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167 terms

Organizational Behavior

STUDY
PLAY
manager
An individual who achieves goals through other people
organization
a consciously coordinated special unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals
planning
a process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities
organizing
determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made
leading
a function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts
controlling
monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations
figurehead
(interpersonal role) symbolic head; required to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature
leader
(interpersonal role) responsible for the motivation and direction of employees
liaison
(interpersonal role) maintains a network of outside contacts who provide favors and information
monitor
(informational role) receives a wide variety of information; serves as nerve center of internal and external information of the organization
disseminator
(informational role) transmits information received from outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization
spokesperson
(informational role) transmits information to outsiders on organization's plans, policies, actions, and results; serves as expert on organization's industry
entrepreneur
(decisional role) searches organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change
disturbance handler
(decisional role) responsible for corrective action when organization faces important, unexpected disturbances
resource allocator
(decisional role) makes or approves significant organizational decisions
negotiator
(decisional role) responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations
technical skills
the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise
human skills
the ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups
conceptual skills
the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations
traditional management
decision making, planning, and controlling
communication
exchanging routine information and processing paperwork
human resource management
motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing and training
networking
socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders
organizational behavior (OB)
a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness
systematic study
looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence
evidence-based management (EBM)
the basing of managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence
intuition
a gut feeling not necessarily supported by research
psychology
the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals
social psychology
an area of psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people to one another
sociology
the study of people in relation to their social environment or culture
anthropology
the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities
contingency variables
situational factors: variables that moderate he relationship between two or more variables
workforce diversity
the concept that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and inclusion of other diverse groups
positive organizational scholarship
an area of OB research that concerns how organizations develop human strength, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential
ethical dilemmas and ethical choices
situations in which individuals are required to define right and wrong conduct
model
an abstraction or reality. a simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon
input
variables that lead to processes
processes
actions that individuals, groups, and organizations engage in as a result of inputs and that lead to certain outcomes
outcomes
key factors that are affected by some other variables
task performance
the combination of effectiveness and efficiency at doing your core job tasks
citizenship behavior
discretionary behavior that contributes to the psychological and social environment of the workplace
withdrawal behavior
the set of actions employees take to separate themselves from the organization
group cohesion
the extent to which members of a group support and validate one another while at work
group functioning
the quantity and quality of a work group's output
productivity
the combination of the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization
effectiveness
the degree to which an organization meets the needs of its clientele or customers
efficiency
the degree to which an organization can achieve its ends at a low cost
organizational survival
the degree to which an organization is able to exist and grow over the long term
surface-level diversity
differences in easily perceived characteristics such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, or disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes
deep-level diversity
differences in vales, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better
discrimination
noting of a difference between things; often we refer to unfair discrimination, which means making judgements about individuals based on stereotypes regarding their demographic group
discriminatory policies or practices
actions taken by representatives of the organization that deny equal opportunity to perform or unequal rewards for performance
sexual harassment
unwanted sexual advances and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that create a hostile or offensive work environment
intimidation
overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups or employees
mockery and insults
jokes or negative stereotypes; sometimes the result of jokes taken too far
exclusion
exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring; can occur unintentionally
incivility
disrespectful treatment, including behaving in an aggressive manner, interrupting the person, or ignoring his or her opinions
biographical characteristics
personal characteristics-such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure-that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. These characteristics are representative of surface-level diversity
ability
an individual's capacity to perform the various tasks in a job
intellectual abilities
the capacity to do mental activities-thinking, reasoning, and problem solving
general mental ability (GMA)
an overall factor of intelligence, as suggested by the positive correlations among specific intellectual ability dimensions
number aptitude
ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic
verbal comprehension
ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other
perceptual speed
ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately
inductive reasoning
ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem
deductive reasoning
ability to use logic and asses the implications of an argument
spatial visualization
ability to imagine how an object would look if its position in space were changed
memory
ability to retain and recall past experiences
physical abilities
the capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics
dynamic strength
ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time
trunk strength
ability to exert muscular strength using the trunk (abdominal) muscles
explosive strength
ability to exert force against external objects
extent flexibility
ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible
dynamic flexibility
ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements
body coordination
ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body
balance
ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance
stamina
ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort over time
diversity management
the process and programs b which managers make everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others
attitudes
evaluative statements or judgements concerning objects, people, or events
cognitive component
the opinion or belief segment of an attitude
affective component
the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude
behavioral component
an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
cognitive dissonance
any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes
job satisfaction
a positive feeling bout one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics
job involvement
the degree to which a person dientifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth
psychological empowerment
employees' belief in the degree to which they affect their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and their perceived autonomy in their work
organizational commitment
the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization
perceived organizational support (POS)
the degree to which employees believe an organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being
employee engagement
an individual's involvement with, and enthusiasm for the work he or she does
core self-evaluations
bottom-line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities, competence, and worth as a person
exit
dissatisfaction expressed through behavior directed toward leaving the organization
voice
dissatisfaction expressed through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions
loyalty
dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve
neglect
dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to worsen
affect
a broad range of feelings that people experience
emotions
intense feelings that are directed at someone or something
moods
feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus
positive affect
