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go through and edit - western civilization
Terms in this set (989)
Kings ruling after Clovis who were so caught up in fighting that the nobles gained control
"Lives of the Artists"
Early history of art written by Giorgio Vasari
"Moreover, I think Carthage must be destroyed." was said by whom?
Cato the Elder, to win support for the Third Punic War
Written by Cato the Elder about how to run a country estate
"Oration on the Dignity of Man"
Written by Pico della Mirandola (a student of Ficino); it is a classic statement of confidence in human reason and ability
"The Book of the Courtier"
By Baldassare Castiglione, outlining education and rules of etiquette that should be embodied by statesmen
"The City of God"
Written by St. Augustine of Hippo in response to pagans' claims that Christianity was to blame for the sacking of Rome. It was a theological interpretation of history, positing that there were only two cities: the City of God and the City of Satan, consisting of the followers of God and the non-followers, respectively.
Written by St. Augustine of Hippo, revealing his inner struggles before conversion to Christianity
"The Curse of Akkad"
A literary work in Sumer that blamed a climate change on the gods
Nickname given to Aristotle during Medieval Ages because he taught every subject comprehensively, unlike Plato, who lost favor because he only wrote on a few select topics
1st Intermediate Period
Period in Egypt in which Egypt was divided into Lower and Upper Egypt (9th-11th dynasties)
2nd Intermediate Period
During this period, Egypt was ruled by the Hyksos; (13th-17th dynasties)
Recent archeological studies show that there were at least _____ early civilizations.
Beginning of the Neolithic Period or "New Stone Age". Saw the adaptation of sedentary agriculture and the domestication of plants and animals.
Dynasty begun by Abul Abbas, who overthrew the worldly Umayyads, set up the capital in Baghdad, converted most of the Near East and North Africa to Islam, and had many ancient works translated into Arabic
Head of Benedictine monasteries who had absolute power
First caliph who put down revolts
This league began in the south after Alexander the Great's death
The Persian Empire established by Cyrus the Great
Act of Uniformity
Passed by Parliament to establish the Anglican Church's ceremonies and Book of Common Prayer
1723-1790 (Scottish Enlightenment thinker) wrote
The Wealth of Nations
which promoted a laissez-faire approach to economics, he thought that the "invisible hand" would shape the economy for the good of all who pursued their own self-interest (which requires you to price things so people would want to buy them) which is the essence of capitalism
This low government position was filled by someone who organized public works
This league began in the north after Alexander the Great's death.
Famous tragedy writer; wrote "The Persians," "Prometheus Bound," and "Oresteia" trilogy. Focused on people who called down nemesis (divine punishment) upon themselves for their hubris (excessive pride); The plays of this Greek are profoundly moral and religious, focusing on pride for which individuals receive divine punishment. He wrote "The Persians", "Prometheus Bound", and "Oresteia"
Age of Discovery
staring in the late 15th century, the main countries which were succeeding in oversea explorations, colonies, and trade were Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, England, and France, these countries' influence in the Americas is still seen by the official languages which are spoken in the Americas
Marketplace in Sparta
Originally named Amenhotep IV; a monotheistic pharaoh who only worshiped the god Aten; Egyptian Pharaoh of the New Kingdom, attempted to reduce the power of the priests by establishing a monotheistic religion dedicated to Aten, the sun-god, replacing the tradition Egyptian pantheon of gods. He established himself as the sole priest of Aten. Relocated the capital to Amarna.
during the fourth millennium BC, these semi-nomadic people (who spoke a Semitic language) began to leave the deserts of west Mesopotamia and settle in the central region of the Tigris-Euphrates valley under the leadership of their king Sargon.
Albert the Great
Made careful observations of nature
Declared by Pope Innocent III against the Cathars; entire towns were destroyed, although most of the inhabitants were loyal Catholics. Cistercian abbot Arnaud Amaury was especially merciless.
Albrecht of Hohenzollern
Grand master of Teutonic Knights who became Lutheran and established a Prussian duchy; the Hohenzollern dynasty would unify Germany in the 1800s
Pericles' nephew who convinced Athens to invade Syracuse in Sicily, hoping to add Sicily and Italy to Athenian Empire. Invasion failed; This man convinced the Athenians, in 415 B.C., to attack Syracuse, an ally of the Spartans. Athens' attack failed and they never recovered.
During his rule, Novgorod became a dominant city-state; he halted the Teutonic Knights' eastward expansion at the Battle of Lake Peipus.
Alexander the Great (Hellenistic Age:)
(336-323 BC) was a youthful and energetic king who overthrew the Persians, unified the eastern Mediterraean and the Near East. He created the largest empire the world had yet seen before he reached the age of 33. He started out with only 35,000 men in 334 BC, and he outwitted and defeated much larger armies in three battles (Granicus River, Issus, and Gaugamela) until he finally assumed the title of the king of Persia in 328 BC. He pressed on and added to his empire Asian territories that Persia had not controlled, until his war-weary men mutinied on the borders of India. He then returned to Persia and adopted many Near Eastern customs and ruled like a Near Eastern tyrant. He died suddenly, of uncertain causes, in 323 BC.
Alexander the Great
Philip II of Macedonia was whose father?
Alexander the Great
This young man overthrew the Persians, unified the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East, and created the largest empire the world had yet seen before he reached the age of 33.
Emperor who asked the Church and Western Roman Empire to help him win against the Muslims, thus beginning the Crusades
Alexius I Comnenus
Byzantine emperor who asked western Europe for help against the Seljuk Turks
Alfarabi and Avicenna
Arab philosophers who influenced medieval scholarship
Alfonso de Aburquerque
Established the Portuguese trading posts that lay the foundation of the Portuguese Empire
Alfred the Great
The Kingdom of Wessex' greatest ruler; led resistance against the Danish Vikings in Danelaw
Moorish alcazar (palace) in Granada, Spain
Originally invented around 1400 BC in Ugarit, Syria; adapted by Phoenicians to use letters instead of cuneiform and reduced symbols from 30 to 22
Period in which the Egyptian capital was in Amarna and Akhenaton was king; artistic style was realistic
This successfully diplomatic Pharaoh of the New Kingdom avoided continued warfare, commissioned the construction of two huge temples in Nubia that were unusually dedicated to the gods of ancient Egypt, Chiefly Amen-Re, rather than to the Pharaoh and his queen. As the priests rose in power, he changed his devotion to another god Aten, an act that would have huge consequences after his death.
Italian who was the first to realize that Columbus had discovered a new world; claimed to have traveled there four times; America was named after him
(aka Old Babylonian Dynasty, because their capital was at Babylon which was along the Euphrates) They unified Mesopotamia for 300 years (c. 1900-1600 BC). Their greatest king was Hammurabi, who is famous for his code.
The principle god of Sumer
Despised by Catholics, Lutherans, and Zwinglians, this Protestant group required adult baptism.
Passive, Stable, Predictable, and Conformist are adjectives that the describe the _____________ people and explain why their civilization was able to survive for an extraordinary 3,000 years.
"Father of Anatomy"; Belgian/Flemish physician who dissected animals and humans to dispute the authority of Galen, publishing his findings in "On the Structure of the Human Body"
Angles, Saxons, and Jutes
Germanic tribes who eventually became one people; when the Britons needed protection from the Picts of Scotland, these tribes came to help the Britons, only to force them into Wales and claiming England for themselves.
Egyptian gods were often represented by ____________.
A religious outlook that see god in many aspects of nature and propitiates them to help control and explain nature; typical of Mesopotamian religions.
Anselm of Canterbury
Demonstrated how logic could prove God's existence; his method became a standard feature of scholasticism, which treated philosophy as theology's handmaiden.
Attributing human characteristics or qualities to non-humans, especially gods
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
"Father of Microbiology" who designed and built simple microscopes and observed protozoa
Fourth of the "Five Good Emperors"; constructed a fortification similar to Hadrian's Wall
Belief that the bishops in Rome were the successors of Peter, who was believed to the be the first bishop in Rome. They believed they had spiritual authority over the whole Church and called themselves "popes" (meaning "fathers).
Philosopher who had to defend himself against accusations of sorcery and wrote "The Golden Ass"
First common language used for trading amongst people of different groups, replaced Hebrew in religious texts, and was probably spoken by Jesus and his disciples.
It was here that Alexander the Great defeated Darius III of Persia and soon after became king of Persia.
Arch of Constantine
The largest triumphal arch in Rome, located near the Colosseum and built by Constantine.
Arch of Titus
A triumphal arch built by Domitian to honor Titus' capture of Jerusalem in AD 70; located in Rome.
Archaic (or Early Dynastic), Old Kingdom, First Intermediate Period, Middle Kingdom, Second Intermediate Period, and New Kingdom
The first 3,000 years of Egypt's history were broken into these periods, during which 31 royal families/dynasties ruled Egypt. Egyptian kings had the title "pharaoh" which meant "great house" (indicting the palace they lived in). Cleopatra was the last ruler of Egypt before the Romans incorporated it into their empire in 30 BC.
Archaic (or Early Dynastic)
the first two dynasties governed Egypt from about 3100 to 2700 BC, during which time they unified the Nile valley. Unlike the Tigris and the Euphrates, the Nile flooded predictably and gently (which was helpful for successful farming). Prosperity strengthened the pharaoh politically and religiously in the eyes of the people.
What Greek poet pioneered the poetic form writing lyrics?
Archimedes of Syracuse
Calculated the value of pi and developed a hand-cranked pump known as Archimedes' screw; This man calculated the value of "pi" and made major advanced in the study of physics (screw, pulley, lever)
Spartan or Athenian chiefs; nine were elected annually in Athens
Council of Nobles
"Virtue" in the sense of "manliness" - a trait Homer valued in his epics
Assyrian king who began the tradition of annual military campaigns against neighbors
Suggested the heliocentric theory - but his theory was rejected at the time;This man argued that the earth revolves around the sun and causes day/night by its rotation
Famous comedy writer; wrote "The Acharnians," "Lysistrata," "The Frogs," and "The Clouds," to ridicule fellow Athenians and the practice of war.; This pre-eminent writer of Greek comedies used his drama to ridicule his fellow Athenians. He wrote "The Acharnians" and "Lysistrata" as well as "The Frogs" and "The Clouds".
Plato's most gifted pupil who founded his own school in Athens, called the Lyceum. He formulated rules of logic that could be applied to any subject of study; Plato's pupil who founded a school called Lyceum; formed rules of logic; gave names to government forms; believed all objects were made of matter and form and set in motion by a Prime Mover.
Hurrian kingdom which eventually fell under the domain of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni
Mesopotamian ____ was designed to persuade the good divine elements to side with practitioners.
This king of Persia moved the capital to Babylon
This was the longest-reigning king in Persian history
First king of the Middle Assyrian Empire
The last great Assyrian monarch; built the first great library at Ninevah
Assembly of Centuries
This assembly would elect two consuls annually
Originally part of the Akkadian Empire who came to form their own Empire; first to use iron weapons extensively and first to rule both Nile and Tigris-Euphrates valleys
Egyptian sun-god that attained preeminence above other Egyptian deities. Briefly leading the Egyptians into monotheism prior to the reign of Tutankhamen which saw the restoration of the older religion and its promise of an afterlife.
When Athens came to rely upon the annual tributes paid to the Delian League, it completely took over the League, moved the treasury to Athens, and thus established this empire.
Located in the region of Greece known as Attica, this city was the only one to survive the Dorian migrations.
Sparta invaded this city, beginning the Peloponnesian War
"Scourge of God" who led the Huns; when he threatened to destroy Rome, Pope Leo I persuaded him not to, and he died the following year
Codification of Luther's beliefs, put together by Philip Melancthon
"Revered one"; title of deity
this began to take shape after the Treaty of Westphalia, it was unstable due to having many different ethnic and religious groups (for example, Austria's Hapsburg monarchy acquired many Muslims after Hungary was liberated from the Ottoman Turkish Empire), Austria's military was also affected by the linguistic, cultural, and political differences in the empire, the empire fell apart after WWI
Muslim scholar whose commentary on Aristotle's works was widely read
Unified all of Mesopotamia circa 1800 BC, collapsed due to foreign invasian.
Led a revolt when Emperor Hadrian decided to build a pagan temple in Jerusalem; the revolt was bloodily suppressed.
What was a Greek poet who memorized thousands of lines of verse called?
Style of art and architecture of early 1600s characterized by dramatic, flamboyant qualities, grandiose designs, and rich ornamentation. In music, it surfaced as opera. Rubens and Rembrandt were Dutch painters of this style
Series of rival generals who ruled Rome after the reign of Marcus Aurelius
Crossed equator and sailed to the Cape of Good Hope in Africa
Bartolome de Las Casas
Campaigned against the harsh treatment of slaves on the encomiendas by writing pamphlets and a history of Spanish colonization in the New World
Macedonian emperor who began the Macedonian era in the Byzantine empire and drove the Muslims back to regain territory
Conquered Bulgars and acquired new lands for the Byzantine Empire
Condensed version of the Corpus Juris Civilis, written in Greek instead of Latin
Large buildings housing law courts that became the model for church buildings
Battle at Mycale
After this battle, the Persians were finally defeated in their purpose to expand further into Europe
Battle of Cannae
Hannibal gave Rome a heavy defeat during this battle of the 2nd Punic War, but did not have the resources to lay siege to Rome afterward
Battle of Chaeronea
Philip II of Macedon established unity among Greece after this battle by establishing the League of Corinth
Battle of Crecy
At this battle during the Hundred Years' War, the English longbow halted the French cavalry, signalling the end of chivalric warfare
Battle of Cynocephale
In this battle, the legion was proved to be superior over the phalanx formation
Battle of Lechfeld
Otto the Great defeated the Magyars, who became part of Hungary
Battle of Leuctra
At this battle, Thebes won a decisive victory against Sparta; after this, Sparta no longer had control over the surrounding city-states
Battle of Manzikent
Seljuk Turks won this battle against the Byzantine Empire
Battle of Marathon
Darius I lost this battle to the Greeks, although the Athenians were greatly outnumbered. After a second defeat at Athens, the Persians returned home and Athens won great prestige.
Battle of Naseby
At this battle, the Roundheads decisively defeated the Cavaliers
Battle of Plataea
Sparta ended the Greco-Persian War with victory during this battle, as the Persian army that had been left on land after the Battle of Salamis was defeated by Spartan-led Greeks.
Battle of Poitiers
In the battle, Edward the Black Prince (Edward III's son) captured John II of France and took him to England as a prisoner
Battle of Salamis
Greeks defeated the larger Persian fleet in a narrow strait near the island of Salamis; this was the first major naval battle in recorded history
Battle of Tannenberg
Teutonic Knights were defeated by Poland-Lithuania in this battle
Battle of Thermopylae
Xerxes I won this battle and sacked Athens afterward; during this battle, the great Leonidas of Sparta gave his life, along with 300 others, while Athens was evacuated.
Battle of Zama
In this battle, Hannibal was finally defeated by Scipio the Elder
Mycenae's royal tombs are shaped like what?
General under Justinian I who defeated the Ostrogoths, Vandals, and Visigoths, retaking northern Africa, part of Spain, and Italy.
"Beautiful writing" - referring to Egyptian writing, especially beginning in the early 12th Dynasty
Struck ideal balance between work, study, and prayer in the Benedictine Order.
Estates granted by Carolingians to support troops while they were serving
1706-1790 (American Enlightenment thinker), he published influential newspapers, he was an early advocate of American colonial unity, he gave money to help the poor, his autobiography humorously noted that perfection is beyond the human grasp, in 1776-1785 he went to France to ask them to help the colonies in the American Revolution and he exemplified America's commitment to ordinary people, he was a deist and encouraged his readers to "imitate Jesus and Socrates," his experiments proved that lightning was a form of electricity, some of his inventions were the Franklin stove and bifocals, he also began public libraries, founded the University of Pennsylvania and the American Philosophical Society, and organized firefighters
Anglo-Saxon epic about a hero's quest to vanquish terrible monsters, written in Old English
Painter of the Baroque "Ecstasy of St. Teresa"
Bills of exchange
Prototype of the modern check
Bishop Gregory of Tours
Recorded Clovis' reign; his flawed writing reflected the poor literacy rates of the time
Bubonic plague caused by fleas in rat fur, recurring at intervals in parts of Europe until 1700s, for the most part following trade routes; it decreased Europe's population by a third.
