful situation.
cumulative stress reaction
prolonged or excessive stress
initials representing a disorder in which one relives painfully stressful events
critical incident stress management Confronts the response to critical incidents and defuses them
quid pro quo
Something given with the expectation of receiving something in return.
assumption on behalf of a person unable to give consent that he or she would have done so. also known as emergency doctrine-allows family to give consent. .
Consent that is clearly and unmistakably stated
. Applies to mentally incompetent adults . Consent is obtained from a third party
ability and right of patients to make independent decisions regarding medical care
decision making capacity
ability of a patient to understand the information you are providing paired with the ability to process the info and make an informed choice regarding medical care
do not resuscitate - an order on a patients medical chart informing to not revive if dies. must state patients medical problems, signature of patient, signature of physician, and not expired
Decisions made by competent individuals about their future health care. POLST and MOLST, state acceptable interventions. may have named surrogates to make their decisions.
Physician order for life sustaining treatment
medical orders for life sustaining treatment
health care proxy
durable power of attorney issued for purposes of health care decisions only
medical alert identification
bracelet, necklace, keychain or card. indicate DNR, allergies or medical conditions.
scope of practice
The range of clinical procedures and activities that are allowed by state law for a profession. medical diretor further outlines scope by developing protocols and standing orders.
standards of care
skills and learning commonly possessed by members of a profession. what a reasonable emt in the same situation would do.
duty to act
EMRs legal responsibility to respond promptly to scene and provide medical care. once ambulance responds to call and once weve started patient care
Failure to give care that is normally expected, resulting in injury to another person. 4 elements need to apply, duty, breah of action, damages, causation.
The discontinuation of medical care without proper notice. happens on scene and at ED. always get signature. finish what you started unless you give patient to equally or more competent EMS.
Any word or action intended to make another person fearful of immediate physical harm. e.g. restraint
harmful or offensive touching. e.g. providing care without consent
the unlawful removal or restraint of a person against his or her will. e.g. transport against will
a restraint of a person in a bounded area without justification or consent. e.g. patient removes consent but you dont let him leave ambulance
Act of harming or ruining another's reputation
A written defamation of a person's character, reputation, business, or property rights. e.g. false statement on a run report
Spoken defamation. e.g. inappropriate comments
good Samaritan laws
laws that encourage individuals to voluntarily help an injured or suddenly ill person. acted in good faith, not expecting compensation, within scope of practice, wasnt negligent.
Mandatory reporting requirements
Child or older person abuse Injury during a felony Drug-related injuries Childbirth Attempted suicides Dog bites Certain communicable diseases Assaults Domestic violence Sexual assault or rape Exposures to infectious disease Restrained patient Crime scene Deceased
the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs. proffessional ethics trump personal morals
a personal standard of what is right and wrong, good and bad in a situation.
standard of care
the minimum level of care accepted to ensure high quality of care to patients
The study of ethics related to issues that arise in health care.
if called to court
notify your service director and legal counsel
series of formal, written questions addressed to a party for discovery purposes
Oral questions asked of parties and witnesses under oath.
breach of duty
the failure to use the degree of care that would have been used by a reasonable person
bluish coloration of the skin caused by a deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
Blood settling to the lowest point of the body, causing discoloration of the skin.
communication that is purposeful and goal directed
shannon-weaver communication model
Sender takes a thought-Encodes it into a message-Sends the message to the receiver-Receiver decodes the message-Sends feedback to the sender
Belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group.
passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum
the passing of feces
the process of imposing one's values on others
communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech. dont stare
The sharing of information between individuals by using speech. ask open ended question to get more info.
Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act prevent the transfer of unstable patients between care facilities solely for economic purposes
touch patient to show compassion. dont provide false hope. dont ask biased questions. dont talk too much. dont innterupt. no why questions. dont speak with preffessional words.
Golden rules of communication
Make and keep eye contact at all times. Provide your name and use the patient's proper name. Tell the patient the truth. Use language the patient can understand. Be careful what you say about the patient to others. Be aware of your body language. Speak slowly, clearly, and distinctly. If the patient is hard of hearing, face the patient so he or she can read your lips. Allow the patient time to answer or respond. Act and speak in a calm, confident manner.
oral report components
Name(if in person) chief complaint illness any important history patients response to care vital signs anything else
elements of narrative part of PCR
time of events assessment findings EMC provided patient response to treatment observations at scene final patient disposition refusal of care staff who continued care
The action of falsifying information or a theory. could result in suspension. poor patient care
Blue represents health hazards, red represents fire hazards, yellow represents reactivity, and the white quadrant has special information or shows another specific hazard. class 1-explosives, class 2-gases, class 3-flammable and combustible liquids, class 4-flammable solid-spontaneously combustible-dangerous when wet, class 5-oxidizer and organic peroxide, class 6-poison and poison inhalation hazard, class 7-radioactive, class 8-corrosive, class 9-miscellaneous.
special reporting situations
Gunshot wounds Dog bites Some infectious diseases Suspected physical or sexual abuse Multiple-casualty incident (MCI)
a two-way radio at a fixed site such as a hospital or dispatch center
transmitter and reciever
a two-way radio that is used or affixed in a vehicle. used to commumicate with dispatch and medical control
a handheld two-way radio. communicate with dispatch, another unit, or medical control
receives and repeats a signal to reduce its attenuation and extend its range
The medical term meaning transmission of ECG signals via radio waves. converts into coded audible signals
Communications occur in only one direction. push to talk, release to listen.
The ability to transmit and receive simultaneously.
