Terms in this set (135)

A term used to describe a host of phenomena related to how crime shows are influencing the legal process.
Reoccurring themes:
The quality of scientific evidence is far superior to non-scientific evidence
Viewers leave with the notion "science will lead us to the truthThe CSI Effect is typically described in 4 different ways:
1) Jurors are more likely to acquit defendants if they are fans of CSI
2) Legal professionals have changed their behavior in order to deal with these perceived changes in juror behaviour,
3) Television crime dramas have peaked student interest in topics related to forensic science, and
4) Criminals are learning ways to avoid capture by watching these shows.
Legal System: Intuitive assumptions:
A 2005 survey of 102 Arizona prosecutors found that:
38%: They had lost a case because of the CSI effect;
45%: Jurors relied on scientific evidence more than they should; and
72%: CSI fans exerted undue influence on other jurors.
Approaches prosecutors had taken to reduce the CSI effect:
70% asked jurors about television viewing habits,
90% took the time to explain police procedures to jurors,
52% plea bargained cases when they anticipated their evidence was insufficient to overcome the CSI effect, and
83% felt judicial instructions (i.e., instructions provided by the judge to the jury before deliberations take place) would be appropriate.
Unclear: Trial outcome - TV drama connection.
CSI effect underestimated: lawyer intervention may not be effective at eliminating bias.
CSI effect overestimated: lawyer intervention may bias outcome
Additional research in this area is required before meaningful interventions can be developed.
Organized: Little evidence and crime scene appears less chaotic.
Organized = Psychopathic
The perp is assumed to be aware of, and understand the nature and quality of their behaviour
This is demonstrated by an orderly crime scene
Disorganized: Messy crime scene with a lot of physical evidence
Disorganized = Psychotic
Suffering from a mental illness that afflicts the perp with a psychosis.
This is evidenced by a deterioration of normal intellectual and social functioning and by a partial or complete withdrawal from reality.
Crime Scene Characteristics
Victim = stranger
Personalizes victim
Controlled conversation
Body hidden
Restraints used
Offender Characteristics
Socially competent
Sexually competent
Living with a partner
Use of alcohol during the crime
Inconsistent childhood discipline
Crime Scene Characteristics
Victim or location = known
Depersonalization of victim
Minimal conversation
Body left in view
Minimal use of restraints
Offender Characteristics
Socially inadequate
Sexually incompetent
Living alone
Minimal use of alcohol
Harsh discipline as a child
Below average intelligence
False dichotomy. Why?
1) Most crimes scenes are on a continuum
Investigators may try label them one or the other.
2) Crime scene is a series of dynamic events, it cannot be interpreted at a glance by an untrained professional.
3) There are many reasons why a crime scene may be disorganized:
Angry retaliatory offenders do not suffer from any mental illness
Domestic violence offences
Staged offences
Interrupted offences
Offences involving controlled substances.
False dichotomy Cont.
4) Psychopathy is a very specific disorder not all organized criminals are going to be psychopathic.
5) Some offenders become more organized over time while others become less so
6) Only considers MO issues and may ignore signature type behaviours.
7) Ethical consideration, diagnosing an offender without interviews etc.
Deductive Criminal Profile: A set of offender characteristics that are reasoned from the convergence of physical and behavioral evidence patterns within a crime or a series of related crimes.
Also called "Behavioral Evidence Analysis"
Appropriate Deductive Reasoning:
The offender disposed of his victim's body in a remote area of the mountains.
Tire tracks were found at the disposal site.
Conclusion: If the tire tracks belong to the offender, then the offender has access to a vehicle and is mobile.
Convergence of the physical (tire tracks) and behavioral (remote area for disposal) to obtain a specific conclusion.
Information used to support a Deductive Profile:
Forensic and Behavioural Evidence
Crime Scene Characteristics
Information used to support a Deductive Profile:
Forensic and Behavioural Evidence
The victim and offender behaviour that is going to be used must be established by reputable sources.
E.g., physical evidence, witness statements, and/or corroboration of the two
Forensic and Behavioural Evidence
Def: The study and analysis of victim characteristics
E.g., who they were, how they spent their time etc.
Victim info can lead to inferences about the offenders motive, MO, and determination of offender fantasy behaviours
Risk assessment: how much risk was the victim in daily? how much risk did the perpetrator take to acquiring them?
Almost as much time is spent profiling each victim as the offender.
Information used to support a Deductive Profile:
Forensic and Behavioural Evidence
Crime Scene Characteristics:
Determined from victimology & forensic evidence
Establishes: method of attack, method of approach, method of control, location type, nature and sequence of sexual acts, materials used, any verbal activity, and precautionary acts.
Help profiler discriminate btwn modus operandi and signature behaviours.