1623-1662 (French), he was a mathematician who invented a calculating machine in 1640, he devised an influential theory of chance and probability, he learned a lot from intellectuals (ex. Bacon and Descartes), he didn't think that religion and science needed to conflict (he wrote: "If we violate the principle of reason our religion will be absurd, and it will be laughed at"), in his collection of notes called
he argued that reason alone was insufficient to understand all of human experience, Pascal's Wager appealed to common sense by saying that it is reasonable to risk believing in God because if God doesn't exist he will have lost nothing in the next life but if God does exist than the believer has gained everything; Contributed the probability theory, conic sections, and observations of atmospheric pressure. Followed Jansenism (a Catholic reform movement emphasizing faith over reason and humanity's need for God's grace). Wrote "Pensees" (Thoughts). Invented the predecessor of modern calculators and perfected the barometer.
people in South Africa who the British were at war with before WWI
Roman scholar who wrote the Neoplatonic "The Consolation of Philosophy" and translated Aristotelian logical texts in his "Organon" ("Tool")
First phase of the Thirty Years' War (1618-25); began when the Protestants revolted against Ferdinand II (who later became the Holy Roman Emperor). He crushed the resistance.
Book of Kells
Irish book of art/calligraphy
Book of the Dead
Egyptian book of prayers and spells concerned with the afterlife
Council of 400 in Sparta, established by Solon; top three Spartan classes could be elected to this
Bread and circuses
These provided free food and entertainment to combat poverty and unemployment in the Roman empire
Period from 4,000 BC to 1,500 BC (3rd Millenium) when bronze tools were first introduced in the Middle East; Period from 4000 BC to 1500 BC when bronze (an alloy of copper and tin) tools were first introduced in the Middle East. (Different cultures transitioned to this stage at different times, but the Fertile Crescent began this stage around 3000 BC); Supposedly from 3000 BC-1200 BC, in which people are thought to have begun living in cities. The time period varies from one culture to another, but was generally ended by the rise of the Assyrians
Florentine architect who built the earliest Renaissance dome (domes had been neglected in the Middle Ages) for Florence's cathedral (the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore - more commonly known as the Dome of Florence). He preferred the style of ancient Greece and Rome over the Gothic style.
Brutus and Cassius
Leaders of assassination plot against Julius Caesar
Citizens of towns (or burgs)
Eastern Roman Empire established by Constantine
were famous for Ivory paintings, jewelry making and mosaics
The emperor's claim to church leadership
Insane Claudian emperor was ended up murdered by his own bodyguards; known for giving his favorite horse a position in the Senate
Semi-monastic order that followed the Rule of St. Augustine, recommending that priests live in communities rather than alone
Canute the Dane
King of England, Denmark, and Norway
Capital of Sumer
Uruk under Sumerians, Akkad under Akkadians, back to Uruk, and then Ur
An economic system where good and services are echanges
Took control of French government during Marie de Medicis' reign. Even though he was Catholic, he chose to support the Protestant army of the Swedish and Dutch during the Thirty Years' War to try to keep the Hapsburgs under control so they wouldn't take over France.
Guided reforms of the Catholic Church in Spain
This order was revived by St. Teresa of Avila and her disciple St. John of the Cross
New monastic order founded in Mt. Carmel, Palestine
Script developed at the monastery of Tours under Alcuir of York
A cultural and legal revival led by Charlemagne
New monastic order founded in Chartreuse Valley, France
Alexander the Great's general who was given charge of Macedonia and part of Greece; his portion eventually went to Antigonus Gonatas who established the Antigonid kingdom.
"Pure ones"; similar to ancient Manichees who believed the material world was created by an evil god who opposed the creator of the spiritual world; rejected Old Testament; sometimes called Albigensians because their center was in the town of Alli.
Schools that educated secular clergy; most famous in France were in Paris, Chartres, Orleans, and Laon
Catherine de' Medici
Henry II's wife who, upon his death, dominated her three sons and initiated the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of thousands of Huguenots
Catherine the Great
r. 1762-1796 Russia's ruler (influenced by the Enlightenment), she carried on correspondence with key Enlightenment figures (ex. Voltaire and Diderot), advocated several reforms, she also questioned the death penalty and torture in criminal punishment, and questioned the institution of serfdom; however she also made government more power hungry/conflicting by dividing Russia into 50 provinces, and a rebellion led by Emelyn Pugachev against Russia's wealthy landowners ended in greater repression of peasants
Cato the Elder
Roman statesman who ended all his speeches with the phrase, "Carthage must be destroyed" - leading to 3rd Punic War
Wrote passionate love lyrics about his unfaithful mistress
Supported Charles I during England's civil war
Very intricate, abstract designs in painting
This official, formally a consul, maintained census records in order to determine who was eligible for military conscription and public office and also enforced morals.
1738-1794 (Italian Enlightenment thinker), he advocated the humane treatment of prisoners, reform more than punishment, and argued against the death penalty and torture in his 1764 book
Essay on Crimes and Punishments
Chansons de geste
"Songs of deeds" from France, describing chivalry and romance
"Charles the Great" - the greatest of the Carolingian kings, who was crowned Charles Augustus, Emperor of the Romans, by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day, 800; Emperor of the Roman, King of the Franks
1809-1882 (British) he wrote about his theory of evolution in his 1859
On the Origin of Species
and his 1871
The Decent of Man
, he learned from Charles Lyell (1797-1875) who argued that the earth couldn't be 6k years old as a literal reading of the Bible requires in his 1830
Principles of Geology
, and was influenced by Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) who said that all species (including humans) produce more offspring than can survive due to the limited food supply (thus those who survive are the winners in the unending struggle of life), his theory of evolution has two fundamental ideas: variation (usually minor differences among organisms which give some an advantage over others) and natural selection (advantageous variations survive and eventually species evolve and other species become extinct)
Charles I of Spain
Became Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who gained Castile and Aragon in 1516. Tired of wars, he gave Spain and the Netherlands to his son Philip II and arranged for the new emperor to be his brother Ferdinand I, and then he retired.
James I's son whose power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649.
Charles IV of Luxembourg
Issued Golden Bull, fixing an electoral college of seven members to choose the new emperor; hoped to prevent papal interference
Most famous Mayor of the Palace, who defeated the Muslims finally at the Battle of Tours (or Poitiers) and earned the name "Martel", meaning "Hammer".
1689-1755 (French Enlightenment thinker) a philosophe who indirectly criticized France's monarch and the Roman Catholic Church in his 1721
, and in his 1748 book
The Spirit of the Laws
he tried to explain the "natural laws" governing politics (including the importance of checks and balances and separation of powers in government) which greatly influenced James Madison (most credited with coming up with the American Constitution) and Thomas Jefferson (author of the Declaration of Independence)
Charles the Bald
Son of Louis the Pious who inherited the western part of the empire; this portion eventually became France
Charles the Bold
Burgundian duke defeated by Louis XI, who had hired Swiss mercenaries to aid him.
French king who pushed the English out of France again; his sudden death led to a truce beginning in 1389
French king who claimed Naples' throne; he seized Naples from Aragon but could not hold out against the Italian alliance
Cheops or Khufu
The Great Pyramid is the tomb of the Pharaoh ________.
Cheops, Khafre, and Menkaure
Great kings of the Egyptian Old Kingdom who build the largest pyramids at Giza
A technique that uses light and shadow to indicate a sense of depth in a painting
Pathetic crusade in which French children marched on the Holy Land; survivors of the first part of the journey believed God would divide the Mediterranean and open a path to Palestine - when this did not happen, they either returned home or ended up being sold as slaves to North African Muslims. German children had a similar fate that year
Chretien de Troyes and Marie de France
Wrote about Arthurian legends
Church of Santa Sophia
Byzantine piece of architecture
Rome's greatest orator and statesman, who was murdered by the 2nd Triumvirate
New monastic order founded at Citeacux, France by Robert of Molesmes; its most prominent spokesman was Bernard of Clairvaux.
this word is also where we get our word "politics" The Greek work "polis"; The loose collection of territorially small cities in Mesopotamia which lacked unity with one another due to geographic isolation. Each was dedicated to a particular god or goddess.
From the Latin term for "city." Characterized by formal states, writing, cities, and monuments.
This term is used to describe Greek culture in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. because later generations regarded it as the standard by which they measured their own achievements.
Successors of Augustus Caesar, ruling from 14-68 CE
Well-meaning but weak emperor who was poisoned by his wife so that her son Nero could become ruler; during his reign, Britain became a Roman province
Next ruler in Athens after Peisistratus; "Father of Democracy" who allowed all citizens to take part in the government; This man replaced the phratries (brotherhoods) dominated by the aristocratic families with the demes (townships of the people). He replaced the four traditional tribes of Athens with ten new tribes. He gave ultimate political authority to the Assembly, made up of all adult male citizens, who decided policy by vote.
Pope who moved the papal residency from Rome to Avignon. Here began the self-imposed exile of the popes nicknamed the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy"; all the popes in Avignon were French and under the influence of France
Antipope who ruled from Avignon, supported by France, Spain, Naples, and Scotland.
Last ruler of Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt; committed suicide when Octavian reconquered Egypt
In this system, patricians supported the poor financially in return for political support. The patricians gathered private armies, which led to strife and civil wars.
First great leader of the Merovingian dynasty; under his reign, the Franks were converted to Roman Catholicism and conquered many other Germanic tribes
Monastery founded by Cluny that sought to return to strict observance of Benedictine's Rule apart from the control of secular rulers; the movement grew to include thousands of monasteries
Code of Hammurabi
Ancient law containing 280 judgments, prescribing harsh punishments and dealing mainly with family, land ownership, and commercial transactions
Code of Ur-Nammu
Possibly the world's most ancient law code, which proclaimed the king as a messenger of justice
"Theodosian Code"; collection of imperial legislation compiled by Theodosius
Book with pages, such as we have today
College of Cardinals
Formed as a committee to elect the pope; members notably did not include the emperor
After the Greek Dark Ages, the culture revived and there was a surge in rapid population and economic change that destabilized society. There was not enough food for everyone which facilitated establishing WHAT outside of Greece from about 750-500 B.C.?
Coluccio Salutati and Leonardo Bruni
Advocated "civic humanism" - which maintained that the most virtuous lives were those who used humanistic study for public service.
Italian short-term partnerships through which inventors would contribute capital while recipients conducted the actual commercial activity
Worked better for larger communities; a bartering system based on products or coins (which value rests in the metal from which it is made)
Lack of social structure; everyone is equal
In this movement, a general council was chosen to reason that authority resides in believers, not the pope. Suggested that a representative assembly make decisions in emergencies.
When plebeian soldiers went on strike to gain more political power, they were given this assembly, as well as the office of tribune
Concordat of 1516
Papacy allowed French kings to appoint their own bishops, giving France control of its Gallican church
Concordat of Worms
Allowed churchmen to elect bishops and give them spiritual authority, but they had to be approved by the emperor, who would give them political authority
Mercenary generals of Italian city-states
Conquerors who claimed the New World for Spain
Capital of the Byzantine Empire; originally called Byzantium, then New Rome, before assuming final name.
Chief magistrates with a range of administrative, judicial, and military functions
Prior to the Bronze Age, during the 4th Millenium, crafters smelted tools from ___________.
Umayyad cultural center for a caliphate that began in Spain during the Abbasids' rule
Columns with intricate acanthus leaves on capitals
Corpus Juris Civilis
"Body of Civil Law"; a final codification of Roman law ordered by Justinian I
Cosimo de' Medici
"Father of his country"; humanist ruler of Florence who supported classical philosophy and art.
Council of Basel
Called by Pope Martin V to reform the church and negotiate with Hussites; supported by Pope Eugene IV
Council of Chalcedon
This council was convened against Monophysitism, which says Jesus has only one nature: divine. This sect became the Jacobite church.
Council of Clermont
At this council, Pope Urban II urged Christendom to stop fighting each other and recapture Jerusalem from the Seljuk Turks, who were persecuting pilgrims to the Holy Land - leading to the First Crusade
Council of Constance
Deposed the three simultaneously-reigning popes and elected Martin V as pope; all the Christians agreed on Martin, but the papacy exerted little political influence outside of Italy afterward. Also condemned and executed Bohemian Czech reformer John Huss.
Council of Elders (28 men who were at least 60 years old) and an Assembly (all men over the age of 30).
Sparta was ruled by two kings of limited authority who shared power with what two other bodies of power?
Council of Ephesus
Officially established that Jesus had two natures (divine and human) vested in one Person (contrary to Nestorianism, which believed Jesus' two natures to be manifested in two different persons)
Council of Ferrara-Florence
Called by Pope Eugene IV to reassert papal authority over church councils; tried to end the schism between the East and West, but failed
Council of Nicaea
This council was organized by Constantine to create unity within the Church; issued Nicene Creed against Arianism
Council of Trent
Met three times to reform the Catholic Church as part of the Counter Reformation; responded to Protestantism and channeled energetic initiatives born of genuine faith and piety
Council of Worms
Emperor Henry IV attempted to depose Pope Gregory VII during this council, only to be excommunicated.
"wedge-shaped." A system of writing developed by the Sumerians that consisted of wedge-shaped impressions made by a reed stylus on clay tablets.
Cyril and Methodius
Converted the Czechs and Slovaks to Greek Orthodoxy in 800s and gave them the Cyrillic alphabet based on Greek
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus I, who founded the Persian Empire.
Second phase of the Thirty Years' War (1625-29); began when Danish king Christian IV invaded Germany to aid the German Protestants. He was defeated by the Count of Tilly and Albrecht Wallenstein - Ferdinand's best generals.
Darius the Great
Darius I, who was the first to gain control over the Persian Empire after Cyrus the Great's death
Dark Age of Ancient Greece
(1100-800 BC) During this period, the Dorians had control of Greece; little is known because writing and administration disappeared under their rule
1711-1776 (Scottish Enlightenment thinker [the capital Edinburgh was sometimes called the "Athens of the North"]), he wrote
Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
(published after his death) and
Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
(1748) in which he argued against the credibility of miracles, maintained that all religious claims are open to question, and that all beliefs people have are derived from the perceptions of their senses
Written by Gratian; main textbook for the study of canonical law; the textbook for civil law was Corpus Juris Civilis.
Defenestration of Prague
Protestant Bohemia, revolting against their Catholic Hapsburg ruler, threw two ministers out of a window in this act
Naval-based alliance among Greek cities (poleis) along the shores of the Aegean Sea; led by Athens
"Townships of the people", which replaced the phratries through Cleisthenes' reforms
Denied existence of spiritual world; Theorized that all matter consisted of atoms
Athenian orator and statesman who had urged Greece to unite, but failed to convince them.
1713-1784 (French Enlightenment thinker), he attacked the church, most remembered for editing the West's first multivolume (28) collection of learning
Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades
in 1751-1752 which became important to enlightenment people (it attacked uncritical religious belief/superstition and advocated religious tolerance, political liberalization, and social improvement based on reason and scientific discovery)
The first monks, who fled to the wilderness in response to Christianity becoming the official religion and being overrun by hypocrisy and false conversions
Translated the New Testament into Greek with a commentary and corrected the Latin translation; believed that the Bible should be read and studied by everyone and that Christianity should be simpler; wrote the satirical "Praise of Folly" to show how much the church (and just about everyone else) had wandered into foolishness and sin.
Written by Pope Gregory the Great, about St. Benedict of Nursia who founded the Benedictine Order
Jews who live(d) outside Judea and kept their religious and cultural identity
As the wealthy became wealthier, the middle-class became poor, and the poor became overwhelmed by debt that they were sold into slavery, the Greeks experimented with two ideas: extending political power to the lower classes and the guidance of a WHAT who mediated between the classes?
Diet of Speyer
Also called the Diet of Spires. It allowed the princes of the Holy Roman Empire to determine whether their region would be Catholic or Lutheran.
Diet of Worms
Emperor Charles V promised Luther's safety at this council, where Luther boldly held firm to his beliefs. The Edict of Worms was issued to declare him a heretical outlaw.
Church structure organized similarly to the Roman government, with regional unites called dioceses and parishes run by bishops
This emperor was the first to take control of Rome after the Barracks Emperors; instituted the Tetrarchy, and began the most serious official persecution of the Christians
Democracy in which the people vote directly, rather than having representatives; used in Athens
The practice of seeking to foretell future events by interpreting divine signs, which could appear in various forms, such as in entrails of animals, in patterns in smoke, or in dreams.