a mood dimension that consists of specific positive emotions such as excitement, self-assurance, and cheerfulness at the high end and boredom, sluggishness, and tiredness at the low end
negative effect
a mood dimension that consists of emotions such as nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end and relaxation, tranquility, and poise at the low end
positivity offset
the tendency of most individuals to experience a mildly positive mood at zero input (when nothing in particular is going on)
affect intensity
individual differences int he strength with which individuals experience their emotions
illusory correlation
the tendency of people to associate two events when in reality there is no connection
emotional labor
a situation in which an employe expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work
emotional dissonance
inconsistencies between the emotions people feel and the emotion they project
felt emotions
an individual's actual emotions
displayed emotions
emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job
surface acting
hiding one's inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules
deep acting
trying to modify one's true inner feelings based on display rules
affective events theory (AET)
a model that suggests that workplace events cause emotional reactions on the part of employees, which then influence workplace attitudes and behaviors
emotional intelligence (EI)
the ability to detect and to manage emotional cues and information
emotional contagion
the process by which peoples' emotions are caused by the emotions of others
personality
enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behavior
heredity
factors determined at conception; one's biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup
personality traits
enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behavior
Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI)
a personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types
big five model
a personality assessment model that taps five basic dimensions
extraversion
a personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive
agreeableness
a personality dimension that describes someone who is good natured, cooperative, and trusting
conscientiousness
a personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized. only reliable one of the big 5
emotional stability
a personality dimension that characterizes someone as calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative)
openness to experience
a personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiosity
core self-evaluation
bottom-line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities, competence, and worth as a person
machiavellianism
the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means
narcissism
the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement
self-monitoring
a personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors
proactive personality
people who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs
values
basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence
value system
a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual's values in terms of their intensity
terminal values
desirable end-states of existence; the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime
instrumental vales
preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one's terminal values
personality-job fit theory
a theory that identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover
power distance
a national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally
individualism
a national culture attribute that describes the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups
collectivism
a national culture attribute that describes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them
masculinity
a national culture attribute that descries the extent to which the culture favors traditional masculine wrk roles of achievement, power, and control. Societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialism
femininity
a national culture attribute that indicates little differentiation between male and female roles; a high rating indicates that woman are treated as the equals of men in all aspects of the society
uncertainty avoidance
a national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them
long-term orientation
a national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence
short-term orientation
a national culture and attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfillment of social obligations
video on Wed. Aug 22 (2nd Day)
the office: Michael Scott & Tony Flenderson. Michael is the boss and Tony is HR. Hostile work environment, manager's not treating his employees correctly.
order of managers
direct report, first line supervisors, line level. direct report can't be successful without the work from first line supervisors and line level employees and vise versa.
Mintzberg's managerial roles
interpersonal, information, decisional
successful managers vs. effective managers
successful managers are personally successful through networking, effective managers are reaching success in their department, getting things done right through communication
management research methodology
correlational or survey research
experimental methodology
better for determining causation through manipulating independent variables and seeing their effects on dependent variables, importance of random assignment. lab studies/field studies: controlling confounds verses generalizability
In this decade, almost all of the USA's population growth comes from
immigration
the vast majority of the fortune 500 companies now offer
domestic partner benefits to their employees-considered a bell-weather measure of employee orientation
personas aged 50 and older compromise the..
largest and fastest growing population group-the baby boomers and people living longer due to medical advances
most accommodations made by employers for employees with disabilities cost less than
$1000-about 1/3 are free
of the fortune 500 companies, there are only ___ women CEOs
11
affirmative action
in American business its harder for people of color or women in the work force. So we're giving them a chance to step up. some preference given to some people over others.
reverse discrimination
example: white males put at a disadvantage
diversity management
allowing all individuals in the work place the opportunity to achieve to their fullest potential. not affirmative action & not reverse discrimination
advantages of diversity management
multiple perspectives, greater openness to new ideas, new markets, increased creativity, increased flexibility, increased problem solving skills
disadvantages of diversity management
ambiguity, complexity, confusion, miscommunication, difficulty in reaching agreement
keys to managing diversity successfully
needs assessment and baseline data, top management support and commitment, involvement at all levels in the organization, education/awareness training, changes in culture and management systems, follow-up and accountability.
organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
anything that is optional
Patterns of dysfunctional thinking
way to shift attitude-black or white thinking,overgeneralization, negative filter, disqualify the positive, mind reading, negative fortune telling, personalization, should-have beliefs for self or others, lack of mindfulness
ways to combat negativity
do a cost-benefit analysis of your attitudes and beliefs, seek the aid of an optimism coach, take note of and keep records of success, develop daily rituals that reinforce positivity, re-categorize failures as learning opportunities, cultivate mindfulness or flow
emotional labor
different jobs require different emotional labor/cognitive labor. strong correlation between cognitive labor and pay. slightly negative correlation between emotional labor and pay.
Emotional Intelligence (EI)
self awareness (know how you feel), self-management (manage your emotions and impulses), self motivation(can motivate yourself and persist), empathy (sense and understand what others feel), social skills (can handle the emotions of others). research findings: high EI scores, more than high IQ scores, characterize high job performers
10 ways to cultivate happiness
learn that wealth doesn't create happiness, take control of your time, act happy, seek tasks that engage your skills and cultivate flow, exercise, get enough sleep, give priority to close relationships, focus beyond yourself, focus on gratitude, nurture your spiritual or connected self
Taiost Bending Reed
respond to the emotions of others, offer empathy and respect for emotion, offer to help appropriately if you can't or won't do exactly what the person wants
personality determinants...
heredity: longitudinal data-collecting data over time of the same person, environment, situation. twin studies-information source
the Myers-Brigg Personality types
extroverted (draws energy out of people) vs. introverted (energy taken out of them), sensing (cold hard data before making a decision) vs. intuitive, thinking(logic) vs. feeling(emotion), judging (quickly understand, label, be done) vs. perceiving (think before judging)-do not use as a selection tool!
importance of values
provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals and cultures, influence our perception of the world around us, represent interpretations of "right" and "wrong". imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others
values across cultures: Hofstede's Framework
power-distance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance, time orientation