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HIST 2710 FINAL
Terms in this set (106)
NSC-68 (national security council report #68)
1950. Secret policy paper given to Truman in 1950. It was one of the most important statements of American Policy during the cold war. Advocated more military production, development of hydrogen bomb, and increased military aid to allies of the US. Made containment a high priority. Rejected detente and rollback. Truman did not fully back it, but soon the Korean War began when the north koreans invaded the south and NSC 68 took on more importance.
1950. High ranking government official who helped shape much of the cold war defense policy. Was on the national security council. Was the principal author of NSC 68.
1947-1957. Senator from '47-'57, made accusations that there were communist infiltrators in the state department. Became famous for fueling fear of communism in the united states (red scare). McCarthyism can be defined as unsubstantiated anti-communist accusations.
HUAC (House un-American Activities Commission)
1938. an investigative committee of the House of Representatives. Created in 1938. Originally created to seek out people with ties to the nazi party and expanded to search for communist party infiltration. Similar to what Joseph McCarthy did, but in the house of representatives (mccarthy was in the senate).
1944-1950. Long time american army general. Legacy of "Macarthurism" - that the military really knows best. Major victories in New guinea (1944) the phillipenes (1945) against japan. and Korea (1950).
John Foster Dulles
1953-1959. US secretary of State under eisenhower ('53 - '59) Advocated an aggressive stance toward communism in the early cold war era. Proponent of brinksmanship: " The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war is the necessary art." Concentrated on building up NATO and creating other alliances to control soviet expansion by threatening massive retaliation in the event of war.
Eisenhower's "New Look"
1953-1961. Ike's national security policy during his presidency ( 53-61). Emphasized reliance on strategic nuclear arms to deter potential threats. Balanced security spending with the size and health of the US economy and looked at soviet threats as both military and economic. Shifted conventional military capability to "air-atomic" capability to lower defense costs. Embodied massive retaliation "more bang for your buck". Massive retaliation was both a deterrent and an economy of scale (large industry for air capabilities led to lower costs.)
1949-1963. First postwar chancellor of West Germany from '49-'63. Led his country from the ruins of WWII to a prosperous nation that had close relations with France, the UK, and the USA. Great guy. Supported joining NATO and integrating West Germany with other western power, especially the US and UK.
1951-1953. Prime Minister of Iran from '51 - '53 until his Gov't was overthrown in a coup organized by the CIA and british intelligence agency. Many iranians regarded mossadegh as the champion of secular democracy and resistance to foreign domination. His most notable policy was the nationalization of the Irans oil, which had previously been under british control (BP). Britain was mad about this and Iran cut off relations with them. Britain convinced eisenhower administration that Mossadegh was liable to turn pro communism, and then the US and UK worked together to oust the regime. In 53
1951-1954. President of Guatemala from '51-'54. Before his presidency, US corporations such as the United Fruit Company, owned Guatemala. US corps owned its only railroad, its primary electrical utilities, and most of its banana growing capabilities ( their main export.) Arbenz was also percieved as a communist sympathizer in the US, so the US began to support Castillo and his army. The CIA then planted communist arms caches in guatemala to justify supporting a coup there. In 1954 the coup occurred and castillo armas and his government took control.
1954. guatemalan Coup d'etat arranged by the CIA. Deposed Arbenz and installed carlos castillo armas with a military dictatorship. He was the first in a series of US backed Guatemalan leaders. The US supported this coup because it was predisposed from the cold war to see guatemala as communist and the united fruit company was lobbying against arbenz because his nationalization of land led to decreases in their profits. Was done under eisenhower's presidency.
Geneva Conference 1954
1954. Took place in geneva switzerland to discuss disputes concerning the korean peninsula and to discuss the possibility of restoring peace in indochina. Participants included the US, USSR, UK, France, and China. The korean questions went largely unanswered in this conference. On the questions regarding indochina, the geneva accords were produced. The geneva accords temporarily separated into north and south vietnam and then in 1956 an election would take place to reunite the north and south (although this was the outcome, it was not agreed upon by the USA or vietnam.)
1957. The first artificial earth satellite. Launched by the USSR in 1957. This Soviet success triggered the space race and led to a greatly increased focus on science, military, and technology in the US, as it was now seen as a part of the Cold War. The soviets were able to use sputnik as propaganda to fuel soviet pride. This made america pour more funding into science and led to the development of important tech such as ICBMs.
SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization)
????. Organization for collective defense in southeast asia (similar to NATO in some ways). Was created to block further communist gains in southeast asia. Part of the Truman Doctrine to contain soviet/communist expansion. Created by Kennan and Dulles. Included Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, The Philippines, Thailand, The UK, and the US. Mostly considered a failure in reality, was dissolved in 1977
Dien Bien Phu
1954. Was the climax of the first indochina war which was fought between the french and the Viet Minh (communist party). The french originally thought they could lure the communists and defeat them with superior firepower but it ended in a total french defeat. Occurred right before the geneva conference in 1954. This battle gave the north the upper hand in the geneva conference and gave them the unprecedented victory in partitioning north and south. North was supported by China and USSR south was supported by the US.
