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7th Grade Math Vocabulary
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Gravity
Terms in this set (158)
absolute value
The distance of a number from zero on the number line. Always Positive
acute triangle
a triangle with no angle measuring 90 degrees or more
additive inverse
a number that is the same distance from 0 on the number line, but in the opposite direction
algebraic expression
a group of numbers, symbols, and variables that express an operation or a series of operations
area of a circle
The measure, in square units, of the interior of a 2-dimensional figure. The formula for the area of a circle A = πr²
area
The measure, in square units, of the interior region of a 2-dimensional figure or the surface of a 3-dimensional figure
area (quadrilateral)
area is the measurement of the 2-dimensional region enclosed by the quadrilateral
altitude
the perpendicular distance from a vertex to the opposite side of a plane figure
area of a triangle
The area of triangle is A = ½bh, where b = the base and h = the vertical height
circumference
the distance around a circle, which equals a little more than three times is diameter
axis
a reference line from which distances or angles are measured in a coordinate grid. (Plural - axes)
commissions
a fee charged by a broker or agent for his/her service in facilitating a transaction
common denominator
for two or more fractions, a common denominator is a common multiple of the denominators
complementary angles
two angles are complementary is they add up to 90 degrees (right angle). They don't have to be next to each other
constant
A number with a value that is always the same.
base of a polygon
The side of a polygon that is perpendicular to the altitude or height
coefficient
A numerical factor in a term of an algebraic expression.
common factor
Any common factor of two or more numbers
plane sections
The area created by a plane cutting through a solid
populations
The entire collection of items that is the focus of concern. A population can be any size and while the items need not be uniform, the items must share at least one measurable feature.
coordinate pair
An ordered pair of numbers that identify a point on a coordinate plane.
coordinate plane
A 2- dimensional system in which the coordinates of a point are its distances from two intersecting, usually perpendicular, straight lines called axes, (Also called coordinate grid or coordinate system)
coordinates
An ordered pair of numbers that identify a point on a coordinate plane.
data
Information, especially numerical information. Usually organized for analysis.
denominator
The quantity below the line in a fraction. It tells the number of equal parts into which a whole is divided.
estimate
To find a number close to an exact amount; an estimate tells about how much or about how many.
event
A set of outcomes to which a probability is assigned.
coordinate system
Also know as a coordinate grid. A 2-dimensional system in which the coordinates of a point are its distances from two intersecting, usually perpendicular straight lines called axes.
cube
A three-dimensional shape with six square faces.
diagram
A drawing that represents a mathematical situation.
dependent variable
In a function, a variable whose value is determined by the value of the related independent variable.
distributive property
a x (b + c) = (a x b) + (a x c)
and
a x (b - c) = (a x b) - (a x c), where a, b, and c stand for any real numbers
integers
The set of whole numbers and their opposites.
line plot
A diagram showing frequency of data on a number line.
equilateral triangle
A triangle whose sides are all the same length.
equivalent ratio
If two rations have the same value when simplified, then they are called this.
exponent
The number that tells how many equal factors there are.
frequency
The number of times an event occurs within a specific time period.
geometric figure
Any combinations of points, lines, planes, or curves in two or three dimensions.
equation
A statement that two mathematical expressions are equal.
equivalent
Naming the same number
evaluate
To find the value of a mathematical expression.
expression
A variable or combination of variables, numbers, and symbols that represents a mathematical relationship.
gratuities
Something given voluntarily or beyond obligation usually for some service: tip.
fraction
A way of representing part of a whole or part of a group by telling the number of equal parts in the whole and the number of parts you are describing.
graph
A pictorial device used to show a numerical relationship.
height
The perpendicular distance from a vertex to the opposite side of a plane figure.
improper fraction
A fraction with a numerator greater than (or equal to) its denominator
inequality
A mathematical sentence that compares two unequal expressions using one of the symbols <, >, ≤, ≥, or ≠.
isosceles triangle
A triangle that has at least two congruent sides.
greater than
Used to compare two numbers when the first number is larger than the second number.
