AP Human Geography: Unit 2


Terms in this set (...)

climate (physical factors affecting population distribution)
weather has to be reasonable if people are going to live there
landforms (physical factors affecting population distribution)
people tend to live in flatter areas
bodies of water (physical factors affecting population distribution)
people tend to live near the coast
culture (human factors affecting population distribution)
people move to where they have kinship or cultural links
economy (human factors affecting population distribution)
people move for economic opportunities
history (human factors affecting population distribution)
historical migration patterns affect population distribution
politics (human factors affecting population distribution)
people move due to political unrest
migration (human factors affecting population distribution)
migration patterns have affected population distribution; example: movement from rural areas to urban areas
population density
the number of people in relation to the space they occupy
the portion of the earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlements; it is the inhabitable portion of the earth
carrying capacity
the population that can be adequately supported by the available resources upon which that population subsists
arable land
the land suitable for growing crops
arithmetic population density
the number of people per unit area of land
physiological population density
the number of people per unit area of agriculturally productive land
political processes
population density can affect redistricting, school zones, and voting blocks
sometimes districts need to be redrawn ti reflect population changes
school zones
due to changes in the population of children under 18, these zones may need to be created
economic processes
rural and agricultural economic processes are seen with low population densities; service and business economic activities are seen in high population densities
social processes
population densities can affect social processes; communities, relationships, and family sizes are different for each population size
the study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, or the incidence of disease, which illustrate the changing structure of human populations
an official count or survey of a population, typically recording various details of individuals
demographic equation
total population = original population + births - deaths + immigration - emigration

total population = birth rate/death rate + in-migration/out-migration
zero population growth
when the population does not grow at all (never really happens)
population pyramids
shows level of development, probable development indicators, population growth rate, life expectancy, percentage of population by age and sex, and dependency ratio
developed countries
cylinder shaped population pyramid, population fairly constant until old age

high literacy rate, high life expectancy, low infant mortality rate, high per capita income, low birth rate and death rate, low fertility rate, high education levels of women
newly industrializing countries
beehive shaped population pyramid; stage 3 in the demographic transition model

higher literacy rate, higher life expectancy, lower infant mortality rate, higher per capita income, lower birth rate and death rate, lower fertility rate, higher education levels of women
developing countries
population pyramids for this type of country have a wide base, a large percentage of the population entering reproductive years, few old people, high birth rates, and stage 2 in the demographic transition model

low literacy rate, low life expectancy, high infant mortality rate, low per capita income, high birth rate and death rate, high fertility rate, low education levels of women
age and sex structure
on a population pyramid, the ages go up the middle and sexes on the left and right
bar for the age on the population pyramid
when population exceeds the carrying capacity
population well below carrying capacity
total fertility rate
average number of kids born to a woman during her childbearing years
replacement fertility rate
total number of deaths subtracted from the total number births
crude birth rate
number of live births per 1000 people per year in a given area
infant mortality rate
number of kids (ages 0-1) that die per 1000 people per year in a given area
child mortality rate
number of kids under five who die per 1000 people per year in a given area
crude death rate
total number of deaths per 1000 people per year in a given area
life expectancy
how long the people in a population are expected to live
rate of natural increase
crude death rate subtracted from the crude birth rate
doubling time
the time it takes for the population to double
stationary population levels
population that remains fairly stable
demographic transition model
stage one: the birth and death rates are both high and the population grows slowly

stage two: the death rate drops and the birth rate remains high; results in a rapid population growth