Allegorical epic by Dante Alighieri, written in Tuscan dialect of Florence while Dante was in exile.
Early Sumerian kingdoms began as theocracies, their kings established their authority through ____________.
First king of the 3rd dynasty in Egypt, beginning the Old Kingdom
Does feudalism describe the relationship between a lord and the serfs who worked his fief?
No, it is a common misconception
Friars founded by St. Dominic Guzman
Titus' brother who demanded to be worshipped as a god during his lifetime
Spanish satire by Miguel de Cervantes, depicting an idealistic nobleman who finds that chivalry is useless in the modern world; Cervantes had himself fought at the Battle of Lepanto and discovered that crusading was not appreciated anymore
Sculptor whose "David" revived the use of nude figures and whose "Gattamelata" revived the use of equestrian statues. He was sponsored by Cosimo de' Medici.
Donation of Constantine
Forged document of a grant of sovereignty to papacy from Constantine, to justify the Donation of Pepin; proven false by Lorenzo Valla (a Renaissance humanist)
Donation of Pepin
In gratitude to Pope Stephen II for his coronation, Pepin donated part of the Lombards' territory to the pope; this became known as the Papal States.
These people spoke a different form of Greek and conquered the Mycenaeans by land
Columns with plain capitals on the top
Archon who wrote a merciless law-code in an attempt to curb the chaos and unrest in Athens; In 621 B.C. the nobles of Athens temporarily granted tyrant-like status to this man for the purpose of establishing a law code. Hint: his punishments were very harsh/severe
Duke of Alba
Sent by Philip II of Spain to crush the revolt in the Netherlands, but the rebels gathered around William the Silent, Prince of Orange
Early Dynastic Period
The period beginning with recorded Sumerian history, at which time the Sumerians reached a high point of cultural development as independent city-states, and ending with Sargon's conquest.
Edict of January
Gave limited freedom to Huguenots; allowing them to meet only in certain places
Edict of Milan
Issued by Constantine; granted toleration to all religions, including Christianity, after he had a vision promising victory at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge if he embraced Christianity
Edict of Nantes
Issued by Henry of Navarre, giving limited freedom and fortified towns and armies to the Protestants in France
Edict of Restitution
Transferred lands seized by Protestants to the Catholics; resulted from the Danish phase of the Thirty Years' War
Greatest astronomer of his day who correctly predicted the appearance of "Halley's Comet"
"Tablet house"; the Sumerian school that trained professional scribes in cuneiform writing.
1737-1794 (English Enlightenment thinker), in 1776 he wrote
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
a multivolume work that explained the historical processes that led to the downfall of Rome strictly in secular terms (many people no longer considered the will or God or providence as a viable explanation of historical events)
Edward the Confessor
Saxon king of England
_____________religion inspired confidence and optimism in the external order and stability of the world.
These people unified the Nile valley before Sargon of Akkad unified Mesopotamia. The unity of the Nile valley was quite stable and enduring because they only had to defend the delta where the Nile joins the Mediterranean Sea in the North and the upper reaches of the river in the south (because they were surrounded by deserts that armies could not cross).
Assembly established by Solon in Sparta
Spanish national hero from the Reconquista; his real name was Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar.
Conquered Babylon in the 12th century, ending Kassite reign
"Good Queen Bess"; daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn who tried to be moderate in her theological stance, but executed Mary Queen of Scots and opposed the Puritans. Her death ended the Tudor dynasty
Suggested that there are four elements: earth, water, air, and fire.
Byzantine emperor who allowed the Visigoths to enter Balkans in order to escape the Huns. When Visigoths revolted, Valens was killed in the Battle of Adrianople.
Wealthy bought land from peasants and fenced them off as pastures for sheep, because of the rising wool trade
Estates granted by the Spanish king to colonists in the Caribbean, who forced the natives to work on their sugar cane plantations
Sargon of Akkad's daughter, who became the first known poet, writing "Exaltation of Innana," "In-nin sa-gur-ra," and "Temple Hymns"
Writer who presented Roman history in "Annales"
City or provincial governors in Sumer; associated with priesthood
Risked capital to make a profit, often formed financial empires and dynasties - such as the Medici family in Florence - and rose with the Commercial Revolution
Babylonian "Genesis" written during Hammurabi's reign
There was a board of five men in Sparta who conducted foreign policy and made sure the generals did not overstep their authority during military campaigns. What were they called?
Epic of Gilgamesh and The Death of Urnammu
Famous works written during the Third Dynasty of Ur
Epic of Gilgamesh
first epic, written on twelve tablets in cuneiform
This philosophy teaches that the good life consists of the pursuit of pleasure, preferably the pleasures of the mind and friendship over the pleasures of the body.
Established Epicurean philosophy that taught that good life was found in pleasure
Middle class in Rome who at first served in cavalry, and then as tax collectors and government contractors
This man accurately calculated the circumference of the earth
Eridu, Uruk, and Ur
Three of the oldest settlements, located in Sumer. Eridu was an important religious center, as well.
Jews who lived an isolated monastic lifestyle in the desert
Known for its stiff figures, formal smiles, and almond-shaped eyes
Seafaring people from Asia Minor who settled in Etruria and gained control of Latium for a time, introducing Greek culture and developing the Roman social classes
"Thanksgiving"; meal given in Jesus' memory
Collected geometrical theorems in his book "Elements"; This man established a collection of geometrical theorems in a book called "The Elements"
Famous tragedy writer; wrote "Medea". His works were unconventional, but had greater psychological sophistication in character portrayal; The Greek playwright did NOT focus on moral/religious themes. He wrote "Medea"--where the evil sorceress escapes rather than receive punishment from the gods.
Evangelical Union and Catholic League
The Holy Roman Empire divided into these sections as the state rulers chose the religion of their states
False, It was oral
True or False? Early Greek poetry was written down and placed in Greek libraries for all to enjoy.
Third caliphate that established themselves in North Africa and eventually came to control the Abbasids; were overthrown by the Mongols in 1258.
Portuguese sailor employed by Spain, who sailed around South America through the Strait of Magellan; though he was killed in the Philippines, his surviving crew were the first to circumnavigate the world
Cradle of Civilization located in the area between Mesopotamia and Syria (From the Tigris-Euphrates valley (in modern Iraq), along the Mediterranean Sea toward the Nile River Valley in Egypt.)
Refers to the relationship with lords and vassals
Translated the works of Plato from Greek to Latin; also made translations of the works of Neoplatonists like Plotinus
Land grants that became hereditary, leading to fuedalism
Began when Emperor Frederick II invaded the Holy Land and used diplomacy rather than war to create a treaty with the Egyptians that gave Christians access to Jerusalem
Caused when popes added a clause to the Nicene Creed, saying the Holy Spirit came from the Son; led to a split in the Church, with the Greeks led by Patriarch Photius and the Latins led by Pope Nicholas I. The Church finally split in AD 1054, when Pope Leo IX tried to control the Byzantine churches in southern Italy and was opposed by Michael Caerularus of Constantinople over this issue.
Led by mostly French noblemen; Muslim divisions allowed them to successfully capture Jerusalem and slaughter its inhabitants; ended with four little kingdoms emerging, led by crusader knights and in constant need of supplies of support: Kingdom of Jerusalem, County of Tripoli, Principality of Antioch, and County of Edessa.
First Dynasty of Kish
During this dynasty, the Akkadians gained preeminence in Sumer
First Intermediate Period
from about 2200 to 2050 BC, the pharaohs weren't very authoritative and thus the nobles, or "nomarchs" (the administrators of local districts, or nomes), controlled the government. This decentralization of power led to civil wars (for more power), and this led to widespread famine.
First people to extensively use iron
First Punic War
Mainly naval battles between Carthage and Rome that ended in western Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica being added to Rome
Consisted of Pompey, Julius Caesar, and Crassus. Fell apart when Crassus died and after Pompey took sides against Julius Caesar.
Five Good Emperors
The nickname given to the emperors who ruled during the Roman empire's greatest prosperity and peace: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
Five Pillars of Islam
(1) Profession of faith, (2) Daily prayers at specified times, (3) Almsgiving, (4) Fasting during Ramadan, (5) hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
Physical pain inflicted as part of devotions; the Benedictines did not support this
Emperor Vespasian and his two sons, Titus and Domitian; they were the first to take control of the empire after Nero's death
The first tools were made of ___________ approximately 2.5 Million years ago.
"Federates"; certain Germanic tribes who were allowed to settle in Rome by Marcus Aurelius in return for defending against other tribes; more and more Germans entered the contract and became a huge part of Rome's army and even won high positions as generals
A disaster; when the crusaders couldn't pay the Venetians for passage to the Holy Land, the Venetians persuaded them to raid Zara and Constantinople; the Byzantines set up an empire in exile, while the crusaders set up a Latin empire in the Balkans, which lasted until the Byzantines regained control. Pope Innocent III was not happy with the Latin empire's founding, until he realized their emperors cooperated much better than the Byzantines.
Fourth Lateran Council
Largest council of the Middle Ages, established by Pope Innocent III and attended by Latin patriarchs from Constantinople and Jerusalem; required adult Catholics to fulfill certain requirements, condemned the Cathars and Waldensians, and forbade the foundation of new monastic orders in an effort to regulate religious fervor
"Father of Renaissance Humanism" who championed the revival of pure Latin; was the first to call the Medieval Age a dark age; wrote "The Secret" (in which he 'converses' with St. Augustine) and many sonnets to a woman named Laura; also wrote "Africa" depicting the Punic Wars - was elected poet laureate by the Roman Senate in 1341.
Conquered the Incas of Peru, confiscated their gold and silver, and sent it back to Spain
Advocated the inductive method (drawing general conclusions from particulars) and the empirical method (conducting experiments to provide accurate data). His method became the modern scientific method.
First Renaissance scholar in Italy
Friars founded by St. Francis of Assisi
His men discovered the Grand Canyon while searching for a legendary city made of gold
French satirist who ridiculed European society in his tales about two giants named Gargantua and Pantagruel
1694-1778 (French Enlightenment thinker) he influenced people psychologically/in their thinking, he admired the English political system (its relative religious liberty, freedom of the press, etc.) as is expressed in his 1733
Philosophic Letters on the English
, his 1759 novel
urges people to improve society by putting Enlightenment ideas into practice, he advocated religious freedom in his 1763
Treatise of Toleration
saying that "all men are brothers under God"; one of his famous quotes was "Ecrasez l'infame!/Crush the infamous thing [meaning unquestioning religious faith, traditional religion, and superstition]!"; and a devastating earthquake killing 100k people in Lisbon (in Portugal) on a Sunday in 1755 caused him and many other philosophes to question the idea of a loving God
System in which a brother was the head of the group, rather than the father.
First of Hohenstaufen emperors; first to officially adopt the "Holy Roman Empire" as title
Barbarossa's successor who subdued the Italians, but his infant son was rejected as the emperor
Fourth phase of the Thirty Years' War (1635-48), in which Cardinal Richelieu declared war on the Hapsburg-ruled Spain. This was a dynastic struggle; Catholic Bourbons of France were allied with Protestant Swedes, and Germany lost 1/3 of its population; ended with the Treaty of Westphalia
1844-1900 (German) he hated Christianity because it emphasized self-sacrifice instead he encouraged readers to exercise a "will of power", he made the phrase "God is dead" famous, he criticized the West's emphasis on reason and said that more attention should be given to raw human impulses (which are irrational and emotional), he thought that the minority of the strongest should rule and he had little room for compassion or pity
Augsburg entrepreneurs who were the most successful, beginning as cloth merchants eventually dominating mining and becoming bankers for the Hapsburgs
This tribune championed the cause of the poor, but when nobles began riots, he committed suicide.
Came up with a systematic theory of medicine
1564-1642 (an Italian), he was the first person to use a telescope (developed in the Netherlands) to study the universe, he observed craters, mountains, and valleys on the moon and spots on the sun (which challenged the prevailing view of the heavenly bodies being perfect) and he saw that Jupiter had four moons (challenging the view that heavenly bodies orbited nothing but the earth), he published his most important work
The Starry Messenger
in 1610, he believed that the universe was a "grand book...written in the language of mathematics" and that we should apply reason to observation and experimentation in order to expand our understanding of the world God has made, he wasn't against Christianity but he did challenge church authorities and scholars who accepted ancient views uncritically in his 1632 book
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems--Ptolemaic and Copernican
(which contained the doctrine of uniformity), church authorities (who already felt embattled by the growth of the Protestant Reformation) summoned him in 1633 to come to Rome where he was tried by the Inquisition and ordered to renounce his views, he renounced his views (believing that the truth would eventually prevail) and spent the rest of his life under house arrest where he was forbidden to write about the universe, (in the 1990s Pope John Paul II would formally acknowledge what everyone knew: that Galileo had been right)
This early form of the factory system gathered workers into one spot, where they manufactured under supervision - decreasing transportation costs and controlling quality of products
Celtics living in Po river valley to north of Rome who sacked the city in 390
Commentary on Mishnah; one version was compiled in Palestine and one in Babylonia
This general harassed Hannibal's supply lines, but refused to fight in a pitched battle
Author of "The Canterbury Tales", written in Middle English
Gerbert of Aurillac
Became Pope Sylvester II; met with Muslim and Jewish scholars in Spain to acquire classical learning that had been lost; invented the pendulum clock in 900s.
Dutch layman who preached the "Modern Devotion"; his followers founded the Brethren of the Common Life, whose ideals were expressed in Thomas a Kempis' "The Imitation of Christ"
Italians who supported the emperor over the pope
believes that goods and services should be given without specific reasons such as for generosity; also called Debt Economy; led to division of labor and bonds of obligation
Ancient Sumerian king, ruled 2700 BC. Credited with having been a demigod of superhuman strength who built a great city wall to defend his people from external threats. Influence of his epic stories are seen in the Hebrew story of the Great Flood.
Prominent fresco painter who added the illusion of depth and emphasized the human rather than the divine
Poet who helped usher in the Renaissance; a student of Petrarch, he was also a pioneer of humanist studies. Wrote Decameron: a collection of bawdy stories by people staying in the countryside to escape the Black Death.
Giovanni de Verrazano
Italian in French employ who explored the eastern coast of North America in search of the Northwest Passage
Fiery preacher who urged Florence to get rid of worldly things and be more like Christ. He was given control after Lorenzo de' Medici's son was deposed in Florence and attempted to establish a theocracy. He was murdered after Pope Alexander VI declared him a dangerous fanatic.
Teachers' commentaries on civil and canon law eventually written in text margins for study
Claimed to have a secret form of revealed knowledge; included Gnostic Gospels; believed spirit is good while matter is evil.
Lasted from 43 BC - AD 14; during this time, Rome's most famous writers wrote
State founded when Mongols seized Russia
Pointed arches, larger windows, stained glass, flying buttresses to support walls, rose/wheel windows, skeletal quality, ornate, angular design motifs like the fleur-de-lis on church towers; Abbey Church of St. Denis outside Paris is the earliest Gothic church
1646-1716 (German), an important mathematician who appears to have developed calculus independently of Newton, he also invented a calculating machine 30 years after Pascal, he made rational arguments defending the concept of God, in his
he argues that this (a world with both good and suffering) is the best of all possible worlds (because neither a world with no suffering nor one with no good to counteract suffering would be as good)
Grand Duke Jagiello
Ruler who made the Lithuanians convert to Catholicism so that he could marry the Polish queen Jadwiga. (An earlier ruler, Minduagus, had also converted, but when he assassinated, the people remained pagan)
Stated additional grievances regarding Puritan reforms and further limitations on the king's power; when Charles refused to accept it, civil war broke out
A time in which the Holy Roman Empire had no emperor, beginning with the death of Frederick II
Refers to the time when Germanic tribes wandered about the empire, settling in certain locations until supplies let out and the moving on; their presence strained the economy and weakened imperial administration
Greek Classical Culture
This culture lasted during the 5th and 4th centuries
Athanasius, Basil the Great, John Chrysostom, and Gregory of Nazianzus.
