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new MGMT 2103 Ch. 14 - Selection & Placement
Terms in this set (55)
The process of choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings.
Job analysis identifies required individual competencies (KSAs) for job success.
The degree to which individuals are matched to the culture and values of the organization.
The 5 Evaluation Selection Method Standards
- The degree to which a measure of physical or cognitive abilities or traits is free from random error (uses a correlation coefficient)
- consistent, dependable, stable
a measure of the degree to which 2 sets of numbers are related
perfect positive relationship
perfect negative relationship
Knowing how scores on the measure at one time relate to scores on the same measure at another time
The extent to which a performance measure assesses all and only the relevant aspects of job performance
Criterion related validation
A method of establishing validity of a personal selection method by showing a substantial correlation between test scores and job performance scores. Includes Predictive and concurrent validation.
Predictive validation steps
1. Measure all job applicants on attribute
2. hire applicants
4. measure new hire incumbents performance and obtain correlation between measurements. - - Comparing test scores of applicants to their actual performance.
concurrent validation steps
1. measure all current job incumbents on attribute
2. measure all current job incumbents performance
3. obtain correlation between these 2 sets of numbers
A test-validation strategy performed by demonstrating that the items, questions, or problems posed by a test are a representative sample of the kinds of situations or problems that occur on the job
- Achieved primarily through expert judgement
- Best for small samples
-Testing to see if they are able to do the content of the job
Degree to which the validity of a selection method established in one context extends to other contexts
3 contexts of generalizability
1. different situations (jobs/organizations)
2. different samples of people
3. different time periods
- The degree to which information provided by selection methods enhances the effectiveness of selecting personnel
- impacted by reliability, validity, and generalizabilty
All selection methods must conform to existing laws and legal precedents.
3 acts forming basis for majority of suites filed by job applicants
1. civil rights act of 1991 and 1964
2. age discrimination in employment act of 1967
3. americans with disabilities act of 1991
Civil Rights Act of 1991
Protects individuals from discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, and national origin.
3 differences of 1991 civil rights act from 1964 act
1. Establishes, employers' explicit obligation to establish neutral appearing selection method
2. allows a jury to decide damages
3. explicitly prohibits granting preferential treatment to minority groups.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
Law that prohibits discrimination to those over the age of 40 and outlaws almost all "mandatory retirement" programs
Americans with Disabilities Act
- Protects individuals with physical or mental disabilities.
- Requires REASONABLE accommodations and restricts pre-employment inquiries
- need not make accomadations that cause undue hardship
types of selection methods
2. honesty and drug tests
3. work samples
4. personality inventories
5. cognitive ability tests
6. physical ability tests
7. references and biographical data
- A dialogue initiated by one or more persons to gather information and evaluate the applicant's qualifications for employment.
- one of worst selection methods
- most common
- poor reliability and validity (r = .14 - .30)
increase an interviews utility
- Interviews should be structured, standardized, and focused on goals oriented to skills and observable behaviors.
- Interviewers should be able to quantitatively rate each interview.
- Interviewers should have a structured note-taking system that will aid recall to satisfying ratings.
Applicant dictates the interview and has maximum freedom, because the interviewer ask open-ended and follow-up questions. Has low validity
Completely controlled by the employer; less applicant flexibility; includes situational interviews (Ex. has a list of questions to ask)
Patterned Behavior Description interview
- An interview in which the applicant is asked questions about what he or she actually did in a given situation. Actually work incidents in the interviewee's past
- Twice as likely as nondirective to predict on the job performance.
Interview that focuses on the past experience of the applicant; extremely common in organizations
3-5 interviewers all ask questions and then compare ratings, multiple inputs, shorter decision time, better acceptance of decision.
Multiple interviewers interview the same person one right after the other then compare.
Intentions predict behavior; how you handle the situation is how you would actually do it.
The best predictor of future behavior is past behavior
Confronts applicants on specific issues, questions, or problems likely to arise on the job
- experienced based questions
- future oriented questions
future oriented questions
- motivating employees
- resolving conflict
- overcoming resistance to change
- applicant characteristics (race sex etc) and situational factors can influence interviewer perceptions
- interviewer training has been shown to drastically improve interviewer competence
Type of achievement test used to measure a person's level of understanding about a particular job (CPA exam, Civil Service test)
Require the applicant to perform tasks that are actually part of the work required on the job. (Ex. map reading test for a traffic controller)
Process not a place by which individuals are evaluated as they participate in a series of situations that resemble what they might need to handle on the job
Measures the changes in breathing, blood pressure and pulse of a person who is being questioned
good predictor of job performance and injury and accidents
An objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior that is used to gauge a person's KSA and other characteristics relative to other individuals (Use job analysis)
Abilities involving thinking, perception, memory, reasoning, verbal ability, mathematical ability, and expression of ideas
- many common tests available (wonderlic)
- general mental/cognitive ability is valid for most jobs (r > .50)
- most show adverse impact
cognitive ability test
differentiates individuals based on mental rather than physical capacities
3 commonly assessed abilities
1. verbal comprehension
2. quantitative ability
3. reasoning ability
A person's capacity to understand and use written and spoken language
Speed and accuracy with which one can solve arithmetic problems
A person's capacity to invent solutions to diverse problems
physical ability tests
1. is physical ability essential to perform job?
2. is it mentioned prominently enough in the job description
Big 5 dimensions of personality inventories
Cognitive ability test
Differentiates individuals based on mental rather than physical capacities.
Categorize individuals by personality characteristics
1. self awareness
2. self regulation
4. self motivation
5. social skills
Work sample tests
Attempt to simulate the job in a pre-hiring context to observe how the applicant performs.
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