20th Century

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Woodrow Wilson
-President in 1912
-Tried to keep the US out of World War 1
-Created the League of Nations which later became the United Nations
Harry Flood Byrd, Sr
-Virginia governor in 1926
-Created Pay as you Go plan so that they would
not borrow money.
-led the Massive Resistance Movement in Virginia
-did not want blacks and whites to go to the same schools
Pay as you Go Plan
State would only build roads that it
could pay for (without borrowing)
suffragist
Person working to win the right to
vote
Great Depression
-Began in 1929
-People lost jobs.
-Virginia did not owe much money
because of pay as you go plan.
-Virginia survived the Depression because it had
many industries (coal, shipbuilding, farming)
desegregation
1954 - Schools could no longer
separate people by race.
Massive Resistance
A big fight or resistance against
school integration.
Integration
Means that all people need to be
included.
Civil Rights Act
1964- US Congress passed this act
that ended legal segregation and allowed
for equality of all people in public
facilities.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr
Leader in the civil rights movement of
the 1960s
Douglas Wilder
1970 - First African American
Virginia state senator.
1989- first African American governor of
a state.
Arthur Ashe
-First African American man to win a
major tennis championship
- author
-civil rights spokesperson
Legislative Branch of Virginia
General Assembly (state senate and
house of delegates) - makes laws and
raises money from taxes.
Executive Branch of Virginia
Governor - carries out the laws and
creates the state budget
Judicial Branch of Virginia
Court system - Decides questions
about the laws (supreme court, court of
appeals and circuit courts)
Income Tax
Tax that Virginians pay of what they
earn (from their job)
Property Tax
Tax that you pay on what you own
(homes and land). This tax pays for
public schools.
manufacture
To make something especially by
machine.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954- US Supreme Court ruling that
"separate but equal" went against the US
Constitution
sales tax
Tax on what you buy
Maggie L Walker
-first African American woman to become a bank president
Oliver Hill
-African American Lawyer
-part of a team who helped win Brown v. Board of Education
-fought for civil rights
Linwood Holton Jr.
-White Virginian
-governor of Virginia in 1970
-fought for equal rights
Appalachian Plateau
-product: coal
-industry: coal mining
Valley and Ridge
-products: poultry, apples, dairy, beef
-industry: farming
poultry
chickens and turkeys
Blue Ridge Mountains
-products: apples and other fruits
-industries: recreation, farming
recreation
activities done for enjoyment
Piedmont
-products: tobacco products, information technology
-industries: government, farming, horse industry
Coastal Plain (Tidewater)
-products: seafood, peanuts
-industries: shipbuilding, military bases, tourism
tourism
the commercial organization and operation of vacations and visits to places of interest