A secret weapon that could burn even on water; instrumental in defeating Muslim sieges of Constantinople
Greek victories over the Persians
In 499 BC the Ionian Greeks rebelled against Persian rule and sought military aid from the Greek mainland (Athens sent ships that raid the Persian controlled city of Sardis then returned home). By 494 BC, the Persians regained control of Ionia and decided to invade Greece. In 490 BC a Persian army entered Greece led by Darius I, but the vastly outnumbered Athenians managed to defeat them at Marathon (a herald ran 26 miles to Athens to report the victory, this run inspired the endurance race called "marathon"). Ten years later the next Persian emperor, Xerxes, with a larger army and a large fleet. The Athenians had trouble getting supporters, but managed to assemble a few allies, most notably the Spartans who brought with them the armies of the Peloponnesian League. The Persians defeated a detachment of Spartans at the strategic pass of Thermopylae in central Greece and the Athenians had to evacuate their city by ship to nearby islands for safety. After the Persians looted Athens, they attacked the Greek fleet, but the Persians were lured into a narrow strait near the isle of Salamis where they could not use their massive number to their advantage, thus the Athenians led the Greek fleet to defeat the Persian fleet. Without ships for supply, the Persian army was defeated by the Spartans leading the Greek armies at Plataea in 479 BC. The Ionian Greeks were then able to reassert their independence. (Spartan King Leonidas led one of these battles, but lost.)
The last pope at Avignon
Italians who supported the pope over the emperor
Early forms of trade unionism that set prices, ensured quality, and helped each other in legal disputes; Craft guilds focused on certain trades, with apprentices going through specific requirements before they could join as masters
Swedish general who defeated General Tilly's army, but was killed by General Wallenstein's forces at the Battle of Lutzen. His chancellor, Oxenstierna, carried on for him.
Fierce barbarian mountaineers from Iran who took over Sumer and started a Dark Age there for a brief time
Third of the "Five Good Emperors" who constructed Hadrian's Wall in North Britain to protect the empire's frontier against raids by Picts and Scots
Cathedral built during Justinian I's reign that is the most magnificent church building of the early Middle Ages and the greatest example of Byzantine architecture
Hammer of Witches
Witch-hunting manual by two Dominican Inquisitors, which began a witch craze lasting until the Age of Enlightenment
6th Ruler of the Old Babylonian Dynasty who formed the Old Babylonian Empire, living from 1792-1750 BC; Gave law to mankind; The most important ruler in Babylonian history. Responsible for the codification of law. Ruled over public and private life; business, financial, and criminal law. Judgements were often harsh.
A ziggurat build for Neo-Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II's Median wife
Also called "Hansa"; began among German towns to protect against piracy and dominated trade between the Baltic and North Seas. Dissolved in 1500s because of the commercial ventures of nation-states; An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany; Prussia was part of it under the Teutonic Knights
Austrian rulers of the Holy Roman empire and the Netherlands
King of Norway who fought for rule of England, but was defeated at Stanford Bridge by Harold Godwin(son)
(Sometimes only called Harold Godwin); Earl of Wessex who fought for rule of England, but was defeated by William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings
The Maccabees, who rebelled against the Hellenistic rule of the Seleucids and allied with Rome in AD 161 and 134
A female pharaoh, daughter of Thutmose I, who ruled jointly with Thutmose III; Cunning woman who became Pharaoh during the New Kingdom. She relied heavily on propoganda claimed to be the daughter of the God Amen, often presented herself with a male body and false beard in statues and imagery. Her stepson, whom she had usurped from power, had all imagery of her erased upon her death and the beginning of his reign.
Monotheistic, Semitic-speaking people of Mesopotamia. Enslaved by the Egyptians, their leader Moses eventually led them out of captivity. Their religion opened the door for awareness of the self with moral autonomy - man had the choice between good and evil. Refused to give loyalty to any king or general and would submit to Yahweh or Jehovah alone. Unlike the other god of the time, Yahweh was not created, he was eternal and the source of all creation. The first culture of the ancient western world to show any interest or awareness of historical time. History was perceived as one big drama full of moral significance. Through history, god's presence became known.
Greek-like culture; formed by the blending of eastern and western civilization during Alexander the Great's empire.
Land between Greece and Anatolia that Alexander the Great used to travel across to get to Persia.
The citizens of Sparta were known as Spartiates, while the subject people they ruled were known as what?
Dutch explorer who made four voyages to the New World; a river and a bay were named after him (while exploring the bay, his crew mutinied against him and set him adrift in a boat - he was never seen or heard from again).
"Lion of Justice"; issued Charter of Liberties to end heavy taxation and abuses of power; established Exchequer to look after finances and act as judges in revenue matters
Henry II of France
Began systematically persecuting the Huguenots
Part of Plantagenet (Angevin) Empire who acquired much land and introduced common law and trial by jury. When he wanted to be able to try churchmen for crimes, he was opposed by Thomas a Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury who was murdered in 1170.
This emperor did not welcome Gregory VII's demand that he stop appointing bishops (a practice known as lay investiture); was excommunicated briefly until he stood barefoot in the snow for three days seeking forgiveness; seven years later he captured Rome and drove Gregory into exile
Henry of Navarre
Married Marie de Medicis; escaped death at St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre by temporarily converting to Catholicism; upon gaining the French throne he became the first Protestant king of France, but he returned to Catholicism to keep the peace and initiated the Bourbon line.
English king who invaded northern France and won the Battle of Angincourt
These kings ruled Lower Egypt during the 9th and 10th dynasties, with their capital in Memphis
Believed all matter was made of fire and focused on the ever-changing nature of objects (such as the river);This philosopher believed the prime substance was fire. Famous for this statement: one cannot step into the same river twice.
Byzantine emperor who defeated the Avars and Persians
"Sectarianism"; any religion that went against the orthodox religion; was considered a crime against the state
Conquered the Aztecs ruled by Montezuma II in Mexico (the Aztecs had been the most powerful Native American empire at the time)
Hernando de Soto
Discovered the Mississippi River and explored Florida and the coast of the Gulf of Mexico
An Ionian Greek known as the "Father of History"; Father of History who wrote about the Persian Wars, divided civilization into East and West, and identified the Greeks as a civilization of the West
Hesiod (c. 700 B.C.)
What Greek poet wrote "Works and Days" and "Theogony"; Poet after Homer who wrote "Works and Days" about the hard life of a small farmer and "Theogony" about the birth of the gods and their legends
A combination of pictograms and phonograms that the Eqyptians used for writing.
Became Pope Gregory VII who enforced ideas of celibacy, ended simony (sale of church offices), and ended secular interference (these became known as the Gregorian Reforms)
Developed the astrolabe to make observations of celestial bodies; This man developed the astrolabe
Hippocrates of Cos
"Father of Medicine" - inspired the code of medical ethics; Father of Medicine who inspired the Hippocratic Oath
Figures painted inside an oversized first letter of a chapter that symbolically summarized the text
What blind Greek poet is attributed to creating the Iliad and Odyssey?
During the Dark Ages, the military was made up of small units of wealthy nobles, but around 800 B.C. the focal point shifted to citizen-soldiers who could afford spear and armor. These men were known as what?
Famous Roman poet who wrote lyrics on various themes
Order that initially provided charity services to pilgrims, and then took on military functions like escorting pilgrims
House of Valois
Seized the French throne after the last Capetian died, even though Edward III of England wanted it (his mother was Isabelle, Philip IV's daughter, thus substantiating his claim). As a result, the Hundred Years' War broke out.
After the last Carolingian king died, this man was chosen by the French nobles to be king, beginning the Capetian dynasty
Used natural law to outline principles for internal relations (including a theory of the just war) in his book "On the Law of War and Peace"
___________ sacrifice was common among all religions during the late neolithic period.
Culture that greatly influenced Hittites; all their kingdoms were destroyed by 1300s. Were master ceramists and metallurgists. Oldest known instances of music (1400 BC) are Hurrian; This group of people established the kingdom of Mitanni in the upper Tigris-Euphrates valley, it lasted from 1500-1400 BC when they were conquered by the Hittites.
First foreigners to conquer and rule Egypt during the 15th and 16th dynasties. Later defeated by Egyptian Soldiers opening the door for the New Kingdom.
symbols representing ideas
"Isle of France" - the tiny strip of land controlled by Hugh Capet
"Emperor"; commander-in-chief of Rome's legions; title given to Octavian
Important Farming Tools
Heavy plow, horse shoes, horse collars
In 1529, who was besieging the city of Vienna?
Members of the enslaved population at Sparta
Indus Valley Civilizations
Between 3000 and 1500 BC, the civilization flourished over the region that extended hundreds of miles from the Himalaya Mountains to the coast of the Arabian Sea. At the heart of the civilization were Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Both cities had populations of about 35,000 and had walled defensive fortifications.
Lumps of metal that became the first kind of currency
Founded by Pope Gregory IX to destroy Cathars who survived the Albigensian Crusade, with the Dominican friars in control, who persecuted all opposition to the Catholic Church, including the Waldensians.
Inventors of wheel
Greek cities rebelled against Persia; first phase of the Greco-Persian War; Darius the Great crushed the revolt, but Athens, Eretria, and Sparta refused to submit to his demands
Columns with scroll-like spirals on capitals
Following the Bronze Age, in the 2nd Millenium, crafters began to smelt tools from _______.
1642-1727 (British), he was a scientist who discovered many things including why planets had elliptical orbits, in
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
he argued that gravity (the mutual attraction of physical objects in the universe) explained the orderly movement of the planets, the way he scientifically explained the heliocentric universe caused opposition to fade
Famous blue-colored gate with gold pictures on it from Babylon
Paper making, distillation of alcohol
Based on Aristotle and Napoleon
"Soldiers of God"
Ivan III the Great
Overthrew the Golden Horde; under his rule, Muscovy (Moscow) was able to gain control of Russia
Discovered the St. Lawrence River
French merchant and banker who was made a noble by Charles VI and had an influential position under Charles VII, but was prevented from forming a dynasty when plotted against by jealous nobles
Jacques Lefevre d'Etaples
French theologian who hoped to reform Christian society through humanistic education
Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet
Jesuit missionary and fur trader, respectively, who explored the central Mississippi River
King of Stuart dynasty in Scotland who took the English throne after Elizabeth I's death. He persecuted the Catholics and was opposed by Parliament. The King James Version Bible was published during his reign.
First permanent English settlement, located in Virginia
French philosopher who made non-religious arguments for absolutism; argued in his "Republic" that every king should not have to answer to anyone or be subject to laws
Jean Buridan and Nicole Oresme
Frenchmen who conducted thought-experiments to challenge Aristotle's theory of "impetus", which was close to the correct theory of momentum.
1712-1778 (Switzerland/France Enlightenment thinker), he was a friend of Diderot and was one of the Enlightenment's most influential thinkers, he made famous the concept of the noble savage, although the central concept of the general will [the sum of a societies highest aspirations and which seeks the good of all] in his 1762
[a theory which Hobbes and Locke also believed forms of] is difficult to define in practical terms this work was very influential (it government was a necessary evil and the best thing a society can do is govern by the general will and those who disagree should be forced to submit to the general will for their own good, thus dissenters are "forced to be free")
1748-1832 (British Enlightenment thinker), he is the one most associated with utilitarianism (a philosophical innovation of the late 18th and early 19th century which calls for the "greatest good for the greatest number" of people)
Early walled urban culture site based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern Israeli-occupied West Bank near Jordan River.
City built by the Israelite King David in order to honor God.
Society of Jesus, founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola, who wrote a manual for meditation called "Spiritual Exercises"; Francis Xavier was a Jesuit priest who preached in the Far East
Muslim holy wars
Joan of Arc
Peasant girl who persuaded Charles VII of France to let her lead the French army against the English; she was captured by Burgundy in 1430 and was executed the following year
Debated Luther at the University of Leipzig over the sale of indulgences and forced Luther to deny the authority of popes
1571-1630 (a German), he agreed with Galileo that God wanted us to learn about the world, he was also a Lutheran and mathematician, he had been the assistant of the astronomer the Dane Tycho Brahe (1546-1601, who had recorded the positions of planets and stars for over 20 years), although Brahe rejected the idea of a heliocentric universe Kepler accepted it and correctly argued that the planets' orbit around the sun was elliptical (instead of the popular circular idea) in his 1609 book
The New Astronomy
although he couldn't explain why; Used the observations of Tycho Brahe to prove that the planets' orbits are elliptical, not circular
Advocated studying languages to understand the Bible; published a Hebrew grammar and convinced Emperor Maximilian to reject the Inquisition's call to burn the Talmud
First modern explorer to reach the North American mainland; his exploration of New-Found Land (Newfoundland, Canada) gave England claim to the New World. He had been hired by Henry VIII to seek a direct route to Asia in the northern hemisphere
Established a theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland; his "Institutes of the Christian Religion" stressed God's sovereignty and humanity's utter dependence on God; Followers were called Calvinists (also Huguenots in France and Presbyterians in Scotland - founded by John Knox)
One of the first monks in western Europe
1632-1704, (disagreed with absolutism) believed that a ruler should only rule as long as the ruler kept the peoples' trust by respecting the inherent rights of human beings to possess life, liberty, and property, he believed that if the ruler disregarded those rights than the people had a responsibility to replace that ruler, (this was first popular in England, thus later the English colonies/US), he was an English Enlightenment thinker who wrote
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
in 1690 in which he theorized that the human mind is a tabula rasa/blank slate at birth which is filled in by experience (thus experience is the only thing that determines differences in status/equality)
John of Austria
Philip II's brother who led the Holy League (consisting of Spain, Venice, and the Papacy) against the Turks at Lepanto off the coast of Greece, freeing thousands of Christian galley slaves
John of Leiden
Anabaptist who led a group to seize Munster and establish a theocracy called New Zion, where polygamy and communal ownership of property were observed. Did not last long, as the town was recaptured and John was executed.
John of Salisbury
Described society as an organic unity in human form, with the king acting as the head
Pioneered the science of taxonomy and originated the idea of species
Became pontiff at the age of 18; was the pope who crowned Otto I the Holy Roman Emperor for aiding John against his enemies in Italy
Antipope chosen when the two Colleges of Cardinals decided to compromise; other two popes refused to resign
Government-supported associates of investors who bought shares in a business - like the Russia Company, East and West India Company, and the Bank of England
Portuguese explorer employed by Spain who explored the coast of California
Judah and Israel
The two Hebrew kingdoms of Canaan.
During this war, General Marius squashed a rebellion in Numidia led by Jugurtha.
Marius' nephew who became consul in Rome; had more reforms in mind but was assassinated on the Ides of March (March 15) in 44 BC
Codified Roman law
Justinian the Great, who reclaimed Italy from the Ostrogoths; wrote Justinian code and was married to the Empress Theodora
From Iran, ruled former Old Babylonian Empire longer than any other dynasty; This group of people from the east (the region that is now Iran) of Mesopotamia, invaded the Amorites/Old Babylonian empire and established themselves as the new rulers for the next 300 years (starting c. 1600 BC).
Another name for Cheops, who built the Great Pyramid of Giza
Established when Novgorod became part of the state of Kiev; reached its zenith under Jaroslav the Wise
King Darius I
To retaliate for Greek aid given to the Ioanians when they rebelled against Persian control, the Persians decided to invade Greece in 490 B.C. at this king's command.
King Pyrrhus of Epirus
Greek king who repeatedly won victories against Rome, but is said to have said, "If we win another battle against the Romans, we shall be utterly ruined" - originating the concept of the Pyrrhic victory
Kingdom of Wessex
This kingdom united the seven Germanic kingdoms in Britain (the Heptarchy)
Greek of the everyday language; the New Testament was written in this language
The African state that developed along the upper reached of the Nile circa 1000 BC; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.
The Mycenaean name for Sparta
Estates owned by large, wealthy landowners after Punic Wars; they were run by prisoners who took care of cattle
Augustine, Ambrose, Jerome, and Pope Gregory the Great
Region home to Latins, and Italic tribe who founded the city of Rome
Law of Retaliation
Eye for an Eye, etc.
Law of the Twelve Tables
The Roman law, formally unwritten, was finally written in this
League of Corinth
a league started by King Philip to unite all Greek city-states. Sparta refused to join until forced to by Alexander the Great. Also called the Hellenic League.