Spirit of Geneva
1955. meeting between the four powers (US UK USSR France). The stated goal was to reduce international tensions. Was seen as an important building block to better relations between the nations. Topics included east-west trade agreements, tariffs, the arms race, and disarmament. No formal conclusions were made but it was a good starting place. The US actually wanted to make sure to make no promises, as the USSR had a history of taking suggestions to mean promises that could lead to further divisions. Sides did NOT agree at all on Germany/unification. Led to a new era of optimism in the Cold War relations which was eventually ended by the Suez Crisis.
1956. An invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, France, and the UK. The goals of the invasion were to regain western control of the Suez Canal and the oust current egyptian president gamal abdel Nasser. After the fighting began, the US and USSR and UN forced all three nations to withdraw. This episode humiliated the french and british and strengthened nasser. This episode contributed greatly to the fall of GB as one of the great world powers. Defeats of UK and france may also have contributed to hasty decolonization. Seen as a hit to the western alliance as a whole, this was also a defeat for the US. Also allowed the USSR to see few repercussions from its occupation of Hungary. Laid the groundwork for the 6 day war in 1967 as no peace treaty was ever agreed on.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
1956-1970; 1952. Led the egyptian overthrow of its monarchy in 1952 and served as president from 1956-1970(death). His nationalization of the Suez Canal and his political victory in the Suez Crisis made him very popular. Nasser recognized communist china and had close relations with communists. But after the US forced the three parties to withdraw the the suez crisis, relations between the two countries warmed.
Quemoy and Matsu
1960. Tiny islands in a province of China, about 5 miles from china and over 100 miles from taiwan.. The term "quemoy and matsu" became a part of american political rhetoric during the 1960 elections (kennedy vs nixon). At the time, the islands were occupied by Taiwan, an american ally, after the communists came to power in china. Both candidates wanted to protect taiwan is the PRC attacked them but Kennedy did not want to defend the small islands while nixon did. Kennedy came off as calculated and cautious, while nixon came off as reckless in wanting to defend these two unimportant islands.
1956. Nationwide revolt against the Hungarian people's republic and its soviet-imposed policies. First major threat to soviet control since the end of WWII. Was largely successful and a new government was implemented and elections organized. USSR was originally going to negotiate a withdrawal but changed its mind and invaded hungary with troops. Many died and the USSR took back control of hungary. This strengthened soviet power in the eastern bloc but alienated many western communists with their harsh takeover.
1957. refers to a speech made by ike in 57. Said that a middle eastern country could request american military or economic assistance if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state. Especially the soviet union. The speech was made in response to the possibility of a generalized war, after the soviet intervention in egypt after the suez crisis. Although Egypt was not communist, they played the US and USSR against each other.
~1957. Was a term used in the United States for the perceived advantage that the soviets had in terms of the number of missiles they had, although the US really had more missiles. The exaggerated reports of the number of soviet missiles came from the Gaither report and air force figures. Even the CIA report that stated the US had more missiles greatly exaggerated the number of missiles that the soviets had. ~57
1960. A U2 spy plane was shot down in soviet airspace. The aircraft was doing recon for the CIA when it was shot down and the pilot parachuted to safety but was captured. The US was forced to admit to the military nature of the mission and this was a great embarrassment to the US. This incident marked the beginning of a period of deterioration of cold war relations. This incident doomed any potential for progressive peace talks between the US and USSR at the four powers summit soon afterwards.
Francis Gary Powers
1960. The pilot of the plane from the US incident in 1960
Defense strategy implemented in 1961 by John F Kennedy. Called for mutually assured destruction. Progressed in three stages 1. Direct defense - conventional warfare if USSR invaded. 2. Deliberate escalation - if the USSR was winning conventionally, which would have been likely, the use of strategic nuclear arms would be put in use. 3. General Nuclear Defense - full nuclear war. Gave Kennedy options as opposed to massive retaliations all or nothing approach.
Alliance for Progress
1961. Initiated by JFK, aimed to establish economic cooperation between the US and latin american countries. Goals of economic growth, reduced illiteracy, democratic governments, price stability and more equitable income distribution. Was eventually widely seen as a failure but some of the latin american countries did in the end see some success.
1961-now. established in 1961 by JFK. The goal of the peace corps is to provide technical assistance to other countries, help them understand american culture and help us understand their culture. The main goal is economic and social development.
