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Arts and Humanities
SWBIT5111 Biblical Interpretation Definitions
Terms in this set (50)
Greek, "to uncover," "unveil." A heavenly revelation disclosing the meaning and end of history. It concerns the overthrow of the present age and the establishment of God's rule.
Apocryphal, New Testament
A collective term for non-canonical literature produced by the early church that were, by and large, spurious writings that served Gnostic tenets and rivaled New Testament documents in some communities of early Christianity.
Apocryphal, Old Testament
A large group of Jewish writing outside the Old Testament canon that were composed between 200 B.C. and A.D. 200. They are included in the Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate.
Conventional title given to the Greek church fathers immediately following the apostolic age; the collection of Greek patristic writings that date from the early second century A.D.
The insertion of an Aramaic word where a Hebrew or Greek word have appeared, or a feature of New Testament language that reflects Aramaic influence.
The original manuscript in the author's own handwriting or dictated to an amanuensis by the author.
Excessive reverence for the Bible that makes it into a sacred object, usurping the place of the God of the Bible who properly should be the object of reverence.
Abbreviation of the Latin word circa, "about," "approximately."
Greek, "measure," "norm." The books of the Bible that have been accepted as inspired and authoritative.
Abbreviation of "Common Era" (sometimes understood as "Christian Era"). It is used as a "neutral" substitute for A.D.
An ancient manuscript in book form, made of papyrus, parchment, or velum. In earlier times, documents were written on scrolls or clay tablets.
A theory regarding the creation and origination of the world or universe.
Study of the orderly system or character of the universe
Dead Sea Scrolls
Writings of an Essene-like community that were discovered in 1947 near Qumran. They include the oldest Old Testament manuscripts.
A term used by Roman Catholics to designate books or parts of books that are not found in the Hebrew Bible but are included in the Septuagint and accepted as inspired since the Council of Trent.
Greek, "knowledge." A widespread and highly diverse religious movement with roots in Greek philosophy and folk religion. Its chief emphases are the utter transcendence of God, created matter as fallen and evil, and salvation by esoteric knowledge.
A word or idiom derived from the Hebrew language; in biblical studies it refers especially to any part of the Septuagint or New Testament Greek that shows the influence of Hebrew style and terminology.
The doctrine that the Bible is free from error or mistake; its rationale usually is based on verbal inspiration and is restricted to autographs, which would be free from textual corruption.
Terminology (in the documentary hypothesis view of how the Pentateuch was formed) used to designate the four documents identified by this method of analysis.
A pronunciation of Yahweh that began in medieval times out of a misunderstanding of the vowels of the name Adonai (Lord) written with the consonants JHVH by the Masoretes.
Greek for "proclamation" or "preaching." A New Testament term for the act or content of apostolic proclamation of the gospel.
The "common" Greek dialect spread throughout the Greek east in the wake of Alexander's conquests, primarily through his armies.
A word or idiom derived from Latin that appears in the New Testament. The majority of occurrences are loanwords from the areas of Roman administration, military, and coinage.
From Hebrew for "tradition." The Jewish scholars who added the vowel points to the Hebrew consonantal text.
The vocalized text of the Hebrew Bible, prepared by a group of Jewish scholars around A.D. 700 to preserve the oral pronunciation of the Hebrew words.
Small letters joined together one after another with strokes. Also called cursive writing. The manuscripts of the Greek New Testament in this script now form the great bulk of extant copies, more than 2,500 manuscripts.
Nag Hammadi Codices
An extensive collection of fourth-century Christian and non-Christian Gnostic writings, discovered in 1946 in upper Egypt. The texts reinforce the view that Gnosticism has a non-Christian origin but does not predate the New Testament.
An Egyptian plant made into writing material by ancient Egyptians and widely used by other ancient peoples. Sheets were formed by cutting the stems into long, thin strips that were placed in two crosswise layers and glued together by hammer blows.
A designated portion or unit of Scripture; it may be quite brief or relatively long. Particularly, the self-contained literary units or sections of the Gospels.
A term that refers to the vowels added by the Masoretes to the consonantal text of the Old Testament in order to preserve the pronunciation of the language at a time when it was in danger of being forgotten.
Greek, "falsely inscribed." When capitalized, the traditional name given to sixty-five documents of Jewish and Christian origin that were not included in the Old Testament canon or the Apocrypha. These books were written ca. 250BC-AD200.
Sign for the Synoptic sayings-source or the double tradition of Matthew and Luke; likely derived from the German word Quelle: "source." Used in source-critical research of nineteenth century German scholarship.
First-century site, eight and one-half miles south of Jericho, on the western edge of the Dead Sea. Eleven caves near the community yielded the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Papyrus, parchment, or leather sheets joined together in rolls, usually ten to twelve inches wide and up to thirty-five feet long. Writing was usually only on one side in vertical columns a few inches wide.
From the Latin word for "seventy." Greek translation of the Old Testament that was made by Jews of Alexandria, Egypt around 250BC. Frequently written as LXX.
A word or idiom in the Greek New Testament that is due to the influence of the LXX; because of the Hebrew influence on the LXX, many of these are probably Semitisms.
The designation of Isaiah 42:1-4; 49:1-6; 50:4-9; 52:13-53:12 because these passages describe one who is a servant of the Lord.
Hebrew "hear." Taken from the first word of the passage, the title given to Deuteronomy 6:4-9, Judaism's confession of faith, proclaiming the unity of God.
Sitz im Leben
A German expression used in form criticism to describe the "situation in life," i.e., the cultural context out of which a certain form of literary expression arose, especially the community setting in which a form was developed and understood.
Latin, "faith alone." Reformation principle of salvation or justification by faith alone apart from human merit.
Latin, "Scripture alone." Reformation principle of authority for life and doctrine by Scripture alone apart from church tradition.
From Greek, "seen together." The first three gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke), which present a parallel or common view of the story of Jesus.
Synoptic problem, the
How to account for the similarities and differences in wording, content, and sequence among Matthew's, Mark's, and Luke's Gospels.
From Greek, "arrangement." A study of the arrangement of words to show their mutual relations in the sentence; sentence structures as opposed to morphology, the study of word structure.
The text underlying the earliest printed editions of the Greek New Testament upon which the King James Version was based.
The most widely accepted solution to the synoptic problem. It postulates the priority of Mark; this earliest gospel served as a source for Matthew and Luke, and the latter two also used another common source, the sayings source, usually called Q.
Early form of Greek, written entirely in capital letters. Any text or manuscript written in capital letters.
A leather writing material made from calfskin; sometimes refers to a finer, more expensive product, but often synonymous with parchment.
A translation of the Bible into Latin by Jerome at the end of the 4th century A.D.; the "common" version of the medieval Catholic Church.
The name for God found most frequently in the Old Testament; it occurs approximately 6,823 times. It is the suggested pronunciation of the Hebrew tetragram.
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