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AP Comparative Government - Democratization
Terms in this set (24)
A set of institutions that allow the citizens to choose the makers of public policy in free, competitive elections. All adults in the country must be eligible and able to vote regardless of race, gender, poverty, ethnicity, or other discriminating characteristics.
Countries that meet the minimum requirements of democracy, with free and fair elections for the real policymakers and eligibility of all adults.
Countries that guarantee many more political rights and civil liberties than simply the requisite free and fair competitive elections.
The transformation process from a nondemocratic regime to a procedural democracy to a substantive democracy.
The three "waves" of democratization
The three historical trends of democratization in the 20th century, as identified by Samuel Huntington.
The "first wave" of democratization
The period, with its origins in the late nineteenth century, when democratization took hold under demands from increasingly educated and urbanized citizens. It was ended, and partially reversed, by the Great Depression and the rise of Nazi Germany.
The "second wave" of democratization
The period that commenced with the victory of the Allies in World War II and the breakup of European colonial empires. It was partially reversed during the 1960s and 1970s.
The "third wave" of democratization
The period, beginning in the late 1970s, that started in Southern Europe, spread through Latin America and Asia, and accelerated with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Level of economic development
An internal feature that greatly influences the likelihood of democratization.
International environment of democracy
An external feature that greatly influences the likelihood of democratization.
The prestige of democracy
Something that has waxed and waned over time, encouraged by outcomes of World War I and World War II and depressed by the brutal accomplishments of fascist dictatorships in the 1930s.
Democratization from above
Electoral competition and political freedoms are introduced by the current rulers, sometimes gradually.
Democratization from below
Democratic reforms have been pressed rapidly by mass demonstrations from democratically inclined citizens.
Governments whose domination of society is held in place by the unified strength of armed soldiers.
Personalistic authoritarian regimes
Governments held together by the personality and alliances of the individual leader and his family, sometimes his tribe or clan.
Single-party authoritarian regimes
Governments, such as that of the Soviet Union or China, that prove to be quite durable across the lives of their founders and their successors; their organization, penetration of society, and unifying set of beliefs made it possible to recruit ambitious, talented people for the party and crush potential opponents.
The creation of a stable political system in which all the major actors seeking political influence accept democratic competition, citizen participation, and the rule of law.
At least some of the officers use armed force to depose the elected civilian leadership.
Leading government officials (president, prime minister) declare a state of emergency and curtail democratic freedoms with at least implicit backing from the armed forces.
Illiberal democracies (aka electoral or partial)
Have authoritarian elements that distinguish them from free, substantive democracies.
A claim and justification of democracy - that electoral competition and free participation induce governments to do what citizens want them to do.
Great Britain and Mexico
Fully democratized countries.
Russia and Nigeria
Partially democratized countries.
China and Iran
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