1958-1964. Major political player for the USSR throughout cold war. Premier of the soviet union from '58 - '64. Responsible for de-stalinization of USSR, which included getting rid of institutions that helped stalin hold power for so long and also removed some inhuman institutions such as the gulag labor camps. Backed the early soviet space program. He was removed from power in '64 but was responsible for some relatively liberal reforms in domestic policy. Much more human and humane than his predecessor. He boasted of their technological and military prowess even though they were really not great at all, this led to fear in the US and our arms buildup, but some highranking defense personnel knew he was BSing. Visited the US at some points.
Summit in 1961 between JFK and Kruschev. Discussed Berlin Q: Kruschev wanted a peace treaty with Berlin in order to stabilize east germany which was crumbling. But American Policy makers did not want to change the status quo. Laos: on the brink of a proxy war there and they discussed this. Bay of Pigs: awkward. No concrete solutions were agreed upon. It was originally seen as a success for JFK as he did not allow Kruschev to force his hand and Kruschev was also relatively pleased. In retrospect though, both parties grew more frustrated with their lack of any progess.
Prime minister of Cuba from '59-'76 and then president until '08. Total communist and ally of Soviet Union. Had a major victory in the Bay of Pigs invasion.
Bay of Pigs
1961. Failed military invasion of Cuba endorsed by the CIA. The CIA trained over 1400 ex cubans to invade Cuba with the hopes of inspiring a revolution against the communist Castro. It was launched from guatemala and was a complete failure, the forces were defeated in 3 days. Severe embarrassment to Kennedy administration. The CIA had assumed JFK would authorize anything to avoid failure, which he did not. And Kennedy was furious with the CIA afterwards.
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962. A 13 day missile scare in 1962. The soviet union had placed nuclear weapons in cuba secretly to 1. Deter the US from intervening in cuba again (bay of pigs) and 2. Shift the balance of military power towards the USSR as they were not as powerful as the US. The US discovered these missiles and JFK decided to quarantine cuba and not allow any ships in or out. The US believed the missiles were for offensive purposes while cuba and USSR maintained that they were purely defensive. This was as close as the two powers ever got to full on nuclear war during the cold war. Eventually, the USSR agreed to take the missiles back if the US publicly stated they would not intervene in Cuba again, and the US secretly agreed to take missiles out of Turkey. In the end, it embarrassed kruschev becasue the US withdrawal of weapons was secret. Seen as good foreign policy by JFK.
A covert operation of the CIA that went into effect after the bay of pigs in 1961. Headed by robert kennedy it was Meant to help Cuba overthrow the communist regime. A goal was to provide enough justification for the use of military force in Cuba. There were over 30 parts to the plan, including propaganda and disruption of the cuban economy, the different parts varied in efficacy. There were also many assassination proposals. In hindsight seen as a failure, as it went on for 15 years, and was not successful obviously while many resources were allocated to it.
1960. first democratically elected leader of the Congo in 1960. His government was deposed after only 12 weeks after he attempted to solicit support from the USSR to help with his opposition. He was executed in 1961. It is believed that the US, UK, and belgium had a hand in his execution as they did not want the USSR to have access to the Congo's natural uranium.
1961-1989/91. The barrier that divided east and west berlin from '61-'89. The eastern bloc claimed the wall was there to prevent the influence of facists that wanted to stop the will of the people in creating a socialist state, but it was really there to prevent emigration from eastern berlin to the west, which was occurring elsewhere. Symbolized the Iron curtain between east and west.
Mutually Assured Destruction, "MAD"
A doctrine of military strategy in which the full use of nuclear weapons by 2 parties would result in the total destruction of both. It is based on a theory of deterrence which prevents the use of the same weapons by the other side. It is a form of Nash Equilibrium in which neither side has any incentive to use the weapons. Eisenhower used this in his "massive retaliation" policy. Once both powers achieved the nuclear triad of air, land, and sub based nuclear weapons, MAD was assured as it was impossible to take out all of the oppositions weapons with a first strike.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
1963. Prohibited test detonations of nuclear weapons except for underground. The agreement was signed by the US, USSR, and UK in 1963. It was to slow the arms race and also to reduce nuclear fallout into the atmosphere. The US and UK wanted a total test ban, but the USSR would not allow the intrusive control methods necessary to verify that there was not underground testing so the treaty only banned land, space and underwater testing.
1968 - gorbachev. A soviet foreign policy outlined in 1968. Was announced retroactively to justify the invasions of czechoslovakia and hungary. "When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned, but a common problem and concern of all socialist countries." in practice it meant that the country in the eastern bloc would be allowed to leave and no one could disturb the ruling communist party in any of those countries. The USSR also reserved the right to define "capitalism" and "socialism". Kind of like a communist version of the Truman Doctrine.