An electronic process that combines several individual signals into a single signal.
channels reserved only for EMS/tactical
Combining multiple network connections to increase bandwidth and reliability.
interoperable communications system
allows all agencies involved to share valuable information with each other in real time.
mobile data terminal
receives signal from the digital radio and displays the info. on the terminal screen. great for addresses
The government agency charged with regulating the electronic media Federal Communications Commission 5 responsibilities: Allocates specific radio frequencies Licenses call signs Establishes licensing standards and operating specifications Establishes limitations for transmitter output Monitors radio operations
Responding to the scene
dispatcher recieves and determines importance of call. then determines appropriate EMS response units. coordinate other emergency services. provides instructions for emergency medical procedures to caller
call to: administer certain medications determine transport destination stop treatment
repeat orders back
superficial landmarks of the body. Body in anatomical position
Coronal plane (frontal plane)
An imaginary plane where the body is cut into front and back parts.
transverse plane (axial)
line that divides the body into upper and lower sections
Left and right
Connect bone to bone
Connect muscle to bone
strong connective tissue that supports the body and is softer and more flexible than bone. Covers end of bones at mobile joints
flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis and the epiphyseal plate
the shaft of a long bone
End of a long bone distal and proximal
Movement away from the midline of the body
Movement of a part of the body toward the midline.
The portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the head, neck, and trunk. Includes skull spinal column and thorax
The body region between the head and the abdomen. 12 vertebrae and 12 ribs. cavity contains heart lungs, esophagus and great vessels
skull. 4 bones: Occiput Temporal Parietal Frontal
Large opening at the bottom of the skull that connects the brain to the spinal cord
The area of the spine containing the seven vertebrae that compose the neck.
T1-T12/ Covers more of the upper and middle back as well as the rib cage
L1-L5/ Supports most of the body weight. lower back
five fused vertebrae that form the posterior of the pelvic girdle
trachea enters chest
the bones of the arms and legs along with the bones of the pelvis and shoulder area
A place in the body where two bones come together
two bones joined by fibrocartilage
The fibrous sac that encloses a joint.
joins hipbone to vertebral column
covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints
lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid
ball and socket joint
allows bones to move in any direction ex. shoulder and hip
Joints that can bend and straighten but cannot rotate; they restrict motion to one plane. flexion and extension
Constriction of blood vessels and increased blood pressure are results of stimulus to the sympathetic nervous system. Dilated pupils, dry mouth, and hypertension
digestive slows heart rate overstimulation can lead to vomiting
shoulders, arms, forearms, wrists & hands
bones surrounding the shoulder, including the clavicle and scapula and humerus. allow arm to move
the medial and larger bone of the forearm
Bone in forearm "on the thumb side", larger in the distal forearm.
Of or relating to muscle and skeleton
Voluntary muscles attached to bones
Involuntary muscle found inside many internal organs of the body
Involuntary muscle tissue found only in the heart.
protein that forms the basis of a blood clot
A "backup system" to control respiration; senses drops in the oxygen level in the blood.
Amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during a normal breath. normally 500ml
inspiratory reserve volume
the additional inhaled air taken into the lungs by taking a very deep breath after a normal breath
expiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation
Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation
passageways that transport air but are not available for gaseous exchange
amount of air exchanged b/n lungs and environment in 1 minute. respiratory rate x tidal volume
startle reflex A startled baby flings arms, retracts them and makes themselves as small as possible.
object in center of hand
Newborn reflexes when touched on the cheek, a baby will turn its head and seek a nipple
when an object is placed in the baby's mouth, he will begin to suck on it
soft spots normally present on the skull of a newborn. posterior fontanelle fuses by 3rd month. anterior fontanelle fuses between 9-18 months
noticeable characteristics of infants
2 months: recognizes faces and tracks objects 3mnths: brings objects to mouth. smile/frowns 4mnths: reaches out to people, drools 5mnths: sleep through night, recognizes fam 6mnths: teething, sits up, speaks 1 syllable words 7mnths: afraid of strangers, mood swings 8mnths: respond to no, sits alone, peek a boo 9mnths: pulls up to stand, places objects in mouth to explore 10mnths: responds to name, crawls 11mnths: starts to walk, frustrated w/ restrictions 12mnths: knows his/her name, walks
abnormally high blood pressure severe headache, bounding pulses, ringing in ears
abnormally low blood pressure
pathway of circulation between the heart and the rest of the body except the lungs
pathway of circulation between the heart and the lungs
muscular, middle layer of the heart
Divides the right and left chambers of the heart
upper right or left chamber of the heart
Bottom portion of the heart, thicker walled and larger
Chords that prevent the valves from swinging back open in the chambers of the heart.
Lying on back with body tilted so that the head is lower than the feet
Suspect lying face down on the ground
Lying on the side. Also called lateral recumbent position
toward the tail
Farther from the trunk of the body
Nearer to the trunk of the body
blood flow through tissue
inferior of thyroid cartilage
how disease or injury affects physiological processes.
respond to nearby chemicals. O2, CO2, H+, pH
ventilation/perfusion . Airflow (ventilation) and blood flow (perfusion) must match.
steps of ventilation
1st - Explain the procedure to the patient. 2nd - Place mask over the patient's nose and mouth. 3rd - Initially assist at a rate at which the patient is breathing. 4th - Squeeze the bag each time the patient begins to inhale. 5th - Over the next 5-10 breaths, slowly adjust the rate and volume.
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
factors affecting respiration
oxygen & perfusion, external and internal factors
occasional, gasping breaths that occur after the heart has stopped, guppy, heart has already stopped
cessation of breathing
deep, rapid breathing followed by periods of apnea., stroke and head injury patients.
irregular, ineffective respirations that may or may not have an identifiable pattern. serious head injuries
deep and fast respirations, metabolic acidosis
Kussmaul's respirations are a deep rapid respiration usually associated with metabolic acidosis particularly associated with DKA or diabetic ketoacidosis, although, it can also be seen in renal failure.
decreased pH in blood and body tissues as a result of an upset in metabolism after hyperventilating
elevation of HCO3- usually caused by an excessive loss of metabolic acids
a technique used to clear the airway, not trauma patient. -With the patient supine, position yourself beside the patient's head. - Place the heel of one hand on the forehead, and apply firm backward pressure with the palm. - Place the fingertips of the other hand under the lower jaw. - Lift the chin upward, with the entire lower jaw.