stage three: birth rates decline and population growth is less rapid

stage four: birth and death rates are both low; low rate of natural increase

stage five: negative growth; birth rate falls below death rate
exceptions to the demographic transition model
russia's population sink
russia is an exception to the 5th stage in the DTM even though it has a higher birth rate than death rate; this is caused by economic uncertainty, decline in health of population, and environmental issues
epidemiologic transition
a model attempting to show the relationship between types of diseases most present in a population compared to levels of development; in less developed countries at the early stages of the epidemiological transition, communicable diseases are great contributors to the mortality rate; as countries become more developed and reach the later stages of the epidemiologic transition, noncommunicable diseases are more responisble for deaths
thomas malthus
this man was an anglican priest who wrote "An Essay on the Principle of Population"; he stated that exponential population growth would outpace the food supply, which grows arithmetically and that population growth is halted by hunger and rising death rates among the poorer classes
someone who shares the views of Malthus; they predict a population doomsday
believe that people will find a way o solve the problem; they do not believe in a population doomsday
club of rome
used computer simulations to make predictions; published "The Limits to Growth"; stated that increased pollution and decreased resources will lead to a collapse of population in the mid-21st century
the limits to growth
the study estimated that if people continued to consume more than nature was capable of providing then global economic collapse and population collapse would occur by 2050
paul ehrlich (population bomb)
was a US ecologist that wrote the book titled "The Population Bomb"; it stated that the population explosion threatens the environment; overpopulation will cause hundreds of millions to starve to death; he was a neo-malthusian
frances moore lappe
was a social activist who wrote "Diet for a Small Planet"; it focused on the fact that socio-economic factors that lead people to have larger families; socio-economic advances lead to reduced population growth rates
ester boserup
was a cornucopian; stated that population growth drives technological advances; in turn, these advances raise food production and improve economic development
julian simon
was a conservative economist; stated that population growth can lead to increased productivity (more people to think, work, and support economic growth); people are the ultimate resource
pronatal policies
policies that encourage people to have babies; baby bonuses, parental leave, affordable child care, etc
antinatal policies
policies that discourage babies; used as a means to control population; eugenics, forced sterilization,
the idea of improving human populations through selective breeding or sterilization
educated women in india; provided access to birth control, reverse dowry, and encouraged women in the workforce; resulted in an 88% literacy rate and decreased birth rate
china's one child policy
began in the 1970s and restricted couples to one child; financial punishment and loss of privileges for noncompliance; though it was successful, it also resulted in increased abortion rates, female infanticide, abandoned girls, and too many males; now couples can have two children if they were both only children themselves
gender issues
gender inequality, uneven male/female populations, favoring one sex over another; discrimination against a sex
population conferences
core countries blamed periphery for "population bomb" and periphery wants help from core to boost development
due to the industrial revolution and the advancements of modern medicine, the population rapidly grew in a j-shaped exponential curve
when the population reaches its carrying capacity, the population must stabilize (level out) as there will be a lack of resources; starts of as a j-curve then flattens out to make it look s-shaped (logistical growth)
demographic momentum
the phenomenon of continued large population increase despite reduced reproductive rates; even in the face of extreme measures aimed at lowering reproductive rates, the population grows due to a large number of the population entering reproductive years
education (rapid population growth)
families with many children might not have the resources to send all of their children to school; children might be needed to earn wages or a boy might be chosen over a girl to go to school as the boy will be seen as having a better potential as a wage earner
health care (rapid population growth)
health care would reduce infant mortality rate which would then decrease birth rates; this would also lead to a decrease in death rates
employment (rapid population growth)
if there are a large number of children, there could be a shortage of teachers; if the population gets too high, there will not be enough jobs for everyone
culture (rapid population growth)
in some cultures, the only purpose of women is to supply a child; this fact increases the birth rates and thus the population
population explosion
the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase
ravenstein's laws of migration
~the majority of migrants travel only a short distance
~migration proceeds step by step
~migrants going long distances generally go to one of the great centers of commerce or industry