Later Roman army division of about 5000 men organized into small units called maniples; this was a more flexible army formation
General who saved Constantinople during a Muslim siege and became the first of the Iconoclastic Emperors (who wanted to outlaw the worship of images of Christ and saints)
Otto I replaced the worldly John XII with this pope; German emperors regularly intervened in papal elections from then on
Leonardo da Vinci
A "true" renaissance man
A Roman general who was pushed out of the 2nd Triumvirate.
The script of the Minoans, still undeciphered
The script used by the Mycenaeans; an early from of Greek
Last converted European pagans
Greatest prose author and historian in Roman history
Followers of John Wycliffe, who emphasized the Scripture's authority and translated the Bible into English
Alliance of northern Italian cities who defeated Barbarossa
Invaded Italy and established Lombardy in the Po river valley; were overthrown by Charlemagne
When Charles ran out of funds to fight the Scots, he finally called Parliament again and met their demands; they remained in session for eighteen years.
Lorenzo the Magnificent
Cosimo de' Medici's grandson; he supported the arts, and instituted a Council of Seventy that helped reduce crime and increase wealth in Florence.
Lost Ten Tribes of Israel
These tribes, who formed the northern nation of Israel, were deported by Assyria and vanished from history
Lothair the Elder
Son of Louis the Pious who inherited the middle kingdom along with the title of Emperor. His kingdom eventually fell apart.
Nicknamed St. Louis for his piety; loved Crusades but accomplished nothing; made laws appealing to the people but strengthening his own power; made France the most powerful country in Europe
Louis the German
Son of Louis the Pious who inherited the eastern part of the empire; this portion eventually became Germany
Louis the Pious
Son of Charlemagne who failed to keep the empire intact
Strengthened the French kings' power, at least in the Ile-de-France
Tried to claim Milan and was driven out by a temporary alliance of Italian city-states
Lover of wisdom
Philosopher means what?
Seneca's nephew who shared his fate; wrote epic "Pharsalia" to depict the civil war between Caesar and Pompey
Described Epicureanism in "On the Nature of Things"
"Big/great man" - king in Sumer
Legendary lawgiver in Sparta; The laws that regulated Spartan society were attributed to a legendary lawgiver. What was his name?
Alexander the Great's general who was given charge of Thrace and western Asia Minor after his death.
The Egyptian concept of harmony and order, justice and truth. Implied a divine force for harmony and stability which emanated from the beginning of time itself. Good rule by pharaoh signified its presence
Macrobius and Martianus Capella
4th and 5th century writers of encyclopedic works
A series of promises made by King John regarding how to treat his subjects; Signed by Richard I's brother John, putting the king under the law.
"Great Greece" - the name given to southern Italy, which was thickly colonized by Greece during the Archaic Period
Jewish philosopher who tried to harmonize reason and revelation in his "Guide for the Perplexed"
promise to Make their pupils well-informed and skillful public speakers...this was to translate into successful politicians for a price?
Founded by the Persian mystic, Mani, who posited that spirit is light and matter is dark, and the world was caught up in the struggle between light and darkness
Artistic style that blazed the path to Baroque painting; its dramatic qualities were demonstrated by El Greco
Refers to the economic relationship between the owner of a fief and his laborers
In 490 B.C. the Persians came against the vastly outnumbered Athenians at a place in Attica (26 miles from Athens). This inspired our word for a 26-mile endurance race). What is the name of this town?
Caesar's friend who took part in the 2nd Triumvirate, but eventually allied with Cleopatra of Egypt and ended up committing suicide when Egypt was reconquered by Octavian
Fifth of the "Five Good Emperors"; a Stoic philosopher who wrote "Meditations"
Marcus Tullius Cicero
Usually just called "Cicero"; most accomplished writer of Latin prose who popularized Greek philosophy and Stoicism. Wrote against Marc Antony in "Philippics" - which led to his subsequent murder.
Chief god of the Old Babylonian Empire
Marie de Medicis
Took the throne after Henry of Navarre's death and dismissed the Estates-General, which remained dismissed for 180 years; Marie Jean [Antoine Nicolas] de Condorcet: 1743-1794 (French Enlightenment thinker), he was one of the most optimistic writers, in his 1794
Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind
he claims there is "no limit to the perfecting of the powers of man" and through reason, study, and tolerance humans could achieve perfection
Rival of Sulla who took control of Rome for a short time after killing hundreds of the optimates' supporters.
Marsilius of Padua
Argued that all authority is derived from the people in his "Defender of the Peace", which was against the papacy
Martianus Capella, Cassiodorus, and Isidore of Seville
Most important preservers of ancient learning, whose works were commonly read in medieval schools
outspoken opposition to the Roman Catholic Church was an immediate response to; The sale of indulgences to fund the building of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome
German cartographer who first named the New World "America"
"Bloody Mary"; daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who succeeded her brother Edward VI and forcibly tried to restore Catholicism, but failed.
1759-1797 (English Enlightenment thinker), argued that women should have greater freedom to pursue their own intellectual and political interests, in her 1792
The Vindication of the Rights of Women
she wrote, "Till women are more rationally educated the progress in human virtue and improvement" will be slowed
Applied linear perspective to paintings; his rules were studied scientifically by Brunelleschi and formulated by Leon Battista in "On Painting"
The last fortress of Judea that was defeated by Rome in AD 73
Religion focused on female deities
A cultural practice in which young men upon marriage must live with their bride's family.
Mayor of the Palace
During the reign of the "do-nothing kings", this office held the most power.
The first satrapy (province) of the Persian Empire
Leo X, Clement VII, and Leo XI
Medici queens of France
Catherine de' Medici (power-loving wife of Henry II) and Marie (the second wife of Henry IV of Navarre, who had been originally married to Catherine's daughter Marguerite)
were indepted to the Muslims for Astrolabes, paper, algebra, and the numeral zero.
German mystic who preached that the experience of God should be brought into everyday life
"Mendicant" means "beggar"; two new orders of friars promoted by Pope Innocent III. Friars, unlike monks, relied strictly on donations and lived in the secular world as preachers.
Also called Namur; the first king to unite Upper and Lower Egypt
This Theban king won a victory over Lower Egypt, leading to the rise of the Middle Kingdom
State intervention in economics; its central principle is the belief that a nation's wealth is defined by the amount of precious metals it owns, so it attempts to have more exports than inports by raising tariffs on inports and reducing tolls on exports; the belief that there is a limited amount of wealth in the world (thus a country wants to sell more than it buys when trading with other countries in order to keep gaining wealth for your country, especially in the form of gold) [France's Louis XIV's chief minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, was one of many who thought this way]
Frankish dynasty founded by Merovech, uniting groups from the lower and upper reaches of the Rhine River
Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age
The period from 12,000 BC to 8,000 BC characterized by the gradual shift from hunter-gather societies to sedentary agricultural societies; The Age between the Old Stone Age and the New Stone Age
(means "land between the rivers") in the Tigris-Euphrates valley (which is in modern Iraq)
Achievements of the ___________ civilization include the construction of irrigation ditches, introduction of the plow, and wheel made pottery; in contrast to the isolated Egyptians, these people were warriors and traders, they were highly unpredictable and abstract thinkers.
Foreigners who lived in Athens and had to pay taxes and serve in the military, but could hold no office or vote
Spanish physician who contributed to the study of the pulmonary circulatory system; he was executed by Calvinists
Michel de Montaigne
Established the essay as a literary form
The Neolithic Revolution first occurred in the _____________.
centralized government in Egypt was restored and maintained under the 11th and 12th dynasties from about 2050 to 1700 BC. This period of stability ended when foreigners, known as the Hyksos, invaded the Nile delta and overran the Egyptian army in their horse-drawn chariots; eriod in Egypt covering the 12th dynasty; period of Ancient Egyptian history during which the Pharaohs regained powers over the priests but with somewhat less authority during which laws began to be written down.
Milan became famous for
The end of the Bronze Age saw the rise of great __________ power.
People of Crete who were overrun by the Mycenaeans and eventually disappeared
Comprehensive work of Jewish civil and religious laws
"King's envoys"; consisted on one bishop and two nobles who served in a district separate from their hometown on behalf of the king
Hurrian kingdom founded by Kirta around 1500 BC; gradually became most powerful nation of the Near East between 1450-1350 BC
prominent Persian religion that became popular in the Macedonian Empire
Mithridates of Pontus
King in Anatolia who rebelled against Roman rule; he was defeated by the general Sulla
As the most influential of the smaller Middle Eastern regional cultures, the Jews were characterized most by ______________.
Commentary on Job, written by Pope Gregory the Great
Converted Muslims suspected of secretly practicing Islam; they were exiled from Spain during Philip II's reign
A picture made up from small pieces of glass or stone
Famous volcano that erupted during Titus' reign, completely burying the cities of Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabiae.
Founder of Islam
Mycenaean Bronze Age
(2300-1100 BC): period in which the early Greeks, known as Mycenaeans, ruled Greece
(pre-Greeks) The earliest villages appeared on the Greek mainland around 6500 BC, and the Cyclades islands in the Aegean Sea were settled about 3000 BC. (The earliest speakers of Greek, a Indo-European language, migrated into the region about 2300 BC.) They lived in small communities until about 1700 BC, the greatest of these new cities was Mycenae (others included Tiryns, Pylos, and Athens) which was renowned for its royal tombs with interiors shaped like honeycomb, the city's "Cyclopean" walls, and sculptured entryway known as the Lion's Gate. They gained wealth by trading with their neighbors and sometimes raiding them. Around 1550 BC they challenged the Minoans for supremacy in the Aegean Sea by invading and occupying Crete. They were at their peak of prosperity from about 1400 to 1200 BC. After conquering Crete, they adopted the Minoan form of writing and system of economic management (which was based on the palace being an administrative center). Politically, they were divided among small kingdoms of heroic warriors who might band together from time to time under the empire's king. The legendary war against Troy depicted in the Homeric epic poem the Iliad (composed around 800-750 BC) seems to have been such an expedition which may be based on true events occurring around 1250 BC (which would have made the Trojan war one of this empire's last major undertakings). Within a century this empire fell prey to the Sea Peoples who devastated the empires of the eastern Mediterranean from about 1250-1150 BC; Early Greeks who conquered the Minoans and Troy (as told in the Iliad); their empire was destroyed by the Sea Peoples and Dorians; The early Greeks are called what? Hint: the most impressive of the early sites built is at Mycenae and the kings of this city seem to have exercised influence over the other Greek towns; The people who overran Crete, brought early Greek culture, and according to legend defeated Troy
Unlike most Roman religions, these offered the promise of eternal life; included cults of Dionysos (Bacchus), Cybele, Isis and Osiris (both popular among women), and Mithraism (popular among soldiers, but excluded women)
Ancient view of the world based on myth rather than science or rationality.
Led Babylonia to victory against the Assyrians
Babylonian king who suppressed worship of Marduk for worship of the god Sin; the empire ended with his death and Cyrus the Great's Empire
Narmer or Menes
Unified Upper and Lower Egypt into one kingdom with the capital at Memphis around 3000 BC; First Pharaoh of the Old Kingdom.
Pledge by the Scots to resist any attempt to change their religion (Charles I had tried to impose the Church of England on them).
Pre-agricultural culture located in present day Israel, Jordan and Lebanon. Collected naturally present barley and wheat to supplement game. Characterized by large settlements.
Homo Species that disappeared at the end of the Paleolithic period.
Builder of Hanging Gardens and Ishtar Gate who was responsible for the Babylonian Captivity of the Jews; The New Babylonian king who destroyed the Hebrew kingdom of Judah and enslaved the Jews.
Wife of Akenhaten, died during his celebration. After which Akenhaten became intolerant of any other gods, obsessively erasing them from history and neglecting his kingdom in the process.
Also called Chaldeans; sought to return to old Mespotamian values, returning to old languages and art forms
New Stone Age (supposedly from about 8000 BC - 3000 BC), in which people are thought to have lived in clay homes in villages
Neolithic or Agricultural Revolution
The term given to the development of agricultural societies. This revolution in economic, political, and social organization began in the Middle East as early as 10,000 B.C.E. and gradually spread to other centers, including parts of India, North Africa, and Europe. With the rise of agricultural forms of economic production, humans were able to remain settled more permanently in one spot and increase their levels of specialization regarding particular economic, political, and religious functions; a major influence on the beginning of this period was the end of the Ice Age.
(aka New Stone Age) Beginning in 8000 BC this time saw the adaptation of sedentary agriculture (farming) and the domestication of plants and animals.
Founded by Plotinus as a school of philosophy with mystical dimensions; magical rituals were added later by Porphyry, Iamblichus, and Proclus
Mentally deranged and morally depraved emperor; the great fire in Rome was blamed on him, so he passed the blame onto the Christians and began the first great outbreak of persecution. Forced to commit suicide by the Praetorian Guard.
First of the "Five Good Emperors" who reigned during the last important revival of the Senate's power (afterward, the army had most of the power)
Dutch colony organized by the Dutch West Indies Company (a joint-stock company) and founded in the Hudson Valley. It became New York City.
New Babylonian Empire
Established after Babylonian rebelled against the Assyrians and ended when Cyrus the Great took it over
Also called the Egyptian Empire; lasted from 1550 BC-1077 BC; Following the defeat of the foreign Hyksos rulers, this period was the most prosperous time of Ancient Egyptian history. It saw the expansion of the Egyptian Empire to Nubia in the south as well as to the near east through warfare gaining riches and notoriety in the process. Ended with the decline of the Pharaoh's power after the reign of Ramses III; the 18th-20th dynasties governed Egypt from about 1550 to 1100 BC. The pharaohs reasserted their power and expanded beyond traditional frontiers, reaching southward up the Nile River into Africa and sending armies northeastward across the Sinai peninsula into the Levant and Anatolia. The Egyptians hoped to prevent future invasions of the Nile Valley by dominating the eastern shoreline of the Mediterranean (Palestine and Syria), which was the direction from which the Hyksos had come. The Egyptians came into conflict with the Hittites, who claimed the same territory resulting in many wars over the course of several centuries. Among their battles with the Hittites, one was fought at Megiddo (1457 BC) - a place where so many battles were fought over the centuries that it became immortalized in the Christian Bible as the apocalyptic battlefield of "Armageddon". Egypt's wars with the Hittites finally resulted in a peace treaty after a great battle at Kadesh in 1274 BC.
"Songs of the Nibelungs" - Germanic pre-Christian history
Wrote "The Prince", appealing to the Medici to provide an ideal leader, which he felt would be an unscrupulous despot who would do anything to succeed. In "The Discourses", he studied ancient Rome and declared representative government superior to despotism. Both works were written in exile.
Asserted Jesus and God as equal; written in response to Arianism, which suggested that Jesus was lower than God
Challenged the geocentric theory in his "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs"; 1473-1543 (from Royal Prussia, which was part of the Kingdom of Poland), he wrote
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
(which was finally published the year of his death due to anticipated controversy), this was the first work to doubt the Ptolemaic view of the universe (it replaced the idea of the universe being geocentric with the idea that is was heliocentric, he came to this conclusion because Ptolemy's view was messy and illogical which conflicted with Greek philosopher Plato's view of a perfectly symmetrical universe), it sparked controversy and was placed on the Index of Prohibited Books (and his view was banned by the Roman Catholic Church until the 1820s)
Egyptian civilization sprang up in northern Africa, along the ______________; this river played a crucial role in the ability of the Egyptians to produce an abundant harvest.
Posted on the church door in Wittenberg, this was Martin Luther's opposition to the sale of indulgences (which promised forgiveness of sins and less time in purgatory)
Governors of nomes
Local districts in Egypt
Believed universals are just words (nomina) used to describe abstractions and did not correspond to any substantial reality.
Characterized by paintings with vibrant colors and oil-based paints, realistic art, the use of italics rather than Gothic script in printing, use of woodcuts (and later, metal plates), and polyphony (several voices singing in harmony).
Supposed water route through North America to the Pacific, sought by France during Age of Exploration
Tapered pillars carved of a single piece of granite 70 - 100 feet tall symbolizing man's aspirations to immortality.
By William of Ockham (founder of nominalism); required a logical explanation for the existence of any entity, rejected Thomism, and went against elaborate scholastic systems of theology.
Caesar's grandnephew, adopted son, and heir who became ruler of Rome. Took on name of Augustus Caesar.