Jaw thrust maneuver
Opens airway if suspected cervical spine injury - Kneel above the patient's head. - Place your fingers behind the angles of the lower jaw. - Move the jaw upward. - Use your thumbs to help position the jaw.
Delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the eyeball
white part of the eye
blood flow through tissue
a crackling or grating sound usually of bones
is the term for a pounding or racing heart.
negative findings that warrent no care or intervention
A brain structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain
Increased carbon dioxide level in the bloodstream.
continuous positive airway pressure
collection of air in the pleural space
high-pitched noise made when there is a respiratory obstruction in the larynx or trachea
low blood pressure
mechanisms that facilitate or impair body's ability to supply oxygen to cells
an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract with a seal barking cough and often stridor give humidified o2
Some form of obstruction causes dyspnea.
-Mucus and secretion obstructing airflow in major passages -Swelling of soft tissues in upper airways -Impaired exchange of gases in the alveoli
An inflammation of lung tissue, wherer the alveoli in the affected areas fill w/fluid
acute infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a "whoop" sound; whooping cough. symptom: cough spell >1minute, turns purple usually in children may vomit, not want to eat or drink. watch for dehydration. give oxygen. in adults, can lead to pneumonia coughing can lead to cracked ribs
influenza type a
virus that has crossed the animal/human barrier. pandemic(global) direct contact by droplets or airborne symptoms: fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, headache, and fatigue. May lead to pneumonia or dehydration
An infectious disease that may affect almost all tissues of the body, especially the lungs. can remain dormant for years may not be aware Patients often complain of fever, coughing, fatigue, night sweats, and weight loss, pale diaphoretic skin. bloody spuedum and chest pain. close contact e.g. nursing home Wear gloves, eye protection, and an N-95 respirator. resistant to antibiotics spread by cough surgical mask on patient take tuberculin skin test if exposed
A disease caused by a virus that attacks the immune system dark purple lesions on the skin, which are called Kaposi's sarcoma, are malignant skin tumors and are a classic finding in patients in the later stages of AIDS. Weight loss, fever, and night sweats
acute pulmonary edema
what is the most dramactic symptom of Left ventricular heart failure? Excessive amount of fluid collects in the spaces between the alveoli and the capillaries an accumulation of fluid in lung tissue and alveoli result of congestive heart failure. interferes with exchange high blood pressure and low cardia output-trigger drowning in their own fluid frothy pink sputum in nose and mouth not all patients have heart disease trauma and inhaling toxins can cause after heart attack crackles or wheezing
right heart failure
pedal edema and JVD
swelling of the blood vessels
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
a lung disease in which it is hard to breathe; COPD direct ling/airway damage usually from cigarettes can create chronic bronchitis-makes mucus obstructing airways emphysema is most common type, loss of elastic material in lungs, makes holes in lungs Most patients with COPD have elements of both chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Patients with pulmonary edema will have "wet" lung sounds. Patients with COPD will have "dry" lung sounds. emphysema, bronchitic, asthma
a disorder in which the respiratory passages narrow significantly, excessive mucous production and swelling of mucous lining is acute spasm of smaller air passages (bronchioles). affects all ages. wheezing on exhale. lower airway obstruction.
A life-threatening, prolonged asthma attack that does not respond to usual treatment.
allergies. cold like symptoms. pollene, pets spring/summer usually dont usually call 911 affects alot of people
A serious allergic reaction that requires immediate help involves multiple organ systems immune response to a substance treatment. usually w/ in 30 mins food or medications may not know what caused hypotension and tachycardia dilated blood vessels can produce airway selling epinephrine is reccomended .3mg for adults also use oxygen and antihistamines possibility of acute airway obstruction and cardiovascular collapse sneezing or itching in the nasal passages; tightness in the chest, with a dry cough; wheezing and dyspnea; secretions of fluid and mucus into the bronchial passages, alveoli, and lung tissue; constriction of the bronchi, requiring exertion and accompanied by wheezing; and cessation of breathing. burning skin, vascular dilation, generalized edema, coma, rapid death.
Check cricoid pressure to assess risk of aspiration
ring-shaped cartilage in the larynx
Lung collapse without injury or any other obvious cause accuumulation of air in plueral space. usually in trauma. may be caused by medcal conditions e.g asthma may find asent breath sounds on one side creates dyspnea plueritic cest pain
accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. outside lungs. compresses lungs and causes dyspnea. decreased breath sounds feel better sitting up right Can stem from irritation, infection, congestive heart failure, or cancer
clot or other material lodges in vessels of the lung. can cut off circulation. decreases blood flow may causes cyanosis damage to lining of vessels or slow blood flow @ legs immobilized legs can lead to emboli rare in active & healthy symptoms: dyspnea, tachycardia, hypoxia, cyanosis, chest pain, coughing blood
The presence of air in the veins, which can lead to cardiac arrest if it enters the heart. apply sterile occlusive dressing so no air enters
excessive movement of air into and out of the lungs, causing hypocapnia. CO2 falls below normal Body may be trying to compensate for acidosis Buildup of excess acid in blood or body tissues Can result in alkalosis-Buildup of excess base in body fluids•Can cause symptoms of panic attack:-Anxiety-Dizziness-Numbness-Tingling or painful spasms of the hands/feet
Panic attack. 4o breaths per minute
vesicular breath sounds
Normal breath sounds made by air moving in and out of the alveoli.