histogram
A bar graph in which labels for the bars are numerical intervals.
independent variable
A variable in a mathematical equation whose value determines that of a dependent variable.
infinite
Having no boundaries or limits.
inferences
The act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.
least common multiple (LCM)
The smallest common multiple of a set of two or more numbers.
less than
Less than is used to compare two numbers when the first number is smaller than the second number.
maximum
The largest amount; the greatest number in a data set.
measures of central tendency
An average; a single value that is used to represent a collection of data. Three commonly used types of averages are mode, median, and mean.
markdowns
The amount by which a price is reduced.
long division
A standard procedure suitable for dividing simple or complex multi-digit numbers.
multiple
The product of a whole number and any other whole number.
likely event
An event that is most likely to happen.
mean
The sum of a set of numbers divided by the number of elements in the set. (A type of average)
median
The middle number of a set of numbers when the numbers are arranged from least to greatest, or the mean of two middle numbers when the set has two middle numbers.
minimum
The smallest amount; the smallest number in a data set.
mixed number
A number with an integer and a fraction part.
markups
An amount added to the cost price to determine the selling price; broadly: profit
percent decrease
Percent decrease is a measure of percent change, which is the extent to which a variable loses value. It is found by comparing the initial (or before) and final (or after) quantities according to a specific formula. IT is assumed that both the initial and the final quantities are positive (larger than 0).
negative numbers
Numbers less than 0
prediction
To state in advance on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reason.
number line
A diagram that represents numbers as points on a line.
numerator
The number or expression written above the line in a fraction.
percent error
Percent error is the difference between a predicted value and the actual value. Percent errors tell you how close or how far you came to the actual answer.
obtuse triangle
A triangle that contains one angle with a measure greater than 90 degrees (obtuse angle) and two acute angles.
origin
The intersection of the x- and y-axes in the coordinate plane, described by the ordered pair (0, 0).
opposite
Having a different sign but the same numeral.
ordered pair
A pair of numbers that gives the coordinates of a point on a grid in this order (horizontal (x) coordinate, vertical (y) coordinate). Also known as a coordinate pair.
outlier
A number in a set of data that is much larger or smaller than most of the other numbers in the set.
percent
A special ratio that compares a number to 100 using the symbol %.
polygon
A closed figure formed from line segments that meet only at their endpoints
prism
A 3-dimensional figure that has two congruent and parallel faces that are polygons. The remaining faces are parallelograms.
proportion
An equation showing that two rations are equivalent.
quadrants
The four sections of a coordinate grid that are separated by the axes.
quantity
An amount
percent increase
Percent increase is measure of percent change, which is the extent to which a variable gains value. It is found by comparing the initial (or before) and final (or after) quantities according to a specific formula. It is assumed that both the initial and the final quantities are positive (larger than 0).
positive numbers
Numbers that are greater than zero.
product
The result of multiplication.
pyramid
A polyhedron whose base is a polygon and whose other faces are triangles that share a common vertex.
quadrilateral
A four-sided polygon.
quotient
The result of the division of one quantity by another.
range
The difference between the greatest number and the least number in a set of numbers.
ratio
A comparison of two numbers using division.
rational number
A number that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers.
reciprocals
Two numbers whose product is 1. Also called multiplicative inverses.
relative frequency
The ratio of an actual number of favorable events to the total possible number of events; often taken as an estimate of probability.
rate
A ratio comparing two different units
rectangle
A quadrilateral with two pairs of congruent, parallel sides and four right angles.
random sample
A selection that is chosen randomly (purely by chance, with no predictability.)
right triangle
A triangle that has one 90 degree angle.
solid figure
A geometric figure with 3 dimensions.
rational coefficient
A rational number which multiplies a variable.
statistics
The science of collecting, organizing, representing, and interpreting data.
sample space
The set of all possible outcomes of a random process.
supplementary angles
If the sum of the measures of two angles is 180 degrees, then the two angles are supplementary. If two angles form a straight line, then they are supplementary.
term
A number, variable, product, or quotient in an expression. A term is not a sum or difference.
