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Terms in this set (53)
the body has ___ principal avenues of communication from cell to cell.
join single-unit smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, epithelial, and other cells, allowing passage of nutrients, electrolytes, and signaling molecules via the cytoplasm.
released by neurons, diffuse across the synaptic cleft, and bind to receptors.
secreted by one cell and diffuse to nearby cells of the same tissue and stimulate them; they are sometimes called local hormones.
hormones in the strict sense are _____ messengers transported by the bloodstream that stimulate physiological responses of cells of another tissue or organ.
glands, tissues, cells
3 structures that secrete hormones make up the endocrine system
study of this system
absence or presence of ducts
classical distinction between endocrine and exocrine glands has been...
most _____ glands secrete their products by way of a duct onto an epithelial surface.
ductless and release their secretions into the bloodstream
exocrine secretions have ______ effects, whereas endocrine secretions have _______ effects, altering cell metabolism.
blood capillaries; fenestrated
endocrine glands have a high density of _____ _____, which are of a highly permeable type called _____ capillaries that have patches of large pores in their walls.
the nervous and endocrine systems _____ each other rather than duplicate each other's functions.
electrical (action potential) & chemical (neurotransmitter)
nervous system uses both ______ and _____ are means of communications
endocrine system uses _____ as the means of communications.
quickly; seconds; days
the nervous system responds to a stimulus _____, whereas hormone release may occur from several _____ up to ____ after the stimulus.
when a stimulus ends, the nervous system stops responding ___ ____.
days or weeks
endocrine effects may persist for several ____ __ ____.
under long-term stimulation, most neurons adapt and response declines, but endocrine system response is more ______.
targeted; widespread effects
an nerve fiber innervates only one organ and a limited number of cells, so its effects are _____, which in contract, hormones circulate throughout the body and have more _____ ____.
several chemicals functions both as _______ and as ______, including norepinephrine, dopamine, thyrotroponin-releasing hormone and others.
some hormones, such as oxytocin and ephinephrines, are secreted by _______. - neurons that release secretions into the bloodstream.
some hormones and neurotransmitters produce ______ on the same targets, such as glucagon and norepinephrine acing on the liver cells.
hormones and neurotransmitters ______ each other- neurons can trigger hormone secretion, and hormones can stimulate or inhibit neurons
both neurotransmitters and hormones depend on _____ on the receiving cells.
the _____ of target organs or cells allows selective action of circulating hormones
in terms of nomenclature, many hormones are denoted by standard ______.
pituitary gland and hypothalamus
the ______ and ______ have a more wide-ranging influence than any other part of the endocrine system.
anatomically, the ____ is suspended from the floor of the hypothalamus
the ______ is shaped like a flattened funnel and forms the floor and walls of the third ventricle of the brain.
hypophysis;; infundbulum; sella turcica
the pituitary gland also called the _______ is connected to the hypothalamus by a stalk called the ______ and housed in a depression of the sphenoid bone known as the "Turkish saddle," the ___ ___.
the gland is roughly the size and shape of ___ ___.
the _______ constitutes the anterior (front) three-quarters of the pituitary and has two parts.
the hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by secreting hormones into the ____ ____.
neurohypothysis (back part of pituitary)
the _______ constitutes the posterior one-quarter of the pituitary and has three parts.
the neurohypophysis is ___ ___ and not a true gland.
the nerve fibers arise from certain cell bodies in the hypothalamus and pass down the stalk as the ______-______ tract to end in the posterior lobe.
the hypothalamic neurons _______ hormones and transport them to the axons in the posterior pituitary, where they are ____ until a nerve signal from the same axons triggers release into the blood.
8; 6; 2
__ hormones are produced in the hypothalamus; __ regulate the anterior pituitary and __ are stored in the posterior pituitary and released on demand.
first six are described as ____ hormones if they stimulate pituitary cells to secrete hormones of their own, or ____ hormones if they suppress pituitary secretion.
OT; ADH; posterior
other two hypothalamic hormones are ___ & ___.
- stored and released by the ____ pituitary and so are considered posterior lobe hormones even though not synthesized there.
the six _____ pituitary hormones are summarized as follows
secreted by pituitary cells called gonadotropes.
- in the ovaries, it stimulates secretion of ovarian sex hormones and the development of follicles.
FSH in the tests it stimulates ___ production.
LH; corpus luteum
secreted by the gonadotropes
- stimulates ovulation in females; after ovulation the follicle becomes a yellowish body termed the ____ ____, where the name comes from.
LH also stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete ____.
in males, LH stimulates the tests to secrete _____.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (corticotropin)
source: anterior pituitary
Antidiuretic hormone (arginine vasopressin)
source: posterior pituitary
Atrial natriuretic peptide
source: adrenal cortex
source: kidney, liver
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