bronchial breath sounds
Occurs when lung density occurs and breath sounds are heard in the peripheral lung
adventitious breath sounds
abnormal breath sounds
High pitched sound heard in the lungs with asthmatics or lung disease
abnormal sound made during inspiration (rales) abnormal breath sounds caused by fluid-filled alveoli his is a lower respiratory problem more likely caused by left sided CHF than right sided.
loud rumbling sounds heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum abnormal whistling, humming, or snoring sounds heard during inspiration or expiration
high-pitched noise made when there is a respiratory obstruction in the larynx or trachea
helps prevent the alveoli from collapsing
an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract
A serious disease that destroys lung tissue and causes breathing difficulties. part of COPD most common type, loss of elastic material in lungs, makes holes in lungs
gas or air present under the subcutaneous skin crackling sensation
Collapsed lung accumulation of air in the plueral space
involuntary muscle spasm of the smooth muscle in the wall of the bronchus. usually in asthma
slurred speech common with strokes
inability to speak
difficulty in swallowing
A seizure that affects both sides of the brain caused by an electrical overload to the neurons of the brain.
staring, a brief loss of consciousness no change in motor activity
simple(jerking in 1 part of body) and complex(change in behavior or emotion)
secondary generalization seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
A major seizure affecting the brain in epilepsy; grand-mal seizure. The tonic phase of a tonic clonic seizure is when the patient's muscles become rigid
Spasms, muscle contractions; tongue biting, increased secretions; sweating; cyanosis; unconscious gradually increasing level of consciousness; shaking or tremors with no loss of consciousness; incontinence; and amnesia of event. Following seizure, patients gradually regain consciousness and their LOC improves. Although they may remain confused for some time, their unconsciousness doesn't persist.
treating a seizure
You should administer high-flow oxygen to all patients who are actively seizing and to patients who experienced a seizure and are postictal. This is especially true if the seizure was caused by hypoxia. Increasing the oxygen content of the blood, which minimizes hypoxia, may prevent another seizure. The recovery position is appropriate for uninjured patients with a decreased level of consciousness and adequate breathing; it will help maintain the airway and facilitate drainage of secretions from the mouth, but will not prevent another seizure. Oral glucose may prevent another seizure if hypoglycemia was the cause of the seizure. You should dim the lights in the back of the ambulance to help prevent any seizure, not just those that are caused by hypoxia.
-Facial droop -Arm drift -Abnormal speech
glasgow coma scale
eyes, verbal, motor Max- 15 pts, below 8= coma
mild - 13-15; moderate - 8-12; and severe <8. Fifteen is the highest possible score and indicates no neurologic disabilities.
head injury symptoms
Clear drainage from ears or nose of cerebral spinal fluid, discoloration around eye, discoloration around ears, skull deformity, decreased mentation, irregular breathing pattern, unequal pupils, nausea and/or vomiting, seizure activity, elevated blood pressure, and slow heart rate.
Decreased mentation; irregular breathing pattern; widening pulse pressure; slow heart rate; ecchymosis about eyes or behind the ear over the mastoid process; clear or pink CSF leakage from scalp wound, nose, or the ear; failure of the pupils to respond to light; unequal pupil size; loss of sensation and/or motor function; a period of unconsciousness; amnesia; seizures; numbness or tingling in the extremities; irregular respirations, dizziness; visual complaints; combative or other abnormal behavior; nausea or vomiting.
Elevation, cold, and immobilize injury. Elevation will help keep the swelling down, a cold pack or something similar will also keep the swelling down by constricting the vessels affected. By immobilizing the injury, you will keep the injury site from movement and creating further injury. Control hemorrhage, perform appropriate immobilization/splinting, conduct a neurology/circulatory examination, pain management, transport to appropriate facility, appropriate communication and documentation.
Dangerous infection of the blood
Process for removing waste from the blood for people with renal failure
PVC: Three or more consecutive irregular beats
ability to breathe only in an upright position
a sign of eclampsia, the life threatening occurance of seizures during preganancy ...hypertension
a severe complication of pregnancy that produces seizures and coma
A wound that occurs when tissue is separated from the body
A wearing away or rubbing away by friction.
mid-point between sharp hip bone right side appendix. appendicitis.
depression of pCO2 as a result of alveolar hyperventilation.
the tough outermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord.
middle layer of meninges; weblike appearance that attaches it to deepest layer
Involves bleeding within the brain tissue itself
Check cricoid pressure to assess risk of aspiration
Accumulation of blood beneath dura mater but outside the brain causing pressure fluctuating LOC and slurred speech
nose bleed usually from digital trauma posterior bleeding causes nausea sit forwards and pinch nostrils
contains clear, watery cerebrospinal fluid
help filter air coming in humidifies
one of the hormones that are released by the body in times of stress. dilates passages to lungs increases heart rate and bp dilates blood vessels relieves bronchospasm Side effects of Epinephrine on a patient may include: Increased pulse rate and B/P, anxiety, and cardiac arrhythmias.
nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina, AMI, CHF max of 3 doses sublingually A drug that helps to dilate the coronary vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood. not if on erectile dysfunction meds not if in cardiogenic shock dont give if hypotension is present side effect is headache
opioid antagonist intranasal, intravenous, intramuscular need to have agonal resps/apnea
pain reliever, antiplatelet reduces platelet aggregation in the coronary arteries Acetylsalicylic acid
The process of binding or sticking to a surface.
a serious condition that occurs when an overwhelming bacterial infection affects the body insufficent volume fever!! fluid collects in respiratory widespread dilation
shock resulting from blood or fluid loss
pain, neuro factors, deep anesthesia which inhibit sympathetic casoconstrictor nerves radical change in size of vascular system bradycardia and hypotension
syncope, temporary dilation of blood vessels
results when an inefficient heart cannot sustain adequate circulation Chest pain; irregular pulse; weak pulse; low blood pressure; cyanosis (lips, under nails); cool, clammy skin; anxiety; rales; and pulmonary edema.