Charles de Gaulle
1958-1969. Dominant political figure in france during the cold war era. President of france from 1958-1969. During the cold war, asserted that france should not rely on other countries such as the US for its security and prosperity. Took france out of NATO in 1966 because he wanted france to be more independent. Criticized US intervention in Vietnam. Had generally good relations with US presidents, kennedy, eisenhower and nixon. Did not see communism as the USSR driving force but rather russian national interests.
Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT)
1968 (1970 effective). Objective : to stop the spread of nuclear weapons, to promote cooperation in terms of nuclear energy, and to further nuclear disarmament. Opening for signing in 1968 and went into effect in 1970. 3 pillars: 1. Non proliferation 2. Disarmament 3. Right to peaceful use of nuclear energy. 5 nuclear states: US(1968) USSR (1968) UK(1968) France(1992) China (1992). All other countries that sign cannot obtain nuclear weapons. Only 5 countries to this date have not signed. Four of those countries are believed to have nuclear weapons (north korea, india, pakistan, israel*. Relative success as the lower amount of nuclear states leads to more security.
Six Day War
1967. Israel vs. Egypt, syria, and Jordan - pretty badass. Relations in the region had been tense ever since the 1948 arab israeli war in which israel became a state and got its land. Egypt was mobilizing forces along its border in the sinai peninsula, this lead to an isaeli preemptive air and ground strike which both took egypt by surprise, this led to huge israeli wins, israel took control of the sinai peninsula. Egypt then induced jordan and syria to attack, the israeli counterattacks to this led to them winning the west bank and golan heights as well as east jerusalem. Hypotheses that the US aided israel, but not confirmed, in the Arab world, many believe the US aided Israel.
1967. Meeting between LBJ and soviet premier Alexei Kosygin. Diplomatic relations between the CW powers increased during the 6 day war so some hoped there could be cooperation on the war in vietnam. They did not come to any agreements. There was however an amicable atmosphere at the summit which some refer to as the "spirit of glassboro" *improving relations
1961. Report given in 1961 on the state of vietnam by Maxwell Taylor and Walt Rostow that called for escalation of US involvement including more US troops, greater use of helicopters, and more training of south vietnam army. *escalation of vietnam war .
Gulf of Tonkin
1964. Incident in 1964 that led to major US escalation in Vietnam. The USS maddox was attacked by north vietnamese torpedo ships and became involved in a naval battle. There was also a second alleged battle two days later that actually did not happen. Outcome was the passage of the gulf of tonkin resolution which gave LBJ the authority to assist any southeast asian country that is threatened by "communist aggression". This served as LBJ's justification for the use of conventional forces and open warfare on north vietnam. And LBJ authorized air strikes against northern navy bases.
Plei Ku incident
1965. Was an attack by the viet cong on a new american helicopter facility near plei ku. After surveying the damage, it was suggested to LBJ to conduct airstrikes on north vietnam and within 12 hours, LBJ authorized Operation Flaming Dart, which involved the bombing of north vietnamese military targets. These strikes happened hit Hanoi while the new soviet Premier Kosygin was there, which infuriated the kremlin and lead to the USSR pledging to give north vietnam all necessary aid and support. *turned vietnam into a full on proxy war.
Operation Rolling Thunder
1965-1968. The name of the sustained aerial bombardment of North Vietnam by the US airforce from 1965 - 1968. The goals of the operation were to stop hurt north vietnam in several ways such as destroying industrial and military areas. It was also to boost morale in south vietnam and discourage the northern support of the viet cong. However it was a very difficult campaign and the backing of the USSR led to the north having good defense and the air force took relatively large losses.
Ho Chi Minh
1945-1969. Leader of North Vietnam from 1945-1969. He defeated the French in 1954. After that first indochina war and the geneva accords split vietnam into north and south, communists went north and anti communists moved south (many more went south than north). He was repressive in the north throughout the 50's. Supported the viet cong in the south.
Ngo Dinh Diem
1955-1963. President of South vietnam from 1955 - 1963 when he was assassinated. He stabilized a new south vietnam state, although he was somewhat repressive. Seen in some ways as a US puppet but he also acted on his own vision often.
Ngo Dinh Nhu
Younger brother of Diem ^, politician in south vietnam. Was assassinated with his brother. Was a very powerful unofficial player in the Ngo family regime. The Buddhist uprising in Vietnam was what eventually led to the coup that led to the brothers' deaths.
1961-1966. was a diplomat and highly ranked in the State department from 1961 - 1966. Mostly remembered as the only major dissenter against escalation in vietnam, believed south vietnam was doomed. Warned both JFK and LBJ not to escalate in vietnam on multiple occasions, going agains all of the presidents' other advisers. Obviously, both presidents did not heed his advice, although both valued it and took it seriously.