~each current of migration produces a compensating counter-current
~the natives of towns are less migratory than those of rural areas
~females are more migratory than males within their country of birth, but males more frequently venture beyond
~most migrants are adults; families rarely migrate out of their country of birth
~large towns grow more by migration than by natural increase
~migration increases in volume as industries and commerce develop and transport improve
~the major direction of migration is from agricultural areas to centers of industry and commerce
~the major causes of migration are economic
a person who moves out of a country
a person who moves into a country
guest worker
legal immigrant who has a work visa, usually short term
push factors
events or conditions that impel an individual to move from a location
cultural (push factors)
religious conflicts that cause individuals to move
demographic (push factors)
too many people that could limit access to opportunities that cause people to move
economic (push factors)
lack of jobs and economic opportunity that cause people to move
environmental (push factors)
unfavorable environmental conditions that cause people to move (the dust bowl, natural disasters)
political (push factors)
oppressive governments, armed conflict, and civil war that cause people to move
pull factors
forces of attraction that influence migrants to move to a particular location
cultural (pull factors)
religious freedoms, similar ethnic groups, education, and entertainment
demographic (pull factors)
people move to areas of less population for more opportunities
economic (pull factors)
new job opportunity
environmental (pull factors)
favorable climate
political (pull factors)
political freedom and a stable government
the railroad made it easier to access the wester US easier than ever, affordable cars and the building of the interstate highway system allowed people to live in suburbs and commute to work, digital infrastructure has created the possibility of foot loose industries
the long-term relocation of an individual, household, or larger group to a new locale outside the community of origin
internal migration
the moves people make within a particular country or region
transnational migration
migration across national or political borders aka moving from one country to another
the gravity model
this model measures the interactions of places; it states that spatial interactions (such as migration) are directly related to the populations and inversely related to the distance between them; in regards to migration the number of migrants declines as the distance they must travel increases; "everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things"
distance decay
people tend to move to closer more familiar locations
life cycle of migration
the elderly and families with young children are less likely to move while single people in their 20s are more likely to move
labor flows
guest workers typically move to more developed countries
intervening opportunities
closer opportunities will reduce the attractiveness of interaction with more distant (even slightly better) alternatives
counter migration
the return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated; every migration flow generates some return migration
cyclical movement
movement with a closed route; activity space, commuting, nomadism
activity space
the area which you go about your daily routine
pastoral nomadism
the practice of moving animals to water sources and pastures; purposeful and takes place along long-familiar routes
periodic movement
does not necessarily involve returning to the same place; takes place over a longer period of time away from the home base (college, military service, migrant labor)
seasonal movement
moving based on the seasons (snowbirds, agricultural workers, etc)
the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture
voluntary migration
migration which has an element of choice based on some perceived opportunity
chain migration/kinship links
a series of migrations within a family or defined group of people; often begins with one family member who then sends money to bring other family members over to the new location; there must be some reverse communication because of chain migration you see spatial phenomena such as chinatown and little italy in new york city
money sent back by a worker in a different country to family and friends in their home country
step migration
an eventual long-distance migration undertaken in stages (farm to village to small town to city)
rural to urban migration
movement from the countryside to cities
forced migration
in this type of migration, the element of choice is removed (trail of tears, slave trade)
a person who has a well founded fear of being persecuted for reason of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; once people are given a refugee status, assistance must be given
impelled migration
when individuals leave a country because of unfavorable situations; although migration is not forced, if they do not leave, the outcome would not be good
internally displaced person
people displaced in their own country
asylum seeker
a person who claims to be a refugee, but their status has not yet been definitively evaluated
slave trade
Forced migration. Notice how many areas in the Western Hemisphere used slavery in addition to the US.
ireland to US 1800s (immigration waves to the USA)