Gothic general who deposed the last Western Roman emperor and became king of Italy
Epic written by Homer about the return of the Mycenaean hero Odysseus, king of Ithaca.
Old Akkadian Period
The period in which Sumer was under Akkadian rule and the Akkadian language began to supersede the Sumerian language.
Old Babylonian Empire
Lasted from about 1792-1600 BC; first empire to rule Mesopotamia after Sumer
Period in Egypt (2700-2200), usually considered to cover the 3rd-6th dynasties. Also called "Age of the Pyramids."; Period of Ancient Egyptian history during which the great pyramids were built, Declined following the reign on Pepi II because of the rise in power of regional nomarchs and the dissolution of a centralized Egyptian government. This period was followed by a period of disunity and conflict called the First Intermediate Period; the 3rd-6th dynasties governed Egypt from about 2700 to 2200 BC, during which the power of the pharaohs was the most supreme. Pharaohs were regarded not merely as representatives of the gods (as in Mesopotamia), but as gods themselves. Thus, ancient Egyptian government was a theocracy. The greatest pyramids were built during this time, particularly during the Fourth Dynasty (at Giza). Pyramids were tombs for the pharaohs and their families to hold their mummified/embalmed bodies and their possessions that they would need for the afterlife (since only pharaohs and their households were thought to be immortal).
Documents of the Hebrew god and his law. Rather than heroic tales of gods and goddesses, this book told takes of men and women both weak and strong.
First held in 776 BC at Olympia to honor the twelve gods of Mt. Olympus
Senators who desired power to remain in the hands of the Senate
"Right teaching" - had to be sanctioned by the imperial government
Successor to Ra as the king of the gods of Ancient Egypt, ______ is credited with teaching men to be civilized and to farm, and for teaching mankind to worship the gods and to build temples. Isis was also a wise and good ruler who taught men how to raise grain. Myth surrounding his death are the foundation for the Egyptian belief in mummification and resurection of the dead. After his death, he became the Judge of the Dead.
Allowed individuals to be exiled for ten years if it was decided he was a potential threat to democract; (to be ostracized): This practice involved exiling a person for ten years if a vote decided that he was a potential threat to democracy. The voting was done by writing the name of the individual on a piece of broken pottery (ostraka).
was originally a practice in the ancient world by; the Athenians temporarily exiled individuals whom they regarded as a threat to democracy
Wrote "Metamorphoses" about myths of transformation and "On the Art of Love"; was banished for a scandal
Paleolithic Age or Old Stone Age
The period prior to 12,000 BC typified by the use of crude stone tools and hunting and gathering for subsistence; describes the majority of 2 million plus years of the existence of homo species; (aka Old Stone Age) The period prior to 8000 BC, characterized by the use of crude stone tools (including the bow and arrow) and hunting and gathering for subsistence (which made them nomadic); Old Stone Age, in which people are believed to have lived nomadic lifestyles, hunting with bows and arrows, gathering fruit, and harnessing fire
Ancient Egyptians used ___________ for writing on.
Alchemist who argued that disease comes from foreign bodies
University and education
Paris became famous for
Temple to Athena built during Pericles' reign on the hill Acropolis.
By German writer Wolfram von Eschenbach, inspired by Arthurian legends
A nomadic agricultural lifestyle based on herding domesticated animals; tended to produce independent people capable of challenging sedentary agricultural societies.
Early societies were ____________, or run by men.
Wealthy, noble class in Rome
Period of Roman peace; 30 BC to AD 180
Peace of Alais
Issued by Cardinal Richelieu to crush a Huguenot rebellion, giving them civil and religious rights but removing their fortified cities and armies
Peace of Augsburg
Allowed the ruler of each state in the Holy Roman Empire to choose whether their state would follow Catholicism or Lutheranism
Peace of Bretigny
Edward III was given Aquitaine (which equaled one third of France), ending the Hundred Years' War temporarily
Peace of God
Movement during Crusades to protect the lives of priests and peasants
Peace of Prague
Treaty between the Swedes and the Hapsburgs, ending the religious aspects of the Thirty Years' War and modifying the Edict of Restitution to settle territorial issues
Claimed Brazil for Portugal, making it the only Portuguese territory in the New World
This man ruled Athens securely from 546-527 B.C. He was a benevolent dictator who funded public works and new religious celebrations. He staffed public offices with his supporters and exiled his enemies; First tyrant of Athens who was a very popular ruler; formed the first contest for tragedy
Land-based defense against outside attacks, led by Sparta
This was fought between the Spartan-led, land-based Peloponnesian League and the Athens-led, naval-based Delian League.
People of the Book
Term given by Muhammed to Jews and Christians; they were to be shown respect by Muslims
Pepin the Short
Son of Charles Martel who became Mayor of the Palace, but wanted to be king. Was crowned by bishop and pope, becoming the first Carolingian king.
When the king of this country died without an heir, it was willed to Rome and became a springboard for later Roman domination of all Asia Minor and the Middle East
This general transformed the Delian League into the Athenian Empire. He also instituted the idea the office-holders be paid for their service. This made it possible for poor citizens to participate in government; Formed the first true democracy in Athens; Athenian statesman and orator who gave the Athenian thetes (poorest citizens) more rights; his rule is known as the Golden Age of Greece. Died of a plague during the Spartan siege of Athens during the Peloponnesian War.
Trade and manufacture was left in the hands of this class of people living in Sparta
Also called Greco-Persian Wars; conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius the Great's expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus.
Founded by Cyrus the Great who expanded the empire across vast lands using a system of local administrators to maintain control.
Persius, Petronius, Juvenal
Noted satirists who were frustrated with the moral decline in Rome
Teacher who wrote "Sic et Non" (Yes and No) to demonstrate how logic could resolve seeming contradictions in Scripture; his career was associated with Paris' rise as a center for theological study
Petition of Right
Reaffirmed the liberties and rights of the English people, officially. Charles I refused to honor it and dismissed Parliament during the subsequent "Eleven Years' Tyranny".
believed in Simple life and meditation
Early Roman and Greek army division, containing about 8000 men; Hoplites were organized into massive units called what? They could defy cavalry charges.
Means "great house"; originally referred to palace, but during the reign of Thutmose III came to mean the king of Egypt
Part god and part king, the __________ was the leader of the Ancient of Egyptians. It was his job to raise the sun, the crops, and the coming of the Nile. He held absolute power over the Egyptians in the present life and in the hereafter.
Resisted the Roman culture by strictly following the Mosaic Law
it was here that Caesar defeated Pompey
The statue of Athena that stood in the Parthenon was sculpted by who? He also sculpted an immense statue of Zeus.
To challenge Dutch naval superiority
Philip II (1556-1598) assembled the Spanish Armada for all the following reasons except; To invade England, To Challenge Dutch naval superiority, to punish England for aiding the Dutch, to restore Catholicism in England, or to depose of Elizabeth I
Philip II of Macedonia
In 403 B.C. Athens restored their democracy but the dis-unified Greek city-states continued to squabble until this man invaded Greece in 338 B.C. and organized them into an alliance known as the League of Corinth.
Philip II of Spain
Opposed to Protestantism who brought the Inquisition to Netherlands (leading to a revolt that ended in Dutch independence); married Mary Tudor; aided French Catholics against Henry of Navarre
Also called Philip Augustus; succeeded in making the monarchy have more power than the nobles; took part in the Crusade of Kings, seized Normandy from King John; would have invaded England if Pope Innocent III hadn't forbidden it.
Philip IV the Fair
of France increased his revenue by Exile the Jews and seize their wealth, destroy the Order of Knights Templar and seize their wealth, debase the coinage, and tax the clergy; Quarrel with Pope Boniface VIII over taxation and trials of clergy led to the "Babylonian Captivity of the papacy"; his reign focused on raising taxes for wars against England and Flanders and called the first meeting of the Estates-General (French Parliament); expelled Jews to seize their property and dissipated the Knights Templar for the same reason.
Philip the Good
Duke of Burgundy who helped England seize Normandy and parts of northwestern France, but twenty years later ended his feud with France and abandoned the English
One of the Sea Peoples, with whom the Hebrews had numerous conflicts over dominion of Canaan
Phillip II of Macedon
(Hellenistic Age359-336 BC) king of a semi-Greek state, invaded Greece in 338 BC and established unity after winning the battle of Chaeronea. He organized the city-states into an alliance known as the League of Corinth, whose members nominally enjoyed self-rule but had to follow Macedon's lead in foreign affairs. Phillip's great ambition was to lead the Greeks in a war of revenge against the Persian Empire, but he was assassinated in 336 BC and the undertaking was left to his son Alexander the Great.
Study of historical linguistics, established during the Italian Renaissance; it was used by Lorenzo Valla to prove the "Donation of Constantine" was forged.
A sea-faring civilization located on the shores on the Eastern Mediterranean; established colonies throughout the Mediterranean and devised a simplified alphabet that greatly influenced the Greek and Latin writing systems; Sea-faring people who adapted the alphabet into a more usable form; main cities were Sidon, Tyre, Carthage, Arwad, and Byblos. "Phoenician" comes from a word meaning "purple" - a dye that they traded
"Brotherhoods" dominated by aristocratic families in Sparta, or divisions within Athenian tribes
The earliest philosophers are known as "Pre-Socratics" and were primarily interested in what?
symbols representing objects
A piece of art with Christ upon his mother's lap
What Greek poet wrote odes of victory for athletic contests?
Wrote odes of victory for athletic contests
After Athens was sacked, the Persians located the Greek fleet and decided to attack. They were lured into a narrow strait and the smaller Greek fleet, led by the Athenians, crushed the Persian fleet which was unable to maneuver. Without a way to supply ground troops, the Persians were defeated on land at this place in 479 B.C.
Socrates' pupil who wrote "Dialogues" to preserve his mentor's legacy. Established the Academy, wrote the "Republic" to suggest a republic is better than a democracy, and "Timaeus" to describe the universe's creation and humanity's place in the cosmos;This student of Socrates wrote "Dialogues" for details of his philosophical doctrines, and founded The Academy.
Plautus and Terence
Roman writers of comedy, which was more popular than tragedy
Poor, lower class in Rome; Small businessmen, farmers
Greek city-state (plural = poleis)
Growing more than one crop at a time
Greek religions was polytheistic or monotheistic?
Conquered Syria and Palestine, eliminated pirates, but his request to reward his soldiers was denied, leading to his joining the 1st Triumvirate; became jealous against Julius Caesar and sided against him
Ponce de Leon
Made the first Spanish landing on North America's mainland when he discovered Florida during his search for the legendary "fountain of youth."
Pont du Gard
Aqueduct in southern France built by the Roman empire
"Supreme pontiff"; head of sacred college of Roman priests; title given to Octavian
Pope Boniface VIII
Claimed that subjection to the pope was necessary for salvation
Pope Clement VII
Denied Henry VIII's request to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Clement was in the power of Holy Roman Emperor Chalres V, who was Catherine's nephew. As a result, England broke with the Catholic Church and Henry became the head of the Church of England.
Pope Gelasius I
Separated civil and ecclesiastical authority; popes and bishops were supreme over human rulers
Pope Gregory I
Gregory the Great, who sent Augustine of Canterbury to convert the Anglo-Saxons; was the first medieval pope; took on political as well as spiritual role; nicknamed the "Doctor of the Church"
Pope Innocent III
King John gave England to this pope
Pope Leo I
Was officially recognized by the Western Roman emperor Valentinian III; crowned Charlemagne
Pope Leo III
Pope who crowned Charlemagne the Roman Emperor
Pope Leo X
Pope who began the sale of indulgences to raise money for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; Albert of Brandenburg sent Johann Tetzel to sell indulgences in Germany
Pope Stephen II
Needing help against Lombards, he crowned Pepin the Short king of the Franks
Senators who demanded reform
A technological advance invented c. 6000 BC encourage higher quality ceramic pottery production.
This official presided at legal trials
Period of Ancient Egyptian history during which permanent settlements were established, stone and crafts work developed, burial practices moved to the outer edges of the territories, and the beginnings of a belief in the afterlife became evident.
Philosophers before Socrates' time who were mostly interested in physics
all events prior to writing (everything before about the Bronze Age in the Fertile Crescent)
New monastic order, also called Norbetines, founded in Premontre, France.
Priests and Magicians
The first economic class not responsible for producing their own food and shelter.
The smaller size of the pyramids during the 5th and 6th dynasties is reflective of the declining power of the Pharaoh and the rise in power of ____________ in an economy of increasing size.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince who promoted navigation and exploration and established a 'school of navigation'
"First citizen"; title preferred by Octavian
Principle crops of Sumer
First wheat, and then the salt-resistant barley after the soil began to sustain high levels of salt
Most important lower office in the Benedictine monasteries
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches (Martin Luther and his Ninety-five theses were a key part of this), the Counter-Reformation (1545-1648) was the Catholic response in order to protect the traditional doctrine which was considered completely without error
The Greek leaders of Egypt after it was conquered by Alexander the Great. These leaders took on much of the Egyptian culture, even calling themselves Pharaoh.
(roman) Alexander the Great's general who was given charge of Egypt after his death, which eventually became the Ptolemaic kingdom; Wrote "Algamest", a book of astronomy offering mathematical proofs for the geocentric theory
(The Roman Republic:) The Romans soon became embroiled with Carthaginians over Sicily as the two empires collided. Carthage (which was founded as a Phoenician colony in North Africa, modern Tunisia, around 800 BC) had expanded into an empire that dominated maritime trade. The rivals engaged in three terrible conflicts known as the Punic Wars ("Punicus" in Latin means "Phoenician") to decide who would control the Mediterranean. The First Punic War (264-241 BC), which consisted of mainly navel battles, gave Sicily to Rome. The Second Punic War (218-201 BC) began in Spain and spread to Italy as the Carthaginian general, Hannibal, daringly crossed the Alps with his war elephants. Although Hannibal raided Italy for 15 years, he was unable to conquer the Romans, who changed tactics after the disastrous Battle of Cannae in 216 BC. Their general Fabian refused to fight Hannibal in a pitched battle, but harassed his supply lines. These "Fabian tactics" prevented Hannibal from breaking the Roman state. The Second Punic War ended when the Romans invaded North Africa under the leadership of Scipio the Elder and defeated the Carthaginians at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. Over half a century of uneasy peace followed until the conclusive Third Punic War (149-146 BC), which was started by the Roman statesman, Cato the Elder, who ended all his speeches with the phrase, "Carthage must be destroyed." Carthage was soon reduced to ruins by Scipio the Younger.
Rome vs. Cathage
Under this system, peasants were hired to specialize in various stages of cloth manufacture, rather than complete the whole process individually
Tombs of the Egyptian Pharaohs.
Believed all reality could be described in terms of mathematical relationships
Mathematical disciplines of the Medieval Ages: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music
This low government position was filled by someone who kept accounts
Queen Elizabeth; (155-1603) was able to strengthen the power of the English monarchy Cooperating with Parliament
The most important gods of Ancient Egypt, ________ was the sun and the begetter of the gods themselves. The myth that he was the first king on earth is the foundation on which the Pharoahs stake their claim of divinity.
Born a commoner, this Pharaoh rose to power at the age of 15 on the coat tails of his family's military prowess and reigned until his death at age 93. As one of Egypt's greatest kings, he relied heavily on propaganda and diplomacy, building temples dedicated to manufacturing tales of his greatness and marrying a Hittite princess to avoid further warfare; aka Ramesses the Great
The last great pharaoh
A period during New Kingdom in which there were twelve pharaohs named Ramesses
Last great Pharaoh of Egypt
Influenced by the Platonic doctrine of Forms and believed that universal concepts exist in an intelligible world.
Attempt by Visigoths and Spanish to take back Spain from the Moors; eventually became considered one of the Crusades. It resulted in the Moors being driven into Granada.
Ancient Sumerian economies were ___________ with Priests charged with caring for the gods and goddesses and then providing for the community.