The early stage of shock, in which the body can still compensate for blood loss. rapid breathing
The late stage of shock when blood pressure is falling.
condition of spotting with patches of color
decreased blood volume
A hereditary disease where blood does not coagulate to stop bleeding
congestive heart failure
A chronic condition in which the heart doesn't pump blood as well as it should. enlargement of left ventricle can be caused by diseased heart valves caused by AMI caused by long standing high bp treated with nitro swollen ankles, rales CPAP
inflammation or infection of one or more diverticula in the wall of the colon LLQ
Ends in a vowel, comes from the bowel fecal-oral route, uncooked food virus transmitted through direct contact with fecally contaminated food or water -longest incubation period -hard to traceback -fever, nausea, jaundice
B= blood and body fluids (hep c is the same) virus transmitted through contaminated blood or sexual contact The second form of Hepatitis transferred with fevers
a liver disease that is the common bloodborne infection in the United States mostly transmitted through exposure to infective blood
Early signs and symptoms of viral hepatitis include loss of appetite (anorexia), vomiting, fever, fatigue, and muscle and joint pain. Jaundice (yellow sclera and skin) and right upper quadrant abdominal pain are not common early manifestations of hepatitis; they usually develop within 1 to 2 weeks into the disease process.
a condition in which the bronchial tubes are swollen and clogged with mucus irritation of the trachea and bronchi
Multi-drug resistant staphylococcus aureus bed sores and feeding tubes may invade bloodtream, lungs, or urinary tract popular in populated places
Dangerous infection of the outer lining of the brain and spine seizures, apnea, high pitched cry, cyanosis fever, headache, stiff neck and altered mental status bulging fontanelle with no crying N meningititis
inflammation of the epiglottis (cartilage at the upper part of the windpipe) upper air way risk of obstruction very sore throat and high fever, usually drooling hoarse voice
fluid in the lungs. caused by a virus acute respiratory inflammation infection in lungs that damages lung tissue usually a secondary infection or direct lung incident unusually rapid breathing with grunts or wheezing crackles nasal flaring tachypnea hypothermia or fever accessory muscle usage can cause septic shock rapid onset may cause patient to feel anxious and fearful
carbon dioxide level drops too low
slower and less deep breathes
high carbon dioxide
rapid and deep breaths
A disease that affects the mucous glands throughout the body affects lungs and digestive genetic
Electrical impulses begin here
Lack of blood supply and oxygen chest pain dyspnea anxiety
chest pain that results when the heart does not get enough oxygen crushing, stabbing chest pain relieved by nitro epigastrium pain
acute myocardial infarction
Systolic failure due to decreased contractility blockage of a coronary artery cause: male gender, high bp, stress
inadequate tissue perfusion high heart rate pale clammy air hunger
localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery uncontrolled hypertension They are most often found in the abdomen and are usually asymptomatic, but can be the cause of severe pain. The risk of rupture is increased as the wall of the vessel becomes thinner.
inability to speak
weakness on one side of the body
period immediately following end of seizure activity labored respirations altered LOC lasts from 5 to 30 minutes. During the seizure, the patient is often not breathing or is breathing inadequately; however, when the seizure stops, breathing usually resumes. You will also find that most postictal patients are tachycardic; this is the result of an adrenalin surge that occurs during the tonic-clonic phase of the seizure.
A convulsion, involuntary contraction of muscles alteration of consciousness
A condition in which seizures recur every few minutes or last more than 30 minutes.
transient ischemic attack
inflammation of the gallbladder RUQ right shoulder pain after a fatty meal at night
a stroke where the blood loss is caused by a blockage
Bleeding in the brain, vein rupture
Damage to the brain from interruption of its blood supply. Confused, dizzy, weak; changes in level of consciousness; combative, uncooperative, or restless; facial drooping, inability to swallow, tongue deviation; double vision or blurred vision; difficulty speaking or absence of speech; decreased or absent movement of one or more extremities; headache; decreased or absent sensation in one or more extremities or other areas of body; and coma. hemiplegia
paralysis on one side
coughing up blood
deficiency of all blood cells
Open sore erosion of stomach or small intestine lining upper midabdomen/upper back
protrusion of an organ or part through the tissues and muscles normally containing it
loss of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines paralysis of bowel
urine in the blood
inflammation of the bladder frequent urination
mallory weis syndrome
- Hematemesis following protracted vomiting and retching vomiting, signs of shock, eating disorder and alcohol abuse
varicose veins in the rectum
inflammation of the stomach and intestines diarrhea
Signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding include abdominal pain; vomiting blood (hematemesis); the passage of dark, tarry stools (melena); and bright red rectal bleeding (hematochezia). If blood loss is significant, the patient may have signs of shock (eg, tachycardia, diaphoresis, tachypnea, hypotension). Hemoptysis (coughing up blood) is a sign of a pulmonary injury, not GI bleeding.