Henry Cabot Lodge
1963-1964. American Senator and ambassador to the UN, South vietnam, and west germany. Ambassador of SV from 63-64. Quickly determined that Ngo Dinh Diem was inept and corrupt, and that SV was headed for disaster if he did not get his shit together or was replaced. Supported the coup of Diem, but the following instability of SV was even worse because there was no strong central government.
Thieu and Ky
1963 ->;1967->. Key players in several coups following the death of Diem in 1963 → . They stopped the cycle of coups in SV and the americans supported their regime. In 1967 they ran together on a ballot in the countries first elections and rigged it so they would win. The two struggles with each other for power and eventually Ky left for the US and Thieu continued to rule militarily.
mostly used to describe public skepticism about LBJ's administration's public statements about the vietnam war. There was a difference between what the government was telling media and the people and what was actually happening in the war. Basically a euphemism for lies told by politicians.
1971. Refers to any hearing by the US senate foreign relations committee hearings on Vietnam, particularly the one in 1971. Headed by william fulbright. The purpose of the hearings was to hear testimony about the condition of the war and to develop the best advice and greater public understanding of the war and policy options. The hearings were basically the committee hearing testimony from different diplomats and experts. Most of the hearings urged the removal of american troops. In the end it did not really shift the senate support for the war but it did shift public opinion away from supporting the war.
1968. A large offensive by the Viet Cong and North Vietnam in 1968. It was a campaign of surprise attacks and guerilla warfare that were extremely effective initially against south vietnam and the united states but the south regrouped and fought the communists off. This offensive was ultimately a defeat for the north, but it shocked the US public who had been led to believe that the North was weakened and not capable of something like this. Led to public resistance against the war in the US. Increased belief in the credibility gap.
1949-1971. Longtime Congressman from minnessota 1949-1971. Ran for president in 1968 (also ran 4 other times unsuccesfully) on a platform of anti-vietnam, his huge wins in a few states led LBJ to withdraw from the race. Was seen as no threat to LBJ, but after the tet offensive, his public support greatly grew. McCarthy's success prompted Robert Kennedy to also run for the democratic nomination. Showed the Democratic party was deeply divided on the war. And LBJ was inextricably tied to the war in vietnam.
1972. The offensive conducted by north vietnam against SV and the US in 1972. It was a huge offensive operation, much different than previous NV tactics, it was more conventional. Was not designed to win the war but to do as much damage and take as much territory as possible to improve the north's negotiating position as the paris peace accords drew closer to an end.
1972. AKA Operation Linebacker II. Aerial bombing campaign by the US air force in dec 1972 towards the end of the vietnam war. Different from rolling thunder, Linebacker II was supposed to be "maximum effort" to destroy major targer complexes in the north. Did massive damage to the north's infrastructure, but NV USSR and china critcized it saying that it killed many civilians, and some western countries also criticized the US. However the US claimed it achieved its goal of making the North return to negotiations and the paris peace accords were signed soon after. Public saw this as NV "bombed into submission"
politics based on current situations and factors rather than ideology or morality. Similar to realism and pragmatism. Sometimes used to imply that politics are coercive or amoral. Goal oriented and often gives up ideological principles. E.g. the US supported authoritarian regimes in the cold war (Diem, Theiu.) E.g. Nixon relations with china even though the US was technically anti communism, these relations helped the US.
A foreign policy of Nixon and Ford that meant the easing of cold war tension. Characterized by treaties such as SALT I and the Helsinki accords. Examples include the Moscow-DC telephone line SALT decreased arms pileup and the Helsinki accords were an agreement by the USSR to allow free elections. Detente ended after the 1980 soviet intervention in afghanistan.
1969-1977. Major player in american politics between 1969 and 1977( including secretary starting 73 of state for ford and nixon.) proponent of realpolitik. He pioneered Detente, helped opened relations with china, and negotiated the paris peace accords. Made 2 trips to china before nixon did. Helped to implement "vietnamization" with nixon which was gradually letting the vietnamese take control. Criticized for war deicisions that led to civillian casualties, accused of some war crimes.
1969. Term popularized by nixon in 1969. Used to describe the majority of the population that was not a part of the counterculter or did not participate in protests against the Vietnam war but also did not participate in public discourse. He felt the silent majority was being overshadowed by the vocal minority of protesters who called for an immediate end the involvement in vietnam. Nixon's constituency of the silent minority consisted of middle class and blue collar workers who were either conservative or didnt like the counterculture movement.
1969-1974. Component of Nixon's foreign policy from 69 - 74. He attempted to make the leaders of other countries believe that he was irrational and volatile. He hoped this would prevent hostile leaders in the eastern bloc from provoking the US. The administration used the theory to force the NV to negotiate a peace to end the vietnam war. It was problematic in its use in the vietnam war because his opponents actually were willing to do anything to win and the public was growing weary of the vietnam struggle.
