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A = Young patient
B = Old patient

Which patient is older and which is younger?

1st Molar
2nd Molar

The developing tooth follicle of permanent premolars is located within the bifurcation or trifurcation of what primary teeth?

1st molar
Central Incisor
Lateral Incisor

From birth to 1 year, what permanent teeth are initiating calcification?

1 year

By what age are all tooth crowns complete?


Most teeth contact how many teeth in the opposing arch?

2nd Premolar (6 degrees)

From a proximal reference point, which mandibular teeth display the smallest deviation from the vertical axis?*

3.25 years (39 months)

When is root formation complete for primary teeth?

3 years

When is tooth occlusion evident?

4 years

When does anterior tooth spacing become evident? (primate spacing)

6 years

Anterior tooth spacing stops by what age?

6 years old
Anterior tooth spacing stops
Permanent 1st molars erupted

When is this? What are the key identifiers of age?

9 years

When do the 3rd molars begin calcification?

13-16 weeks

When does calcification begin in utero?

18-20 weeks

When have all primary teeth initiated calcification in utero?


# of teeth in the primary dentition

20 months

At what age have all primary teeth emerged except for the second molars?

29 months

When does the last primary tooth emerge?

A= Anatomic Crown (does not change with age)
B = Clinical Crown (changes with age/different factors affecting gingival tissue)

(A) Which crown?
(B) Which crown?

Anatomic Crown

Portion of the tooth covered by enamel (doesn't change)

Apical Third

From a facial view, what is the most lateral root portion of an anterior tooth arbitrarily named?

Axial Surface

What is the more generic term for mesial, distal, facial, and lingual surfaces? (posterior teeth have 4 of these)

Between central incisors (midline)
3rd molars

Where would you find two mesial surfaces making a proximal surface? What other teeth only have 1 proximal surface?

Mandibular 1st molar
Mandibular central incisor

When is this? What crowns are completely calcified?

Calcification or Mineralization

Process by which the tissues of the developing tooth become hardened by the deposits of calcium salts.


In the mandibular anterior teeth, what tooth has a middle third proximal contact point on its distal side?

Central Incisor (2 degrees)

From a facial reference point, which maxillary teeth display the smallest deviation from the vertical axis?*

Central Incisor
Lateral Incisor
Canine (cuspid)
First Molar
Second Molar

Name the teeth contained in one quadrant of the primary dentition

Cervical Ridge

What is the height of contour (or greatest convexity) found on all facial surfaces, and on lingual surfaces of anterior teeth, at the cervical third of the crown?

Cervical third (0.5 mm)

The height of contour of the maxillary posterior teeth on the facial surface is located where?

Cervical third (0.5 mm)

The height of contour of the maxillary anterior teeth, both facially and lingually, is located where?

Clinical Crown

Portion of the tooth that is clinically visible (changes with age)


Is an ideal plane of occulsion flat or curved?

Curved plane of occlusion

Permits simultaneous functional contacts to occur in controlled areas of the dental arch. Permits maximum use of tooth contacts during function.

Cusp tip to the cingulum

The lingual ridge of a canine extends from what two tooth landmarks?

Dental Follicles

A sac-like structure that contains the developing tooth within the osseous structures of the jaw.

Distal or posterior to the primary molars

Where are the developing follicles of permanent molars located?


The precise stage of tooth development as it first appears or emerges through the gingiva


The continuous and dynamic movement of the tooth as it develops from its initial calcification stage until it reaches occlusal contact with a tooth in the opposing arch.


Loss of a tooth from the oral cavity

False (A groove is at the bottom of a sulcus)

True or False: Sulcus and groove are used interchangeably.

False (Triangular ridge of a distofacial cusp )

True or false: The arrow indicates a lingual ridge of the distofacial cusp.

False (Triangular ridge of the distolingual cusp)

True or False: The arrow indicates a facial ridge of the distolingual cusp.


Do males or females exhibit earlier eruption timeframes?

First premolar (5 degrees)

From a proximal reference point, which maxillary teeth display the smallest deviation from the vertical axis?*

Gingival tissue and interseptal bone accomodation

Why is the gingival embrasure larger than the incisal embrasure?


Cusp classification with a single cone structure

Height of Curvature of the Cervical Line

Measures the lowest point on the cervical line to the highest point on the cervical line in the middle of the proximal surface.

Incisogingival ovoid

What describes the shape of the proximal contact point?

Lateral Incisor (0 degrees)

From a facial reference point, which mandibular teeth display the smallest deviation from the vertical axis?*

Letters (A-T)

Primary teeth are identified by _________


Is the dental follicle of developing permanent anterior teeth positioned facial or lingual to the primary tooth roots?

Lingual Heights of Contour

The raised or convex contour on the lingual surface of posterior teeth found in the middle third. Not a ridge.

Lingual Ridges

A special ridge to canines that is NOT found on the facial surface. This is the only anterior tooth to have this anatomy.

Man = II II IM

What are the locations of proximal contact areas in the mandible?