Ticks can carry two infectious diseases: Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Both are spread through the tick's saliva, which is injected into the skin when the tick attaches itself. The first symptom of Lyme disease, a rash that may spread to several parts of the body, begins about 3 days after the bite of an infected tick. The rash may eventually resemble a target bull's-eye pattern in one third of patients. After a few more days or weeks, painful swelling of the joints, particularly the knees, occurs. If recognized and treated promptly with antibiotics, many patients recover completely.
rocky mountain spotted fever
occurs within 7 to 10 days after being bitten by an infected tick. Its symptoms include nausea, vomiting, headache, weakness, paralysis, and possibly cardiopulmonary failure.
type 1 diabetes
a condition in which the immune system attacks insulin-producing cells in the pancreas Insulin dependent starts as child
type 2 diabetes
a condition in which the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces Insulin resistance later onset controlled by diet and oral meds
insulin is not secreted adequately or tissues are resistant to its effects inability to metabolize carbs
Something that relieves the effects of poison
abnormally low level of sugar in the blood headache altered LOC, diaphoresis, normal or rapid breathing and pulse, and extreme hunger, tremors cool, clammy skin and a rapid onset. Onset - rapid changes in mental status; bizarre behavior, tremors, shaking; sweating, hunger; rapid full pulse, rapid shallow respirations; seizures, coma late; and medical alert identification.
high blood sugar History and assessment findings for hyperglycemia/diabetic ketoacidosis may include: Onset - slow changes in mental status; Kussmaul's breathing, acetone breath; dehydration, poor skin turgor, pale, warm, and dry; weakness, nausea, and vomiting; weak and rapid pulse; polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia; medical alert identification skin to be warm and or dry warm, dry skin and a slow onset, sometimes occurring over a period of days. diabetic coma
Referring to cells that use acetylcholine as their synaptic transmitter. mimic the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system increased salivation
blocks parasympathetic nerve impulses atropine and antidepressents
drug that relieves pain and induces sleep Morphine Heroin Bradypnea,shallow respirations, and pinpoint pupils
they cause a decreased level of consciousness, respiratory depression, bradycardia, and hypotension.
opium or any of the drugs derived from opium, including morphine, heroin, and codeine
a suspension that absorbs many poisons and prevents them from being absorbed by the body black stools 30-100g side effecs: naesea, vomiting,stool contraindicated for patients who have ingested an acid or alkali (ie, drain cleaner) or a petroleum product (ie, gasoline), who have a decreased level of consciousness and cannot protect their own airway, or who are unable to swallow.
any drug that increases the body's activity Irritability, anxiety, lack of concentration, seizures, disorganized behavior, restlessness, paranoia, and delusions. cocaine hypertensive, tachycardic, tachypneic, and perhaps even violent
drugs that distort moods, thoughts, and senses. Bufotenine, dimethyltryptamine, hashish, jimson weed, LSD, marijuana, mescaline, morning glory, mushrooms, nutmeg, PCP, and psilocybin.
an emetic that enduces vomiting
abnormal condition of the mind disorder causing mental disruption and loss of contact with reality
A brain disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. disorder characterized by hallucinations and delusions
acute altered state of consciousness with agitation and disorientation
And illness the psychological or behavioral symptoms and or impairment in functioning
general functioning has been severely impaired and the individual is rendered incompetent threat to self and others
the point when a P's reaction to event interferes with activities of daily life
Produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified anxiety,depression, schizophrenia
organic brain syndrome
large group of disorders associated with brain damage or impaired cerebral function may be caused by seizure disorders
A very common sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria that may not cause symptoms. lower abdominal and back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, and bleeding between menstrual cycles may cause arthritis w/ skin lesions and inflammation of eyes and urethra
pelvic inflammatory disease
A painful infection of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and or the uterus lower abdominal pain PID shuffle
abdominal aortic aneurysm
Pulsating abdominal mass
fishy odor, thin white-grey vaginal discharge untreated can lead to premature birth or low birth weight
A sexually transmitted bacterial infection that, if untreated, may cause infertility. a venereal disease involving inflammatory discharge from the urethra or vagina. bacteria in mouth, throat, eyes, anus, reproductive tract burning and yellowish discharge
newtons first law
An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by a unbalanced force
newtons second law
Force = mass times acceleration
newtons third law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
level I trauma center
Commits resources to address all types of specialty 24/7
level 2 trauma center
Capable of stabilizing trauma patients and transferring to a Level 1 trauma center on call
level 3 trauma center
-community -general commitment to special staff training walk-in clinic
level 4 trauma center
small community hospitals, (they have to stabilize and transfer) Have ER DR but no surgeon
Overpressure wave (internal damage to hollow organs)
Shrapnel and debris penetrating wounds
Injuries due to impact with another object.
burns from hot gases and respiratory injuries from inhaling toxic gases
acute coronary syndrome
Chest pain and other signs and symptoms associated with cardiac ischemia ashen skin, diaphoresis and anxiety
Low oxygen saturation of the body, not enough oxygen in the blood Commonly seen as blue or gray skin, deterioration of patient's mental status like confusion or restlessnes lower pulse tachycardia Bradycardia is a more common sign of hypoxia in pediatric patients
a crackling or grating sound usually of bones
Excessive loss of blood death resulting from soft-tissue injury uncontrolled can lead to shock and death
Outer layer of skin
pigements contained within membrane bound melanines
The inner layer of the skin the layer of skin below the epidermisglands and vessels that give skin nutrients and o2
thin sheets of tissue that line respiratory passages and secrete mucus, a viscid fluid The lining of various body cavities, including the nose, ears, and mouth
the constriction of blood vessels, which increases blood pressure in cold
the dilatation of blood vessels, which decreases blood pressure.
injury to a ligament caused by joint trauma but without joint dislocation or fracture Edema at joint, sound of a "snap" with injury, and point tenderness.
a pulled muscle
Sound of a "snap" when muscle tears, severe weakness of the muscle, sharp pain immediately with occurrence, and extreme point tenderness.