1969. Put forth by nixon in 1969. Stated that the united states would assist in the defense and aid of its friends and allies but would not undertake the defense of all free nations in the world. Set a goal for the vietnamization of the vietnam war - slowly withdrawing US troops and preparing the SV army to fight the NV and the viet cong on their own. Kind of a rollback of truman doctrine. Was driven by foreign policy analysis and changing circumstances and it was also not economically useful to protect everyone, the economic motivation was exemplified with nixons relations with china as well.
1970's. A policy pursued by the US created by nixon and kissinger during the 1970's cold war detente era. Its goal was to work with the USSR and china to cooperate in restraining third world revolutions in return for economic and nuclear concessions. The goal was to
Political issues to military issues. However a large number of revolutions still occurred, which undermined the policy. E.g. if the soviets do good things in foreign relations, the US will help economically. If they intervene in countries, the US might impose economic sanctions on a key region to the USSR. Key part of detente.
SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation TALKS)
1969. a round of talks between the US and USSR regarding arms limitations. This first round of talks took place in 1969. The first talk led to the Anti Ballistic Missile Treaty and an interim agreement between the two powers. Froze the number of existing launchers and capped the creation of new launchers. Major accomplishment of Detente.
1957-1981; 1963. congressman from 57-81. First senator to oppose escalation of the vietnam war in 1963. Although he believed this he did not continue to speak out and voted for the gulf of tonkin resolution. He then continued to fight against involvement in vietnam while in congress. Fell on his face in the 1972 election against nixon and "mcgovernism" became a term for presidential campaigns that are out of touch with the people. Symbol of the political left. Used by republicans as a symbol of liberal failure.
1945-1967; 1971. A united states department of defense account of the US actions in vietnam from 45-67. Released to the public in 1971. The NYT stated that the papers reveal that the LBJ administration systematically lied, not only to the public but to congress. The papers reported that the US had escalated the war by bombing Laos and Cambodia, which was not released to the public. Revealed that Truman, Johnson, Kennedy, and Eisenhower had all misled the public in some way regarding the war. Exposed how real the credibility gap was the the public and led to mistrust of the government.
Paris Peace Accords
1973. Intended to establish a peace in Vietnam after the Vietnam War. It ended direct US military involvement and temporarily stopped the fighting in Vietnam. NV and SV signed the agreement ending the war but the US never actually ratified it. Kissinger was the main negotiator for the US with NV and SV. Negoations were lengthy for several reasons: the north would not negotiate until LBJ stopped bombing entirely of the north, NV insisted for 3 years that Thieu must be removed from the south if negotiations were to continue. Aftermath: the us successfully withdrew, but within a few years, the north had built up enough military power to take the south, and the low public support for helping vietnam prevented the US from aiding the south. And the north took saigon in 1975.
1972. His three successes in 1972 that led to his landslide reelection? 1. Opening relations with china 2. Summit with soviets - SALT I 3. Paris Peace accords and withdrawal from vietnam.
War Powers Act
1973. A law passed intended to check the president's power when it comes military conflict without the consent of congress. The president cannot bring the US into armed conflict for more than 60 days without consent from congress or a declaration of war from the government. Prompted by the leakage that nixon bombed cambodia and laos without telling congress or the public.
Yom Kippur War
1973. Israel vs egypt and Syria. The arab powers caught israel by surprise in the initial attack. Both the US and USSR greatly supported their respective allies and this nearly led to a nuclear confrontation between the two powers. Arabs initially made gains but Israel was able to push both syria and egyptian forces back and made gains into both of the arab countries. Egypt called for soviet military aid, which would have let to US military aid for israel and resulted in a war between the two powers, but kissinger was able to get the egyptians to drop the request for aid. The USSR also feared entering into war with the US.
Energy Crisis (oil crisis)
1973. The crisis began when OAPEC declared an oil embargo. It was in response to the US aid to israel in the yom kippur war. The US supplied weapons to israel and in response, OAPEC declared an oil embargo on the US UK Canada Japan and Netherland. Created a rift in NATO as some nations wanted to distance themselves from the US so that they would not be affected by the embargo. Brought oil from $3 to $12 and higher in the US. Would not lift the oil embargo until nixon got israel to remove some of its troops from the sinai peninsula in 1974. Negative economic effects obviously, result of yom kippur war.
The process of diplomacy between two parties via the use of an intermediary. Kissingers diplomacy to negotiate a peace in the Yom kippur war is an example of shuttle diplomacy. Used when the two parties negotiating do not formally recognize each other.
1970-1973. Marxist president of Chile from 1970-1973. Nationalized many industries. The majority of Chilean government did not support his socialization and called for his coup, which was supported by the CIA. After his deposition, a military government took place through 1990, ending 40 years of chilean democracy. Allende had a relationship with the soviets so his election was not liked at all by the US government as we did not want to see the spread of communism or soviet influence into the west.