Rene de Chateaubriand
1768-1848 (French Enlightenment thinker), he studied and wrote about many topics, in his 1802
Genius of Christianity
he discusses the effects religious feelings have on history, government, the arts, nature, and the conscience
1596-1650 (French), he is most credited with formulating the deductive method (which is used by mathematicians, physicists, philosophers, and theologians) which is beginning with general principles and derives particular information from them, ex. he noted the definite principle that he could think and from it derived the particular fact that he existed, "Cogito ergo sum/I think therefore I am" this is an important principle in ontology (the study of being) and which he derived other principles from, he also argued that the fact that humans can contemplate the idea of perfection (even though they have never seen it) must mean that God exists because we could only have gotten the idea from an outside source which is perfect, in 1637 he wrote the influential work
Discourse on Method
, he died in Stockholm where he had been the teacher of Queen Christina of Sweden (1626-1689); Believed human reason alone could hold accurate knowledge (rationalism); said, "I think, therefore I am." Cartesian coordinates are named after him.
"The Lionhearted" who spent most of his reign outside of England and fought in the Crusades
The first civilizations, they created a basic set of tools, intellectual concepts such as writing and mathematics, and political forms that would persist and spread to other parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Most were in decline by 1000 BC.
"Father of Modern Chemistry" who formulated his laws of gases
Robert Cavalier de la Salle
Sailed down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, claiming Louisiana for France (naming it in honor of Louis XIV)
Robert de Sorbon
Wealthy benefactor who founded a college; colleges were originally resident halls for students who couldn't afford to pay living expenses, but were eventually used for instruction, too.
English astronomer, mathematician, and experimental philosopher who was the first to observe microscopic cells.
English scientist and Franciscan monk who stressed the importance of experimentation; he also knew the formula for gunpowder, which was used during the Hundred Years' War
Began developing a theory of experimental science, along with Roger Bacon
Known for being realistic
Also called "Holy Office"; concerned with monitoring newly published books and published its "Index of Prohibited Books" in 1559.
"Roman-like" - rounded arch, barrel vault, tower, high ceilings, thick walls, small windows; elongated, unrealistic sculpture; this architecture was often established by monastic houses
Young ruler who was the last Roman emperor
Supported Parliament during England's civil war; led by Oliver Cromwell
Royal Tombs of Ur
This site suggests human sacrifice and contains beautiful artifacts
Small river Julius Caesar crossed over in rebellion against the Senate's demands that he disband his army and return to Rome
Rudolf I Hapsburg
Austrian king who ended the Great Interregnum; was mostly content with the power he already possessed
Established under Oliver Cromwell; it tried Charles I for treason and beheaded him
Legendary Russian chieftain who became the ruler of the city-state of Novgorod
Supported Roman occupation of the Jewish territory
Samuel de Champlain
Father of New France; founded Quebec, the first permanent French colony in America; also explored New York, discovered Lake Champlain, and traveled through the Great Lakes region
Sappho of Lesbos
Wrote love poetry to women; What Greek poet wrote love poetry about women being attracted to other women?
The name given to the Muslims during the early Middle Ages; gained control of the Mediterranean and attacked Rome in AD 843
Ruler of Akkad, he established the first empire in Mesopotamian civilization conquering and uniting the Sumerian city-states under a centralized bureaucratic government. Installed himself as the mediator between the gods and man, above the priests.
Sargon of Akkad
(c. 2371-2316 BC) King of the Akkadians, he established the first empire in Mesopotamian civilization conquering and uniting the Sumerian city-states under a centralized bureaucratic government. Installed himself as the mediator between the gods and man, above the priests. (His dynasty ruled Mesopotamia, into the Iranian plateau in the east and as far west as Lebanon for about 200 years); is best known for Unifying Mesopotamia by conquering the Sumerian city-states and creating a vast empire; founder of the Akkadian Empire
A new Persian dynasty that launched aggressive campagins in the eastern Roman Empire after Marcus Aurelius' reign
Governor who acted as king, general, and secretary over his satrapy (province in Persia)
Formed by Lutheran princes to defend themselves against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Room in monasteries where texts were copied onto parchments of animal skins
Maritime insurance that minimized the effects of cargo loss
People of uncertain identity who overthrew the empires of the eastern Mediterranean between 1250 and 1150 BC
Began when reunified Muslims retook Edessa and the energetic monk Bernard of Clairvaux persuaded Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany to lead a crusade. Nothing was accomplished; Conrad was defeated before reaching the Holy Land and no attempt was made to actually recapture Edessa.
Second Diet of Speyer
Repealed freedom of worship to Lutheran princes, leading the princes to protest and earning the name Protestants.
Second Intermediate Period
from about 1700 to 1550 BC the Hyksos dominated Egypt (they were strong in the Nile delta, but unable to assert control over the upper reaches of the valley). The Hyksos were finally expelled by a nobleman named Ahmose, who founded the 18th dynasty and inaugurated the era of the New Kingdom.
Second Punic War
War that spread from Spain to Italy as Carthage's General Hannibal crossed the Alps with war elephants. Ended with Hannibal being defeated by Scipio the Elder, Spain being added to Rome, and Numidia being gained as a Roman ally.
Consisted of Marc Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus
Clergy who did not follow a monastic rule
Alexander the Great's general who was given charge of Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia after his death; this eventually became the Seleucid kingdom.
People of Akkad who overruled the Sumerians and assimilated their culture. Simplified the Sumerian cuneiform.
Stoic writer of tragedy who was executed by Nero
By Peter Lombard; main textbook for the study of theology, which, though it was the queen of disciplines, was the least studied.
Brother to the Ancient Egyptian god, Osiris - and credited with his death - _______ stands for all things unpleasant - disorder and warfare.
Organized by St. Louis IX of France to conquer Tunisia, but it ended when Louis died. The Crusades ended when Acre (the last outpost in Holy Land) fell to Muslims
numerical system having a base of 60 (used today in our time system of 60 minutes an hour and 60 seconds per minute)
Intermediate form of ecological adaptation in which temporary forms of cultivation are carried out with little impact on the natural ecology; typical of rainforest cultivators.
Islam division that felt the caliph's position should go to Muhammad's descendents
Sheriff who ran shires in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom
1856-1939 (Austrian) he is considered to be the founder of psychoanalysis, he though that a lot more goes through a person's mind than what they are conscious of and beneath what a person is conscious of is where the irrational, violent, and self-destructive desires prevail, one way to find out what is in the unconsciousness is through dream interpretation, his 1900
The Interpretation of Dreams
was very influential, many of his theories have been rejected but some of the concepts he developed (including the various defense mechanisms people use [which are developed as a way for the "ego" to protect itself from the impulses of the "id"] ex. denial, displacement [aiming your emotional reactions at a safer target], projection [projecting your feelings onto another person]) are worthwhile, he also made a significant contribution to secularization by saying that God is merely a person's "projection" into the heavens of a father figure
Lasted from AD 14-138, in which time freedom of expression was limited; literature from this time is pessimistic
Simon de Montfort
Revolted against the weak Henry III, who wouldn't recognize the amendments to the Magna Carta, called the Provisions of Oxford. Held the first Parliament as a council body, which was eventually divided into a House of Commons and House of Lords.
Sir Francis Bacon
1561-1626 (British), he was the most important early advocate of the scientific method, he was a philosopher (as well as a lawyer and a royal official) but he had little patience with philosophers and theologians when they base their ideas about the world on abstract ideas, he advocated inductive reasoning/the inductive method (gathering particular information and using that information to arrive at a general theory that can be tested using repeatable experimentation) which is the primary method used by many scientists, he was the first major figure to argue that knowledge should be used for the betterment of society, his best known books are
Sir Francis Drake
Circumnavigated the globe and claimed North America's west coast for Queen Elizabeth; was knighted aboard his ship "Golden Hind". Also helped to defeat the Spanish Armada.
Sir Isaac Newton
"Father of Modern Science" who published laws of gravity, among many other accomplishments
Sir Walter Raleigh
Favored courtier of Queen Elizabeth who launched two failed attempts at colonizing Roanoke Island, NC. He was eventually executed under James I for violating orders to not touch the Spanish territories in South America.
Six Eras of Egyptian History
The archaic or early dynastic period, the Old Kingdom, the 1st Intermediate peroid, Middle Kingdom, 2nd Intermediate period, the New Kingdom
Began when St. Louis IX of France invaded Egypt and took Damietta. He was forced to surrender and pay a huge ransom.
This philosophy questioned the very possibility of philosophical certainty
First female pharaoh of Egypt; the Middle Kingdom ended with her death
This war began when Rome's allies seceded until the Senate granted them full citizenship
This philosopher considered himself one who helped others learn the truth for themselves (by asking questions) and he did not charge tuition. He did not write any books. Was found guilty of corrupting the morals of the youth and was executed; Philosopher who focused on ethics. Was executed by drinking hemlock for corrupting the morals of youth with his 'subversive' questioning.
In 594 B.C. this man was elected archon and given powers (like Draco) to deal with the crisis of the over-indebted farmers who were threatening violence. He canceled debts and restored freedom to those in slavery, but stopped short of redistributing the land; Archon who wrote a constitution for Athens and temporarily restored order to the city-state
"Wise men" - relativists who were paid to make pupils well-informed, skillful public speakers and future politicians; A group that opposed slavery and racial discrimination
This Greek playwright was also motivated by religious and moral themes, expressing deep sorrow for human beings born into a world of suffering and ignorance. He wrote "Oedipus" and "Antigone"; Famous tragedy writer; wrote "Oedipus" and "Antigone"; focused on the plight of humans in a world of suffering and ignorance.
Where was the most intensely populated region of Greek colonization? It became known as "Great Greece" to the Romans.
Begun by Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile; first inquisitor was the cruel Tomas de Torquemada. Was directed towards Maranos (converted Jews suspected of still practicing Judaism), Moriscos (Muslim converts), and later, Protestants.
City-state in Greece known for its strict military training that was required for all male citizens 7 years old and up; Located in the Peloponnesus, this city-state came to dominate the peninsula after fighting two wars against its neighbor, Messenia.
this gladiator led one of the most famous slave revolts in Rome
Citizens of Sparta; had to have only Spartan ancestry
St. Ambrose of Milan
Bishop who forced Emperor Theodosius to do public penance for a massacre under threat of excommunication; thus challenging the power of the state and demonstrating the Church's psycological power
Led Irish monks to convert the Picts in Scotland
Translated the Bible from Hebrew and Greek into Latin - thus, the Latin Vulgate
Organized communities of monks
St. Simon Stylites
Hermit who lived on top of a pillar in Syria
St. Thomas Aquinas
Dominican friar who wrote "Summa Theologiae" (Summary of Theology) to propose reconciliation of faith and reason; it became a favored work of the Catholic Church. Teachings became foundation of Thomism.
Standard of Ur
This was found in the Royal Tombs of Ur and depicts Sumerian times of War and Peace on either side
is a Greek school of philosophy involving Unhappiness is not caused by external events in themselves, but rather by our opinions about external events. It is within our power to change our thoughts about an event, and we can free ourselves from unhappiness by freeing ourselves from desire. Thus, if we no longer desire events to turn out one way or another, we will never be disappointed by them, and we can live a tranquil life, free from worry and unhappiness."
This philosophy urged the complete suppression of desire so that a state of enlightened apathy would blunt the psychological impact of misfortunes.
Wrote a 17-volume "Geography"
System with knights at bottom and the king at the top
Sumerian relationship with their gods was ___________. Humans were created to do the manual labor for the gods.
Suleiman the Magnificent
The greatest ruler of the Ottoman Turks; captured Hungary in the Battle of Mohacs and unsuccessfully lay siege to Vienna.
Champion of the Senate's optimates who defeated Mithridates and eventually became a dictator in Rome. He resigned after lawmaking was put totally in the Senate's control.
started about 3200 BC, in the southern region of Mesopotamia. they had city-states that fought for control of the water.
1. Nobles, 2. Commoners, 3. Clients (rich temple employees and workers for nobility, 4. Slaves
Golden Age of Ur; during this time the Sumerian language was revived for use in official documents, though the Akkadian language still remained commonly spoken
A unit of weight for measuring barley; at first was a sack of barley with a fixed weight, and later became metal shekels
Sumerians: Migrated into Mesopotamia circa 4000 BC; created the first civilization within the region; organized area into city-states; established the first form of writing, cuneiform; First to develop money, weights and measures, and hours; their life was filled with anxiety and pessimism because the gods themselves were unstable and the idea of an afterlife was unknown
Islam division that felt the caliph's position did not have to go to Muhammad's descendents
Third phase of the Thirty Years' War (1630-35); began when Gustavus Adolphus defeated General Tilly's army, liberating north Germany from the Hapsburgs and seizing Catholic lands in south Germany. Ended in Ferdinand's victory once again, even though Wallenstein was assassinated in 1634.
Local governments that revolted against the Hapsburgs and became Switzerland
similar to an alphabet, but consisting of syllables rather than letters
Making two different gods the same - such as Amon-Ra, who was a combination of Amon and Ra
Synod of Whitby
This council accepted Latin practices in the Celtic church
Wrote "Germania", deploring the decline of Roman virtues and ironically praising barbarians' heroic simplicity
Combination of the Mishnah and Gemara; partly formed in response to the rise of Christianity
Tarquin the Proud
Etruscan king; a revolt against this king led to the establishment of the Roman Republic
Eroded buildings flattened out to make foundation for new building; these grew gradually until they had elevated whole cities above the ground
Order that became wealthy and powerful with innovative banking methods; when Philip IV of France became jealous of them, he circulated rumors about them and then dissipated them to confiscate their assets
The moral code divined to Moses by the Hebrew god. Unlike the Code of Hammurabi, rich and poor were treated equally.
"Rule by four emperors"; Rome was divided into 4 prefectures under 2 emperors called Augusti and two assistants/successors called Caesars.
After the Germanic tribes under Arminius annihilated Augustus' forces here, Roman attempts to conquer them were ended and there was peaceful trade for a time
Operated in Europe instead of Israel; most active in Baltic region where they fought Slavs. Were given Prussia by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II to convert the Prussians.
Thales of Miletus
First Pre-Socratic who tried to identify the substance making up all objects; This philosopher tried to identify the most basic substance that constitutes all physical objects.
it was here that Caesar defeated the Senate's forces
(so called by the Egyptians) These people upset the Egyptian-Hittite balance of power. These invaders overthrew the empires of the eastern Mediterranean between about 1250 and 1150 BC.
What body of water, located between the Balkan peninsula and Anatolia, made sea-faring an important aspect of Greek life?
Areopagus or "Hill of Ares"
Athens was guided by a council named after the god of war. What was this called?
What peninsula were the Greek city-states located on? It was a mountainous region that hampered overland travel and communication.
a famous Akkadian statue showing great skill
fleas and rats
The Black Plague was spread by
borders of India
Where was Alexander when his men mutinied and declared they wanted to return home.
Code of Hammurabi
was A collection of laws in which justice was meted out by the king on behalf of the gods according to a principle of harsh punishments which corresponded to specific crimes.
The Convocation of a church council to clarify, the publication of an index of prohibited books, the establishment of a new inquisition, and the founding of new religious orders
Dark Age of ancient Greece was caused by what?
The migration of the Dorians into Mycenaean centers of civilization.
Little is known from about 1100-800 B.C.; The Dorians were culturally less advanced and the art of writing and the administrative skills were lost, which ushered in what age in ancient Greek history?
The Athenians wanted to form an alliance system like Sparta's and organized this group
democracy of Athens
in the fifth century B.C.E. this was revolutionary in the ancient world because all male citizens, not just those born into prominent or wealthy families, participated directly in the administration of government.
is An inventory of property in Norman England used to determine taxes.
Bartolome de Las Casas
was a Dominican friar and early critic of Spanish imperialism in the New World
by the early 18th century intellectuals more commonly believed that all human phenomena could be understood through the study of the natural world instead of through religion (for example, church authorities had opposed theories like the heliocentric universe which had turned out to be true), there were very few atheists but many les lumieres/enlightened ones/philosophers were deists (believing in a God who is like a watchmaker, God created the universe but doesn't involve Himself with it, like laissez faire), some of these people believed that humans could create perfect societies after they uncovered the truth about how the world and people operate, most key figures were Frenchmen who admired England's political system (the monarch and Parliament sharing power) because France had a lack of freedom (they were preceded by Francois Fenelon 1651-1715 was a writer and Catholic bishop who revered but also criticized Louis XVI for his excessive power and advocated a limited monarchy and the equality of all people in the eyes of the law, he died in exile)
Code of Hammurabi
The first set of laws recorded; supposedly recorded in 1756 BC. AKA Lex Talionis or "An eye for an eye."