silver fork deformity
prominence and swelling at wrist
one in which the bone is bent and only partially broken
ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone
occurs straight across the bone
bone breaks into many fragments
There is a break in the surface of the skin or mucous membrane
Shallow triangular depression on the anterior aspect of the elbow
tissue damage and cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation, or chemicals liquid chemicals- flush w/water till burning stops brush dry chemicals off first
1st degree burn First-degree burn that damages the first layer of skin; becomes red and feels very painful
partial thickness burn
2nd degree burns blisters
full thickness burn
3rd degree burn Destroyed both layers of skin. parchment like (leathery, dry, rigid)
a chemical that is responsible for the symptoms of an allergy dilates blood vessels
zone of hyperemia
Burns: Zone where there is minimal cell injury and cells should recover
zone of coagulation
The area of the burn that received the most severe injury with irreversible cell damage
zone of stasis
where blood vessels are damaged, but tissues have the potential to survive
Fibrous protein that gives the skin form and strength scar tissue
stages of wound healing
stop bleeding, inflammation, rebuild cells, new blood vessels, maturation
a solid swelling of clotted blood within the tissues or in a body cavity when blood vssel is damaged from fracture
the study of how things move
An injury that occurs when a great amount of force is applied to the body.
arterial flow compromised for greater than 4 hours, can lead to renal failure and death give IV before lifting object need ALS
Scrape of the skin due to something abrasive
Increased pressure within a limited space edema and swelling causes nerve damage and decreased blood flow
jagged wound stellate-irregular linear-regular
a surgical cut
persistent abnormal erection of the penis accompanied by pain and tenderness
a deficiency of blood passing through an organ or body part tavhycardia tachypnea low bp weak pulse cool,moist,pale skin
The displacement of organs outside of the body. keep moist
a collection of blood in the space between the skull and dura mater immeded loss of consciousness and lucid interval pupil on side of hematoma becomes fixed and dilated
combination of penetration and crush injury dry sterile dressing splint transport
An overdose of adrenaline that can occur in heated confrontations with the police. Usually in response to stimulant drugs
little penetrating energy and easily stopped by skin
A type of nuclear radiation made of high-energy waves easily penetrates body
can travel farther than alpha and can penetrate skin but are blocked by clothing designed for the purpose
any dressing that forms an airtight seal Used to treat a sucking chest wound
The visible part of the ear
The small, rounded, fleshy bulge that lies immediately anterior to the ear canal
projection of the temporal bone located behind the ear
formed at the back of the mouth where the maxillary and mandibular arches come together
pulls head to one side, flexes neck or elevates sternum
White of the eye
The thick, clear jelly that helps give the eyeball its shape.
fluid in the eye, found between the cornea and the lens
Delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the eyeball
The clear tissue that covers the front of the eye
colored part of the eye
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
unequal diameter of pupils
Contains sensory receptors that process visual information and sends it to the brain
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
inflammation of the conjunctiva (pink eye) use saline solution to flush eye from nose side to outside
chemical eye burns
irrigate and dry sterile remove contacts because it traps acids
thermal eye burns
transport ans cover both eyes with a sterile dressing moistened with sterile saline.
light eye burns
redness swelling and excessive tear production, cover eyes with sterile moist pad and eye sheild, lie them down and prevent from further light damage
laceration of the eye
gentle manual pressure no pressure if globe is damaged if exposed placed moist sterile dressing and cover with eye sheild and transport.
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
Area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body
A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.
The part of the brain connecting the spinal cord with the forebrain and cerebrum.
the amount of pressure inside the skull cheyne stokes resps or ataxic breathing decreased pulse, headache, nausea, vomiting, decreased alertness, bradycardia, sluggish or non reactive pupils and icreased or widened bp
"Worst headache of my life" Bleeding into the subarachnoid space, where the cerebrospinal fluid circulates.
temporary unconsciousness caused by a blow to the head. dizziness and weakness, nausea and ringing in the ears, slurred speach and cant focus. lack of coordination, temporary headache.
loss of memories from our past
an inability to form new memories
minimum of range: 35 mmHg / max of range: 45 mmHg
sign of increased ICP -Widening of pulse pressure, -Slowing HR -Slowing Respiration
perform hyperventilation at 20 breaths/min
AKA flail chest, reversed movement of diaphragm due to paralysis or chest trauma
basal skull fracture
CSF drainage from the nose, raccoon eyes, and Battle's sign
doesnt result in major changes in patients cardiac physiology. dyspnea, tachypnea, and accessory muscle use, decreasing O2 saturatio. crackling sensation lethargy and cyanosis apply O2 but no assisted ventilations unless crucial
acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity accurs with penetrating chest trauma may fill b/c of cancer or autoimmune e.g. lupus decrease in cardiac output becks triad: distended jugular veins on both sides, narrowing pulse, and muffled heart sounds also a decrease in mental status give o2 and ventilation if necessary
A pneumothorax in which significant ongoing accumulation in the plueral space. pushes mediastinum into opposite plueral cavity decreases cardiac output and leads toshock/death chest pain tachycardia, respiratory distress, absent lung side and shock /altered LOC MAy also show JVD, cyanosis, or tracheal deviation.
blood in the pleural cavity suspect if there is signs of shock with no external bleeding or decreased breath sounds on the affected side
Blood and air in pleural space need surgeon
Sudden compression of chest forcing blood out of the organs and rupturing blood vessels
A bruise of the heart muscle.
sudden cardiac arrest as the result of a blunt hit or impact to the chest 35-40mph may cause v-fib must be difibrillaed in 2 mins
right upper quadrant
liver, right kidney, colon, pancreas[only small portion],gallbladder, small intestines
right lower quadrant
small and large intestines, ovary, Fallopian tube, APPENDIX, ureter
left upper quadrant
left lower quadrant
Part of descending colon Sigmoid colon Left ovary and tube Left ureter Left spermatic cord
-stomach, small intestine, colon, bladder, gallbladder
located behind the peritoneum kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder, pancreas
pain in left shoulder
pAIN TO GROIN
formation of cavities in an organ or tissue; frequently seen in some forms of tuberculosis
when kidneys can no longer cleanse the blood and maintain homeostasis
often caused by diabetes or hypertension.
a solid mass formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals vague discomfort in the flank, agitation, restlessness, nausea, and vomiting.
abnormally low body temperature below 95 F or 35 C if between 90-95, resps and pulse are rapid and shivering anthing below: vasoconstriction slow respirations and pulse cyanosis body slows down and mental status degrades organs begin to slow move patient from cold environment; remove wet clothing and administer oxygen - warmed and humidified if available; cover with warm blankets; rewarm with hot packs in groin and armpits - use caution to avoid burns; provide warm clear liquids if conscious and not vomiting; rewarm slowly; transport; passive rewarming is best delivered at appropriate facility; handle gently to decrease risk of ventricular fibrillation; and if unconscious and in cardiac arrest follow AHA recommendations for CPR.