the potato crop in ireland failed in the late 1940s due to a crop disease known as "potato blight"; the potato was the staple food crop of Ireland and the resulting Irish Potato Famine was catastrophic; many irish had two choices, stay in ireland and starve to death or emigrate; the US was the most popular choice for irish emigrants; the initial wave of irish immigrants in the late 1840s/early 1850s set firm footing for further chain migration
great migration (immigration waves in the USA)
after the civil war and emancipation, african americans moved to take advantage of industrial and manufacturing jobs in the major urban centers of the northeast and midwest; due to strict immigration quotas at the time, there was a significant labor shortage in these areas; racism, jim crow laws and the lack of economic opportunity after reconstruction were major push factors; major cities such as chicago, detroit, philadelphia, and new york city saw major demographic changes during this time period
vietnam to US 70s-90s (immigration waves to the USA)
1975 was the end of the Vietnam war as the communist Northern Vietnamese over ran the US-backed south of the country. the year after president carter raised the quota for immigrants fleeing communist countries resulted in about 95,000 Vietnamese refugees arriving in the US; the number of Vietnamese immigrants sharply increased after 1979, the year the quota was increased to 14,000 immigrants per month
south asia to US last 25 years (immigration waves to the USA)
immigration from south asia to the US is a more recent phenomena; large urban areas are attracting the most immigrants
hmong to US 70s-90s (immigration waves to the USA)
the first hmong immigrants came to the US as it became clear that the communist northern vietnamese were going to take over the country of vietnam towards the end of the vietnam conflict; many of the hmong supported anti-communist forces such as the USA and as such were subject to retaliation by the northern vietnamese; original plans by the US sought to settle the hmong through out the US, however the desire to be with family and friends was strong and most hmong gravitated towards central california, the upper midwest, and south carolina
northern africa to europe late 20th century
Like many migrations, Moroccans moved in search of jobs to the European country which colonized them (France colonized Morocco). As a residents of a French colony, Moroccan males were allowed to come to France to work and join the armed forces. During a post-WWII industrial boom, there was a labor shortage in Western Europe. European countries sought unskilled/low-wage laborers to fill jobs. Morocco was targeted as a country with just such a labor force.
middle east to europe (european emigration/immigration)
Both groups experienced a similar political push factor in the Iran/Iraq war during the 1980s. Men of fighting age and families with men that could be forced to fight were the most likely to migrate. Sweden opened her arms to Iranians during the Islamic Revolution in 1979 until the end of the Iran/Iraq conflict in the early 1990s. Dictator Saddam Hussein was hostile to minority Kurds and Sunnis encouraging their migration from Iraq. Iraqis did not emigrate to one single location but rather through out Western Europe.
former colonies (european emigration/immigration)
Colonialism not only stimulated more than 60 million Europeans to migrate overseas, it also brought millions of Asians, Africans and Amerindians to Europe. In the beginning, many of these immigrants came to Europe as slaves, but in the 20th century immigrants from Africa and Asia served as soldiers and contract laborers in the European armies during the two World Wars. In addition, the wave of decolonization after World War II stimulated millions of former European colonists as well as people of mixed descent and various colonial minority groups such as the Chinese to migrate to Europe in spite of the fact that the large majority of these migrants had never lived or visited there. Information taken from article by P. Emmer and L. Lucassen.
china diaspora (asian emigration/immigration)
The Chinese migrated to SE Asia to act as the middleman between European and SE Asians. Often the Chinese are the minority ethnic group in SE Asian countries (except for Singapore) yet are more economically successful than the local ethnic majority. This potentially leads to jealousy and conflict.
china rural to urban late 90s-00s (asian emigration/immigration)
The hukou system, introduced in the 1950s, labels people as rural or urban depending on the place of birth and family history. The hukou system also ties people's access to services provided by the govt to their residential status meaning that those in rural areas that moved to cities were not eligible for the same services as those labeled urban. When rural vs. urban labels were relaxed, tens of millions of migrant workers left the fields to work in factories, toil on building sites, serve in restaurants or clean homes, contributing to China's spectacular economic growth. Information published in The Guardian 7/31/14.
epidemic disease
this type of disease spreads over a large region
endemic disease
this type of disease prevails over a small area
pandemic disease
this disease spreads across the globe
contagious disease
this disease is spread from one person to another
hierarchical disease
this disease is spread from high density areas to low density areas (urban to rural)