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Arts and Humanities
Baylor Dr. English Speech Exam 2 backup
Terms in this set (47)
Reasons to study Delivery (5 reasons)
1. It helps us understand accidental communication.
-There can be a conflicting meaning between the content of the speech and the tone of the speaker.
2. It makes a difference in the way the audience receives the message.
3. It can have an impact on the audience's attitude.
-Trying to change the attitude of the audience by persuasion. Needs to be strong content with good delivery.
4. Enhances the audience's understanding.
-We would prefer being subjected to good delivery than poor delivery
5. Enhances the speaker's ethos.
-The image of what the speaker holds of the audience. High Ethos = Good Delivery.
Discuss the effect of delivery on attitude change.
(You have the Speech and the Speaker)
-POOR content expressed with POOR delivery skills results in NO attitude change.
-POOR content expressed with GOOD delivery skills results in NO good attitude change.
-GOOD content expressed with POOR delivery skills results in NO good attitude change.
-GOOD content expressed with GOOD delivery skills is the ONLY scenario that shows the audience moving their attention in the direction of the speaker
Nature of Good Delivery
Define: This can't be defined but it does have 2 characteristics.
Naturalness- be yourself. No behaviors that attract attention to themselves.
Good Conversational Quality- More people are conversationalists. (3 parts)
(1) Wording at the moment of utterance
(2) Maintain Eye Contact
(3) Genuine desire to communicate. Focused on the thought, not the word.
Four Elements of Good Delivery
1. Eye Contact
-It is critical for the speaker to look at the audience while speaking
2. Effective use of Voice
-The voice enables us to effectively communicate by using a combination of: Volume, Rate, Pitch, Pronunciation, Fluency, and The Pause.
3. Effective use of Bodily Action
-We use a combination of Posture, Movement, Hand Gestures, and Facial Expressions to help us communicate with the audience.
-The spice of Good Delivery.
-Change in movement, facial expression, rate, pitch, etc.
Primary element in establishing good delivery?
Attitude Change- the speaker needs to think about the audience rather than himself or herself. The speaker can either think about (1) himself or herself (2) the audience.
William James' theory of persuasion (6 points)
1. Show significance
-Tell the audience WHY it is important to them.
2. Shock them
-They will sit down and pay attention.
3. Make use of conflict
-If there is no controversy, there is no reason to speak.
4. Arouse curiosity
-Talk about the subject/object/person before revealing the identity of that subject/object/person.
5. Make it easy to follow
-Make the speech flow smoothly.
6. Use variety
-Use a variety of support materials.
Is there enough evidence?
There should be enough evidence available to successfully persuade your audience about a certain message. (8 tests)
Is the evidence clear?
The evidence should be used in a way that the audience can easily follow and understand. (8 tests)
Is the source of the evidence credible?
Can we trust this source, could it be misleading? (8 tests)
Is the source of the evidence competent?
The source must have credibility from past experiences or uses. (8 tests)
Is the source of the evidence non-prejudice?
Is the evidence unbiased in it's information? (8 tests)
Is the source statistically sound?
Statistics don't lie, but people do. Do the statistics involved with proving a proposition make sense, and are they correct? (8 tests)
Is it an index of what we want to know?
The information of the evidence must be relevant to the central idea of the presentation. (8 tests)
Is it the most recent evidence available?
Is this the most up-to-date evidence? Some pieces of evidence are outdated because there has been more recent additions and definitions of a certain topic. (8 tests)
Causal Reasoning (4 tests)
Define: a certain force is a factor that is capable of producing something else on effect.
-Is the cause capable of producing its effect?
-Is this the distinguishing causal factor?
-Is it probable that no undesirable effect will take place?
4. Good/Bad Effects
-Are the other bad effects going to affect the good effect? (Ex. If you sit next to someone who gets a 100 on a test and you decide to copy. What is you get caught?)
Effect of Good Delivery on Attitude Change
Good delivery does not cause the audience's attitude to change. However, that does not mean that it doesn't affect it.
Problem, Cause, and Solution
-Ingredients of the Persuasion Process
-When a problem is first addressed, there are 2 things the speaker needs to know about it: What is the cause? and What is the solution?
-In the persuasion process, the speaker needs to address the cause of the problem, then successfully demonstrate a good solution of this problem to the audience.
The faculty of discovering in any given case the available means of persuasion and choosing the best means for a given audience.
Reasoning by Example
Define: Offering instances by which we can draw conclusions.
Question 1: Are there enough examples?
Question 2: Are the examples typical?
Question 3: Are negative examples non-critical?
Question 4: Do the examples cover a critical period of time?
"Effective use of the Body" (4 items)
Posture: Standing up straight and looking presentable to the audience is important.
Motion: The speaker must not move in a way that distracts the audience from the main idea. (Swaying side to side)
Hand Gestures: the speaker should use hand gestures that emphasize the point he or she is trying to make.
Facial Expression: The speaker should show interest through facial expressions. (Don't look bored)
How others perceive your character. Even though the audience's perception of your character may not be correct, it is all that matters.
Perceptions change. The perception and attitude of the audience can change according to how effectively the speaker is persuading them.
The speaker chooses how the audience perceives him/her. It is up to the speaker how the audience perceives his character. Information controls ethos.
3 Sources of Ethos
1. Beforehand knowledge of the speaker
2. Knowledge learned while the speaker is speaking.
3. Based on the proposed information.
3 Components of Ethos
Controls a tension and determines action. You want the audience to change something.
What is reasoning?
Inferring conclusions from premises.
Volume is how loud or softly the speaker talks. YOu want to be loud enough that the audience can clearly hear you, but not obnoxiously loud.
The speed at which the speaker speaks. You want the audience to follow what you are saying, so you need to speak slow enough to where the audience can understand you, but quick enough to where they don't get bored.
Different pitches (highness/lowness) can give different meanings to the same sentence. Be careful when you use pitch.
The manner in which the speaker says each word. Say all words without over/under emphasizing them.
This is how fluidly the speaker gives the speech. The speech should flow and not be choppy.
The speaker should put pauses in their speech to emphasize points or allow the audience a mental catch-up.
Tone, voice, and/or bodily action is not coordinated with the message
(ETHos - ETHical)
Character proof; the audience's perception of the speaker's character
(LOGos - LOGical)
Logical Proof; the use of evidence and reasoning to convince your hearer/audience.
(PATHos - emPATHy)
Emotional Proof; trying to get the audience to identify your issue by hitting on their emotions.
Begins with specific instances then uses those instances to make a generalization.
Begins with a generalization and uses that generalization to describe a specific instance
Can be Facts, Opinions, Statistics, etc.
Written by Aristotle, First full systematic treatment of discipline of communication.
Reasoning by Analogy
Comparison type of reasoning; What is true in one case will be true in another.
Syllogism (3 parts)
A systematic arrangement of arguing consisting of:
1. Major Premise (generalization)
2. Minor Premise (specific)
3. Conclusion (necessity must follow)
Reasoning by Sign
Inferring relationships or correlations between 2 variables and arguing that the 2 variables are so interrelated, that the presence/absence of one means the presence/absence of the other respectively.
a syllogism that deals with probability rather than certainty.
7 categories the speaker should evaluate in examining a perspective audience.
1. Educational Level
2. Religious Affiliation
6. Location of country they are from
7. Interest outside profession
8 kinds of support materials
5. Expert testimony
6. Personal Opinion
7. Anything else that generates proof in audiences
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