Depressed Dull of sensitivity. Only responsive to physical (pain) stimuli.
Abnormally high body temperature vasodilation 101F or higher
Muscle pain and spasm resulting from exposure to heat and inadequate fluid and salt intake usually after vigorous exercise
A form of physical stress on the body caused by overheating that can result from dehydration signs and symptoms: -dizziness, syncope, nausea, vomiting headache and muscle cramping -usually while working in a hot humid poorly ventilated place and lots of sweating -cool, clammy skin with ahen pallor normal vital signs but pulse may be rapid -slightly elevated body temp transport on left side dont give water if naeuseated
Medical emergency caused by prolonged exposure to heat tissues destroyed -hot dry flushed skin may rise to 106 F or higher decreased LOC seizure may occur -slow pulse and bp -NOT SWEATY
Condition of being distended or swollen; normal fullness
37 - 41.6 weeks
All the organ systems of the embryo begin to form
A time of growth - growth is rapid in fourth month, slows down in fifth
When fetuses organs are full functioning and the rate of growth begins to decrease
a form of diabetes mellitus that occurs during some pregnancies
changes in pregnant women
more need for iron b/c decrease in RBC
cardiac out put increased faster respirations decreased minute volume 50% increase to total vascular volume; increased maternal heart rate in third trimester; shock in third trimester patients may be difficult to detect; third trimester fetus size can affect venous return in patients lying flat on their backs; decreased gastrointestinal motility increases risk of vomiting and aspiration after trauma.
High blood pressure during pregnancy persistant headache blurred vision swelling anxiety
a severe complication of pregnancy that produces seizures and coma lay on left side
supine hypotensive syndrome
Lady laying supine, baby pushing on organs. compression of vena cava
implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than the normal uterine location unilateral pain in lower abdomen
Premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall
Placenta lies low in the uterus and can cover the cervical opening
shock resulting from blood loss
the dark green substance forming the first feces of a newborn infant. can indicate newborn distress cold aspirate
three stages of labor
1. Dilation of cervix , longest, contractions till fully dilated, water break 2. Pushing and birth 3. Delivery of the placenta
Waxy or "cheesy" white substance found coating the skin of newborn humans
rounded upper portion of the uterus
An evaluation of a newborn infant's physical status at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. appearance (color),2- all pink 1-body pink and extremeties blue 0-all blue pulse, 2- >100 1-<100 0-no pulse grimace (reflex irritability)2-cry and moves foor with flick 1-weak cry w/ stimulus 0-no cry , activity 2-attempts to straighten hips and knees 1-weak attemt 0-limp , respiration 2- rapid 1-slow 0-none
birth position in which the buttocks, feet, or knees emerge first
neonate (0-1 month)
pulse: 90-180 respirations: 30-60 systolic BP: 50-70 98-100 F
Irritating; harsh or discordant (of a noise); scraping
infant (1month- 1 year)
pulse: 100-160 respirations: 25-50 systolic BP: 70-95 96.8-99.6 seperation anxiety have parent hold them
toddler (1-3 yrs)
pulse: 90-150 respirations: 20-30 systolic BP: 80-100 96.8-99.6 exploring bring object that makes them comfortable practice on a doll first
general impression of a child's condition within 30 secs appearance-muscle tone and mental status work of breathing-noise, accssory muscle use, tripod. tachypnea, retraction circulation to the skin-pallor, cyanosis
inflammation of the bronchioles 2 y/0< spreads fast dehydration, shortness of breath
thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification (hardening) of arterial walls
Changes in the walls of large arteries consisting of lipid deposits on the artery walls.
A congenital disorder of movement, muscle tone, or posture.
A congenital condition where the spine is exposed
PUBLIC INFORMATION OFFICER
the individual who has overall command of the incident in the field assesses prioritizes plans
unified command system
When a large MCI requires multiple agencies or jurisdictions to respond.
single command system
one person is in charge, even if multiple agencies respond
Pain at site, progressive weakness, nausea and vomiting, seizures, vision problems, and changes in level of consciousness. Anaphylaxis is seen when exposed to an allergen. A rattlesnake bite introduces venom into the body.
keeping the patient calm, administering supplemental oxygen, splinting the affected part, and keeping it below the level of the heart. Do NOT apply ice to a snakebite; this will cause local vasoconstriction and may force the venom deeper into the patient's circulation. If a constricting band is applied, it should be proximal to the bite and should be tight enough to slow venous return only, not cut off arterial supply.
black widow bite
Initial localized swelling and chest or abdominal pain. Depending on bite site and symptoms, bites may be dangerous to children. In some cases bites can be fatal.
reach throw row and go
Drowning is defined as death after submersion in a liquid medium, usually water. In a drowning, death is either immediate or occurs within 24 hours following submersion. Near-drowning is defined as survival, at least temporarily (24 hours), after submersion. It should be noted, however, that complications such as pneumonia and pulmonary edema can cause death greater than 24 hours following submersion. For this reason, all patients with a submersion injury should be transported to the hospital, even if they appear fine at the scene.
Ch 16 Dealing with Acute Situations (Pt care in Radiology)73 terms