simple interest
A quick method for calculating the interest charge on a loan.
substitution
The replacement of the letters in an algebraic expression with known values.
sum
The result of addition.
table
An organized way to list data. Tables usually have rows and columns of data.
scale drawing
A drawing of an object or structure showing all parts in the same proportion of their true size.
signed number
positive or negative number.
unit cube
A precisely fixed quantity used to measure volume.
unit rate
A rate with a denominator of 1.
vertical angle
A pair of angles is said to be vertical if the angles share the same vertex and are bounded by the same pair of lines but are opposite to each other. Such angles are congruent and thus have equal measure.
vertex
The point at which two line segments, lines, or rays meet to form an angle. (plural - vertices)
whole numbers
Any of the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and so on.
x-coordinate
In an ordered pair, the value that is always written first.
y-coordinate
In an ordered pair, the value that is always written second.
tax
A fee charged by a government on a product, income, or activity.
variable
A quantity that changes or can have different values. A symbol, usually a letter, that can stand for a variable quantity.
volume
The number of cubic units it takes to fill a figure.
y-axis
In a Cartesian grid, the vertical axis.
base of an exponent
The number that is raised to a power.
scaling
To increase or decrease proportionately in size.
simplify
To express a fraction in simplest form.
square root
is a value that, when multiplied by itself, gives the number.
parallelogram
A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel and congruent sides.
diameter
a line segment that passes through the center of the circle with endpoints on the circle.
rhombus
a parallelogram with 4 equal sides. Opposite angles are congruent.
regular polygon
A polygon that is both equilateral and equiangular. Its center is the point that is equidistant from its vertices.
mode
the most frequently occurring number in a data set. There can be more than one or no mode.
theoretical probablity
probability based on reasoning written as a ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the number of possible outcomes.
experimental probablility
probability based on an experiment written as a ratio comparing the number of times the event occurred to the number of trials.
proportional relationship
is a relationship between two variable quantities x and y, where y is a constant multiple (k) of x. This can be expressed in the simple equation, y = kx.
solution set
A set of values that satisfy a given set of equations or inequalities.
unlikely event
An event that will probably not happen. An outcome with a probability between 0 and 0.5.
pi
The ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. Equal to 3.14159265358979323846... (the digits go on forever without repeating) A rough approximation is 22/7 = 3.14
probablility
The chance that a particular outcome will occur, measured as a ratio of the total possible outcomes.
protractor
A tool used to measure and draw angles.
terminating decimal
A decimal which has a finite number of digits.
triangle
A polygon with three angles and three sides.
bisect
Divide into two equal parts.
alternate interior angles
Angles created when a transversal crosses two (usually parallel) lines. Each pair of these angles are inside the parallel lines, and on opposite sides of the transversal.
alternate exterior angles
Angles created when a transversal crosses two (usuallyparallel) lines. Each pair of these angles are outside the parallel lines, and on opposite sides of the transversal.
discount
an amount that is subtracted from the regular price of an item.
exponential notation
A mathematical method for writing longer multiplication problems in a simplified manner.
corresponding angles
the angles that occupy the same relative position at each intersection where a straight line crosses two others. If the two lines are parallel, the corresponding angles are equal.
outcome
a possible result of a probability experiment.
permutations
All possible arrangements of a collection of things, where the order is important
radical sign
The sign √ placed before a quantity, indicating extraction of the root designated by a raised integer.
When extracting a square root, the raised integer is customarily omitted.
trapezoid
A quadrilateral with one set of parallel lines. It is not a parallelogram because only one pair of sides is parallel
transversal
A line that cuts across two or more (usually parallel) lines.
x-axis
In a Cartesian grid, the horizontal axis.
three-dimensional
3-D. Existing in 3 dimensions; having length, width, and height.
scalene triangle
A triangle that has no congruent sides.
order of operations
Rules describing what sequence to use in evaluating expressions.
(1) Evaluate within grouping symbols.
(2) Do powers or roots.
(3) Multiply or divide left to right.
(4) Add or subtract left to right.
compound event
Two or more independent events considered together.
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