1973-1990. dictator of Chile from 1973 - 1990. He assumed power following the CIA backed coup of Allende. During his rule he repressed his people, murdering and forcing labor. He also liberalized the economy and privatized many sectors, which led to a boom in the chilean economy. However economic inequality greatened.
1975. After a conference with over 35 countries they signed a declaration with the intent to better relations between the communist bloc and the west. Said that they had to respect territorial integrity and needed to respect states' sovereignty and self determination. Considerable step toward reducing cold war tensions.
Major civil conflict in angola beginning in 1975. The struggle began right after angola became independent from portugal in 1975, it was a civil war between two liberation movements. Was also a proxy battleground for the cold war. MPLA was backed by the soviet union. FNLA recieved some aid from the US once they became independent, but not before, because portugal was an ally. UNITA was supported by the USA and China after the decolonization conflict. MPLA won, but not until 2002, so that victory didnt have much cold war impact.
1977-1980. Secretary of state 77-80 under carter. Under carter, pushed for negotiation and economic ties with the soviet union. Worked on SALT II, saw this as the central diplomatic issue of the time.
1977-1979. as congressman he supported encouraging portugal to let go of african colonies and opposed the vietnam war. Ambassador to the UN from 77 - 79. The andy young affair: the UN section for palestinian rights wanted to create a palestinian state, but Young wanted to put this off for a little until the administration had less to deal with, so he met with the palestinian liberation organization. The US had promised not to meet with them until they recognized israel as a state and the meeting was publicized, and young was asked to resign.
1977-1981. National security advisor to Carter from 1977-1981. Emphasized human rights as a way of putting the soviet union on ideological defensive. Involved in the normalization of relations with china. Involved in SALT II negotiations. Involved in transition of iran from ally to western hating foe. And the armament of the mujahadeen when soviets intervened in afghanistan.
Committee on the Present Danger
DATE . the goal of the committee is to lobby the government to take necessary action to counter what the committee sees as a percieved threat to the united states and its sphere of influence. Lobbyed against detente and SALT II.
1973. A group with the goal of increasing cooperation between the US, europe, and Japan, the three most advanced economies at the time (founded in 1973). Zbigniew Brzezinski left his post in the government to join this group. Critisized for possibly trying to beome an economic group that could be more powerful than governments.
Camp David Accords
1978. Signed by Egyptian president Sadat and Israeli PM Begin. The second treaty directly led to the
egypt israeli peace treaty. Arabs recognized the israeli right to peaceful existence and israel gave back the sinai peninsula which it got in the 6 day war. Cyrus Vance played a large role in the accords. Led to the assassination of Sadat by extremists. Demonstrated that Arab - israeli negotiations were possible.
1970-1981. President of egypt from 1970-1981 when he was assassinated. Close confidant to Nasser, Changed egypts political landscape, returning to a multi-party system. Led egypt in the yom kippur war which ended with the camp david accords getting back the sinai peninsula for egypt which made him a hero.. This also came with a peace treaty with israel which led to his assassination.
1977-1983. Israeli Prime minister from 1977-1983. Signed the peace treaty with egypt in 1979 which was his biggest achievement, won the nobel peace prize with Sadat.
Panama Canal Treaty
1977; effective 1999. signed by the US and Panama in 1977, it guaranteed that panama would take control of the canal in 1999. Also called the Torrijos-Carter Treaties. Some criticize it as giving up a valuable strategic asset.
1979-1989. Leader of Iran from 1979-1989. Supported the terrorists in the iranian hostage situations. Called the US the "great satan"
1979. The 1979 overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty which the US supported by Ayatollah Khomeini. Replaced a pro-western monarchy with an anti-western theocracy.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
1979-1981. Diplomatic crisis between iran and the US, more than 60 US diplomats were held hostage for 444 days. Seen in the US as terrorism but in Iran as a blow against the influence of the US especially a US that had been against the revolution and supported the previous shah, who was a monarch. The ayatollah was complicit in this crisis. The hostages were only released after long negotiations.
SALT II (Strategic Arms Limitation TALKS)
1972-1979. Series of talks between the US and USSR between 1972 -1979. Treaty that effectively reduced the arms capabilities of both parties. The treaty WAS a big step forward in cold war relations but 6 months after, the soviet union invaded afghanistan and the US discovered a soviet brigade in cuba, so the treaty was never ratified, that was a step backwards in cold war relations.
1980. announced in 1980. Stated that the US would use military force if necessary to defend its interest in the persian gulf. It was a response to the soviet invasion of afghanistan in 1979.