The funds/money to maintain the fleet
The Delian League was a naval alliance. Athens supplied the ships necessary to patrol the shores and raid Persian cities, and the other members provided what?
The Golden Bull of 1356
was an established college of electors made up of seven German states which were responsible for choosing the Holy Roman Emperor
The Greeks founded numerous colonies throughout the Mediterranean basin and the Black Sea from c. 700 to 550 B.C.E. primarily in order to
Relieve socio-economic tensions in mainland Greece
The Hanseatic League
was a commercial association of northern German cities to promote trade in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea
The Iliad of Homer is an epic poem based on
The war against Troy waged by the Mycenaeans
The Lion's Gates
The Mycenaean entryway is a famous sculpture called what?
The Minoans who lived on the isle of Crete
The Mycenaeans owed much of their cultural advancement to what people? They learned from them the art of writing and the method of administration that centered on the royal palace.
What athletic contest was first held in 776 B.C. at Olympia to honor the gods of Mt. Olympus?
This was the temple to Athena
("Roman peace") was a period of about 200 years, from the reign of Augustus (27 BC-14 AD) to the death of Marcus Aurelius (161-180 AD), that had stability and prosperity. Foreign wars of conquest continued on the borders, but Rome was free of civil wars (with the exception of the year 68 AD, when four rivals claimed the imperial throne upon Nero's death). Augustus managed to unit the Mediterranean, but his invasion of Germany failed in 9 AD. The Empire continued to expand elsewhere for over a hundred years (most notably into Britain in 43 AD and Dacia, in the Balkan peninsula, in 106 AD). The Roman Empire was at its greatest extent in 117 AD, when Roman legions briefly occupied Mesopotamia.
(led by Athens); Greece was now (431 B.C.) organized into two armed camps. What were they?
was an alliance of Greek city-states led by Sparta
In order to defend itself from outside threats, Sparta formed a system of alliances known as what? This achieved a relative level of unity.
was caused by Sparta's fear of Athenian imperialistic expansion
pyramids of Egypt
provide evidence for Belief in the afterlife among ancient Egyptians, sophistication of Egyptian engineering, great power of Egyptians Kings, and the exceptional size and splendor of the building projects
Romance of the Rose
Allegorical poem by Guillaume de Lorris and completed by Jean de Meun
The Sea Peoples raided and the mainland centers were overrun by the Dorians
Around 1100 B.C., the Mycenaeans were destroyed by what two groups of people?
The Social War (90-88 B.C.E.)
Was fought over the extension of Roman Citizenship
The Song of Roland
Old French poem describing Charlemagne's rearguards' heroic defense
the Space Race
during the Cold War the US and Soviets vied for dominance in outer space, in 1956 the Soviets were the first to launch a satellite (which was called Sputnik) into space, President Kennedy encouraged Americans to work toward landing a man on the moon and the American flag was planted on the moon in 1969 when Neil Armstrong stepped out of his spacecraft saying, "That's one small step for a man; one giant leap for mankind."
The Persians used the civil war in Greece to their advantage by playing the Spartans (fleet paid for by the Persians) against the Athenians. In 404 B.C., the peace treaty stated that the losing city's defensive walls would be torn down and they could never build a fleet or attempt to revive their empire. Who won?
the Thirty Tyrants
they were friendly to Sparta; An oligarchy took over the city of Athens and the classical culture of the Greeks declined. What was this governing body called?
Christians reformers who denounced the accumulation of wealth and were declared heretics at the Fourth Lateran Council (1215)
A kind of Mesopotamian temple
These kings ruled Upper Egypt during the 11th and 12th dynasties, with their capital in Thebes
Capital of Ancient Egypt during most of the New Kingdom.
Athenian who lured the Persians into the narrow strait near the island of Salamis, where they were soundly defeated by the Athenians; also advised Athens to build walls around itself and its port after the Greco-Persian Wars.
Reversed decrees banning the veneration of 'icons' (images of Christ and saints)
King of Ostrogoths who was sent by the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno to overthrow Odoacer; upon doing so, he became the king of Italy
10 years after their defeat at Marathon, the Persians attacked the Greeks again. This time Athens partnered with the Spartans and the Peloponnesian League. Sadly, the Spartans lost a key battle at THIS PLACE and the Athenians had to abandon their city.
The lowest class of Sparta; they could participate in the Assembly and serve in lower courts. Served as rowers in the army.
They simplified the letter-forms and added vowels.
How did the Greeks changed the Phoenicians alphabet?
Crusade of Kings, which began when the Prince of Egypt, Saladin, captured Jerusalem after the Battle of Hattin and Richard I the Lion-Hearted of England, Philip II Augustus of France, and Frederick I Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire united in a crusade. Barbarossa drowned on the way and his army returned home; Philip couldn't cooperate with Richard and went home; Richard only won back Acre and was given control of the coastal cities and rights to pilgrims
third dynasty of Ur
About 2100 BC the Sumerian city of Ur attained control of Mesopotamia after the Akkadian empire had been weakened by foreign invasions. They ruled for about 100 years before Mesopotamia fell into a period of chaos during which no single dynasty controlled the entire region (c. 2000-1900 BC). By the time unity was restored the Sumerians had lost their identity as a distinct group.
Third Punic War
War in which Numidia and Rome fought Carthage together, ending with Scipio the Younger completely destroying Carthage.
Tyrants friendly to Sparta who took control of Athens and established an oligarchy there after the Peloponnesian War
Thirty Years' War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. It was divided into four phases
Outlined England's theological stance
Archbishop of Canterbury - later became a saint
English philosopher who made non-religious arguments for absolutism; argued in his "Leviathan" that human life in nature is solitary and cruel, and that the only hope for establishing order was to be found in an absolute monarch
Wrote "Utopia", criticizing English society and describing an ideal society in which possessions are spread evenly among people; however, it is suggested that such a society can not exist because people are not perfect.
This Greek historian wrote an account of the Peloponnesian War. He had been a general and spent the rest of his life interviewing participants from both sides. The account is remarkably impartial and methodically resolved contradictions in eyewitness reports.Wrote a balanced account of the Peloponnesian War and recorded Pericles' funeral oration.
Tribune who championed the cause of the poor until he was assassinated
Augustus' stepson who became unpopular for trying to curtail the circuses; one of the Claudian emperors
Tigris, Euphrates, and Nile
Three main rivers of the Fertile Crescent.
Dating to 3500 BC, this civilization is one of the few cases of a civilization that started from scratch—with no examples from any place available for imitation. Characterized by the development of astronomical sciences, intense religious beliefs, and tightly organized city-states. This civilization included the Sumerians development of cuneiform writing and the rise of the Babylonian's establishment Hammurabi's Code.
During his reign, Jerusalem was captured and Mt. Vesuvius erupted
Special garment worn by Romans seeking election as praetors or consuls
International events facilitating trade. The most famous ones were in Champagne, France.
Tragedy and Comedy
What are the two main categories of Greek drama?
Erected by Emperor Trajan to commemorate the conquest of Dacia
Second of the "Five Good Emperors" who extended the empire's frontiers
Tready of Verdun
Divided the Roman Empire between Louis the Pious' three sons, setting the stage for the formation of France and Germany
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
Ended Valois-Hapsburg Wars, giving Spain dominance over France in Italy
Treaty of Lodi
Florence, Milan, and Venice organized an alliance against the Papal States and the Kingdom of Naples
Treaty of Mensen
Decided new boundaries after Lothair the Elder's kingdom began to fall apart
Treaty of Tordesillas
Divided the New World between Spain and Portugal with the Tordesillas line; Portugal could claim any land east of it, and Spain could claim any land west of it; subsequently, Portugal focused on Africa, India, Indonesia, and Brazil, while Spain focused on the New World and the Philippines
Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
Ended the Thirty Years' War, giving territory to France and Sweden, officially recognizing Switzerland and the Netherlands (as well as 300 states in the Holy Roman Empire), establishing Calvinism as an accepted religion, and ruled that any prince who chose a religion for his state and then changed his faith would forfeit his rule (which helped to halt the spread of Protestantism); it recognized the Swiss Confederacy/Switzerland and the United Provinces of Holland/Dutch Republic as sovereign nations which were independent of Hapsburg control, as well as other states of the Holy Roman Empire which effectively eliminated the Empire as a meaningful political entity, and France became the most powerful state on the Continent.
This office was formed to meet the demands of the plebeians; a person in this position could veto any laws harmful to the plebeian class.
Athenian warships with three banks of oars, used in the Battle of Salamis
Tristan and Isolt
By German writer Gottfried von Strassburg, inspired by Arthurian legends
Linguistic disciplines of the Medieval Ages: grammar, rhetoric, and logic (dialectic)
The Mycenaens were at the height of power from about 1400-1200 B.C. when they conquered the Minoans on Crete and sacked what city in Anatolia?
Truce of God
Movement during Crusades to limit the number of days when combat could take place
True or False? Greek drama was one of the many ways that the Greeks honored their gods. It had its origins in religious festivals.
True or False? Romans were entranced by Greek art and architecture so much that they aristocrats adopted Greek as a second language.
True or False? The ancient Greeks considered all non-Greeks to be barbarians, regardless of their cultural achievements.
True or False? The Greeks considered their poets to be divinely inspired, able to answer the central questions of life and death.
Tsar Peter the Great/Peter I
(prior to the late 17th century Russia drew very little from Western culture) he turned Russia towards the West because he saw European countries growing more powerful and successful and wanted the same for Russia, he copied Western methods of military and economic organization, he required men in Russia's upper class and government officials to shave their beards, the French language and Western clothing became popular among Russia's important people, privileged youth were sent to western Europe for education and Western art was imported into Russia, in his Northern War (1700-1721) he fought the Swedish using techniques he had learned from the Swedes, he brought Russia's Orthodox Church under state control, improved the administration of Russian government, and built Russia's new capital/St. Petersburg (his "window to Europe") in western Russia
Assyrian king who won victories against the Hittites and Babylonians
Two achievements of Athens
Vineyards and Olive Yards
During this young Pharaoh's reign, the priests and military leaders who has lost power during the reign of his predecessor, Akenhaten, seized the opportunity to use the boy as their puppet and return Egypt to its traditional religion.
Stepson of Hatshepsut, he lead the military expeditions during her reign. When he became Pharaoh, he enlisted thousands of men to help him capture more land than any other Pharaoh before him. At the time, he ruled the largest empire ever ruled by one king.
Focused on reviving the study of the ancient classics
Originally referred to a ruler with absolute power; Aristotle gave it the negative meaning it carries today
Persuaded Zurich, Switzerland to reject papal authority and many Catholic practices in favor of following the New Testament as closely as possible; half of the Swiss Cantons became Protestant; the remaining "Forest cantons" did not. When war broke out, he was killed while serving as a chaplain for the Protestant forces in the Battle of Kappel.
Second caliph who started the jihads
Dynasty begun by Muawiyah (caliph chosen by Sunnis), with capital in Damascus; did not encourage conversion to Islam for tax reasons
Bull issued by Pope Boniface VIII in an effort to reassert papal authority over kings and emperors; in response, Philip IV of France took him prisoner - he escaped and died soon after.
unification of the Greeks as a whole
Loyalty to one's "polis" encouraged fierce regionalism that led to warfare between neighbors and prevented what?
Union of Utrecht
Alliance of the northern Dutch provinces that declared independence and formed the Dutch Republic of the United Provinces
Originally guilds of scholars; the earliest were founded in Bologna and Paris. Oxford was soon founded by scholars in Paris. Degrees were granted as proof that students had met requirements to become guild masters. They had four faculties: liberal arts, law, medicine, and theology, usually specializing in one of the last three.
Pope elected by the College of Cardinals when mob demanded an Italian pope; when he refused to cooperate with the cardinals, they declared his election invalid and chose Clement VII instead. He refused to step down and created his own College of Cardinals, supported by England, Ireland, Scandinavia, Hungary, and Poland-Lithuania - beginning the Great Schism
Third caliph who gave important positions to members of the old Meccan elite, thus causing dissension and leading to his assassination; arguments over his successor led to the Shiite and Sunni divisions within Islam
Four wars fought between Francis I and Charles V of Hapsburg; ended with Francis being captured and Burgundy and Italy being surrendered to Charles
Led Suevi and Alans groups into North Africa under King Gaiseric; raided Italy and Rome (the term vandalism comes from them)
Vikings from Scandinavia who moved into Russia
Vasco da Gama
Rounded the Cape of Good Hope in Africa and sailed across the Indian Ocean to Calicut, India, becoming the first European to reach the Far East by sea
Vasco de Balboa
Crossed the Isthmus of Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean lay between the New World and Far East
Northumbrian monk who chronicled the Anglo-Saxons' early history in Britain in "History of the English Church and People"
Outside trade Venice became famous for
Was Athenian drama written in prose or in verse?
did not appear until the 5th century B.C. and was mostly used in scientific analysis of a subject rather than in the artistic presentations
First of Flavian Emperors who restored order to Rome after Nero's death
Wrote "Aenid" about Rome's foundation by the fugitive Trojan prince, Aeneas; this was written at Augustus' request and "prophesies" his glorious reign
"West Goths" who killed Emperor Valens in AD 378 and sacked Rome in 410 (this was the first time in 800 years that Rome had been seized by outsiders)
1870-1924 he was the most important Russian radical, he was exiled in Switzerland for many years but Germany helped him to return to Russia (in order to make Russia unstable, which would help Germany)
Followers of Waldo of Lyons, who gave his property to the poor and embraced a life of poverty. They preached against the bishops' luxury.
Major contributor to the spread of culture.
The early degree of organization of communities in the Fertile Crescent and primarily in Egypt can be attributed to the need for ________.
four consequences of the Fourth Crusade
Feudal states were established in Greece, The patriarch of Constantinople attended the Fourth Lateran Council, A legacy of ill will was engendered between Muslims and Christians, and the Venetians acquired a monopoly on Byzantine trade.
What the geography of Greece did
It favored the formation of small, self-governing city-states.
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)?
It divided the New World between Spain and Portugal.
Treaty of Westphalia
It recognized the Dutch Netherlands and Switzerland as sovereign states, it formally ended the Thirty Years' War, It allowed each of the German principalities within the Holy Roman Empire to conduct its own foreign policy, and it reaffirmed the principle that the ruler of a German principality should decide the religious alignment of his state.
why the capital of the Roman Empire was moved to the East?
The increasingly frequent threats to the northern and eastern borders, as well as the greater wealth of the eastern provinces, made the east attractive as a more effective administrative location.
Invented by Sumerians between 3500 and 3000 BC
Who wrote "The Iliad"?
Who wrote 'The Prince"?
Who wrote the "Divine Comedy"?
Whose is not a Greek poet out of the following; Archilochus, Pindar, Ovid, Hesiod, or Sappho of Lesbos
Whose rise to fame and fortune was based on his service as a privateer, where he claimed part of the American west coast for his native land and was hailed as the first of his countrymen to circumnavigate the globe; being knighted for services?
English physician who discovered the role of the heart in the circulatory system and wrote about it in his "On the Motion of the Heart"
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy who took control of England after Edward the Confessor; recorded a census in the Domesday Book and replaced the Witan (nobles) with the Great Council (vassals)
William the Silent was
A leader in the Dutch struggle for independence.
The position of _________ was less free and equal in agricultural societies than in hunting societies.
Yahweh or Jehovah
Name for the Hebrew god.
Younger Edda and Elder Edda
The Vikings' oral traditions recorded in Old Norse by Snorri Sturluson
Violently opposed Roman occupation of the Jewish territory
Zeno of Citium
Taught Stoicism at a building called Stoa; promoted a life of apathy
Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Poseidon, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Dionysus, Hermes, Athena, Demeter
Name the 12 Olympians
Located at the center of each Sumerian city-state, this was a massive stepped tower upon which a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of the city-state.
This preeminent religion in Persia worshipped the god Ahura Mazda, who was perfect and good, but battled the dark Ahriman. It believed the universe was caught up in this struggle between good and evil, and believed in Heaven, Hell, and a Last Judgment.
Founder of the old kingdom
T/F: Ironically, an organized movement to abolish the international slave trade emerged first in Britain, the country that profited most from it.
Which of these explains urban growth in eighteenth-century western Europe?
Which best describes the effort to convert China to Christianity in the sixteenth through the eighteenth century?
How did royal power in England progress from William to Henry II to John to Edward I?
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