In primary dentition, do the mandibular or maxillary teeth usually erupt before namesakes in the opposing structure?

Mandibular central incisor
Maxillary 2nd Molar

The first primary tooth to erupt in the oral cavity is the _______. The last primary tooth to erupt into the oral cavity is the ________.

Mandibular central incisors

Which mandibular teeth have only ONE antagonist in the opposing arch?

Max = IJ JM JM

What are the locations of proximal contact areas in the maxilla?


Is the mandible or maxilla larger from the distal of one third molar through the middle of each tooth to the opposite side third molar?

Maxillary 2nd Molar, 11 months

What is the last primary tooth crown to be completed? How old is the child?

Maxillary 3rd molars

Which maxillary teeth have only ONE antagonist in the opposing arch?

Maxillary canine

At age 11, the mandibular 2nd premolar emerges slightly before what tooth?

Maxillary Central Incisor, 1.5 months

What is the first primary tooth to have a completed crown? How old is the child?

Maxillary Central Incisor (mesial is largest, 3.5mm)

Which tooth has the greatest mesial curvature at the cervical line?

maxillary central incisors
mandibular central incisors
mandibular lateral incisors
1.5 years

What are the first maxillary and mandibular primary tooth roots to completely form? How old is the child?

Maxillary teeth have a greater height of curvature

Is the height of curvature at the cervical line different in the maxilla and mandible?


An anterior transverse ridge is exhibited only on permanent _______ molars. It is confluent with the mesial marginal ridge, obliterating much of the mesial _______ fossa.


Is the height of curvature of the cervical line greater on the mesial or distal side?

Mesial and Distal Lingual Fossa

Lingual ridges of anterior canines create what surfaces?

Mesial of the maxillary lateral incisor
Mesial of the maxillary canine

Where would you find a proximal contact area at the junction of the incisal and middle thirds in the maxilla?

Mesial Third

From an incisal view, the surface of tooth that is closer to the midline is arbitrarily referred to as what?

Mesiofacial cusp
Distofacial cusp
Mesiolingual cusp

The Trigon primary cusp triangle on a maxillary molar consists of what cusps?

Middle Third

From a mesial view, what is the middle portion of the tooth/root anatomy arbitrarily named?

Middle third (0.5 mm)

The height of contour of the maxillary posterior teeth on the lingual surface is located where?


Is the anterior proximal contact most incisal at the midline or distally?


Which teeth have little to no curvature?

No, only permanent centrals, laterals, canines, and 1st/2nd premolars

Are the permanent first, second, and third molars considered succedaneous teeth?

Oblique fibers

What periodontal fibers resist forceful impaction of a tooth into the alveolus, consistent with many types of trauma?

Oblique Ridge

What is an example of a transverse ridge that is not a pure transverse ridge?

Oblique Ridge

A special transverse ridge which forms from the union of the triangular ridge of the distofacial cusp and the distal cusp ridge of the mesiolingual cusp.


Orthodontic forces on the periodontal fibers cause the activity of what type of cells?

Periodontal ligament

Attaches tooth to alveolar bone by insertion into the cementum and bone

Permanent 1st Molars

What molars erupt at age 6?

Permanent incisors
Permanent 1st premolars
Permanent 1st molars

Calcification of what PERMANENT crowns have completed by age 6?

Permanent maxillary 1st, 2nd, 3rd molars
Primary maxillary 1st, 2nd molar

Where are oblique ridges found in the permanent and primary dentition?

2nd Molars

From years 2-4, what permanent teeth are initiating calcification?

3rd molar

Posterior teeth that are absent from primary dentition


Initial mineralization of the primary dentition is entirely completed when?


On the mandibular first molar, what is the primitive cusp name for the following:
MF cusp
DF cusp
D cusp
ML cusp*
DL cusp

Proximal, Adjoining Axial surface, then occlusal surface (ex: mesiofacial-occlusal point angle)

How do you name a point angle on a posterior tooth?

Proximal Surface

The place where the mesial of one tooth contacts the distal of the adjacent


In order to be a ______ transverse ridge, both ridges must be triangular.

Quadritubercular Molar

Cusp classification with four cusps in a rectangular or rhomboid form. Seen in humans.

Root Completion

The process of completed calcification of a tooth, whereby the apical foramen has anatomically closed.


A depression or valley (negative anatomy) on the surface of a tooth between two ridges and/or cusps of which the inclines meet at an angle.

Tooth Follicle

Center of calcification that contains the developing tooth and odontogenic organ.

Transseptal fibers

What periodontal fibers connect one tooth to and adjacent tooth across the interproximal space?


Cusp classification with three cusps in a straight line

Tritubercular Molar

Cusp classification with three cusps in a primary triangle.


True or False: The base of a triangular fossa is a marginal ridge.


True or False: The teeth are strategically positioned in the arches at varied and coordinated degrees of inclination.

Twenty Months
2nd primary molars

When is this? What has yet to emerge in the primary dentition at this time?

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