1980. A nuclear weapons employment policy signed by Carter in1980 that gave presidents more flexibility when executing a nuclear attack/war. Included majorly increased spending and assessed the fact that the US could not rely entirely on MAD. Changed strategy from all out nuclear destruction to more strategic and nuanced.
1981. The term given to the american proposal for the withdrawal of all US and soviet intermediate range nuclear missiles from europe. The term was eventually expanded to include the elimination of all nuclear weapons. Proposed originally by reagan in 1981. Represents vision of ideal disarmament.
1981-1982. Secretary of state for Reagan 1981-1982. Seems pretty unimportant????
1981-1987. US secretary of defense under Reagan from 1981-1987. Took a lead roll in implementing rollback against the soviet union. Believed the soviet union still posed a legit threat and that the military of the US needed to be strengthened. Strengthened the Military. Distrustful of the soviet union in general. Because of the US increased military spending (backed by Caspar) the soviets also increased defense spending which they could not afford to do, this partially led to the downfall of the USSR.
1982-1989. Secretary of state under reagan from 1982-1989. Seen as one of the best secretaries of the century. Encouraged Reagan to have communication with gorbachev once he came to power, this eventually led to intermediate range nuclear forces treaty, eliminating a whole class of missiles from europe, this was a milestone in the cold war. Worked to maintain western unity in the late 70s early 80s when the US imposed sanctions on the USSR that hurt other western countries' interests.
"The Day After"
1983. movie released in 1983. Based on a hypothetical war between NATO and the Warsaw Pact that escalates to nuclear war between the US and USSR. Suggested that MAD would lead to war and nuclear fallout. The movie influenced policy makers, including Reagan to pursue disarmament, and Reagan claimed that the movie directly influenced the intermediate range nuclear forces treaty.
Strategic Defense Initiative
DATE . Reagan was a critic of the offense strategic doctrine of MAD, and SDI was a defensive strategic alternative doctrine. Nicknamed "star wars" it focused on land and space based defense systems for incoming missiles, never fully worked but it represented reagans goal of decreasing arms pileups. SDI was criticized for potentially disrupting MAD, which had worked thus far.
Operation Abel Archer (able archer 83?)
1983. was a 10 day NATO exercise simulating a DEFCON 1 full on nuclear attack in 1983. Because of the realistic nature of the exercise, the USSR thought it might be a ruse for an actual nuclear first strike, so they were on nuclear high alert during the exercise. Temporarily increased cold war tensions and brought the powers close to nuclear war.
1982-1984. Term to describe 3 US amendments between 1982 -1984. All were aimed to limit US assistance to the contra in Nicaragua. Prevented the US from giving assistance to the Contras for the purpose of overthrowing the Socialist nicaraguan government, but they could give assistance for other purposes. The most important effect of this was the Iran - contra affair in which the US circumvented the Amendment.
early 80's -1991. Strategy of the Reagan administration to overwhelm the global influence of the USSR in the final years of the Cold War. centerpiece of US foreign policy in this time period. The united states was to provide overt and and covert aid to anti-communist guerilla and resistance groups in an effort to roll back soviet backed governments in Africa, asia, and latin america to diminish the USSR's global influence. The reagan doctrine was very effective in hurting global communist efforts, for example : Nicaragua, afghanistan, and angola and cambodia. Some say it laid the ground for the dissolution of the soviet union, including the USSR's first major military defeat in Afghanistan.
1983. coup occured backed by the united states and executed previous leader Maurice Bishop. Bishop had supported the USSR and Cuba but the leader after the coup Bernard Coard, was strongly communist. This worried the US so the US invaded in 1983 and replaced the government with a pro western one. This was seen as a clear violation of international law by every state in the UN except for the US, and the US vetoed the movement against them.
1985-1991. Leader of soviet union from 1985 -1991 when the USSR dissolved. Gorbachev's policies of Glasnost (openness to the US and the West) and Perestroika (liberal restructuring of the state) were key in ending the cold war. Advocated widespread social and economic reform to help the stalled soviet economy. Improved relations and trading with the west, greatly reduced cold war tensions. Initiated talks that led to the intermediate range nuclear forces treaty (1987). Abandoned the Brezhnev doctrine and essentially said that states in the eastern bloc could determine their own internal affairs.
1987. agreement between USSR and USA to eliminate an entire category of nuclear weapons. Was the first time the two powers had agreed to decrease their current arsenals. Eliminated intermediate range ground based missiles, did not cover sea based launches. Agreed to extensive on site inspection for verification.
1985-1987. US political scandal in the Reagan administration 1985-1987. Senior official secretly allowed the sale of arms to Iran, even though we had placed an embargo on them, and the officials hoped to use the money to fund the contras in nicaragua, which was in violation of the Boland Amendment. The sale was to take place using israel as an intermediary. Caused a drop in reagans domestic popularity and his international credibility.