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245 terms

Chapter 12: Skin - Integumentary System

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Integumentary system
organ system made up of the skin and its related structures, performs important functions in maintaining the health of the body
Integument
Latin word meaning to cover or enclose
Skin
forms the protective outer covering the external surface of the entire body
Sebaceous glands
secrete sebum (oil) that lubricates the skin and discourages the growth of bacteria on the skin; located in the dermis and closely associated with hair follicles
Sweat glands
aka sudoriferous glands, are tiny, coiled glands that help regulate body temperature and water content by secreting sweat
Hair
helps control the loss of body heat
Nails
protect the dorsal surface of the last bone of each toe and finger
Cutaneous
pertaining to the skin
cutane
means skin
Epidermis
the outermost layer of the skin, made up of several specialized epithelial tissues
Epitheleal tissues
form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body
Squamous epithelial tissue
forms the uper layer of the epidermis
Squamous
means scale-like
Basal layer
the lowest layer of the epidermis where new cells are produced and then pushed upward. When they reach the surface they die and become filled with keratin
Keratin
a fibrous, water-repellent protein, the primary component of skin, hair, and nails
Melanocytes
special cells that are also found in the basal cell layer that produce and contain a dark brown to black pigment known as melanin
Melanin
the pigment that determines the color of the skin, which depends upon the type and amount of this pigment that is present
Dermis
aka the corium, is the thick layer of living tissue directly below the epidermis, it contains connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, and nerve fibers
Sensory nerve endings
the sensory receptors for stimuli such as touch, temperature, pain, and pressure
Collagen
which means glue, is a tough, yet flexible, fibrous protein material found in the skin, and also in the bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments
Mast cells
which are found in the connective tissue of the dermis, respond to injury, infection, or allergy by producing and releasing substances, including heparin and histamine
Heparin
which is released in response to an injury, is an anticoagulant, which prevents blood clotting
Histamine
which is released in response to allergens, causes the signs of an allergic response, including itching and increased mucus secretion
Subcutaneous layer
is located just below the layers of the skin and connects the skin to the surface muscles
Cellulite
describes deposits of dimpled fat around the buttocks and thighs
Lypocytes
fat cells, predominant in the subcutanous layer where they manufacture and store large quantities of fat
Sebum
an oily substance that is released through ducts opening into the hair follicles
Mammary glands
modified sebaceous glands, sometimes classified with the integumentary system, and are also part of the reproductive system
Pores
the openings on the surface of the skin that act as the ducts of the sweat glands
Perspiration
commonly known as sweat, is secreted by sweat glands and is made up of 99% water plus some salt and metabolic waste products
Hidrosis
the production and excretion of perspiration
Hair
rod-like structures composed of tightly fused, dead protein cells filled with hard keratin
Hair follicles
the sacs that hold the root of the hair fibers
Arrector pili
tiny muscle fibers attached to the hair follicles that cause the hair to stand erect in response to cold or fright
Unguis
commonly known as a fingernail or toenail, is a keratine plate that protects the dorsal surface of the last bone of each finger and toe
Nail body
translucent and closely molded to the surface of the underlying tissues, made up of hard, keratinized plates of epidermal cells
Nail bed
joins the nail body to the underlying connective tissue, and nourishes the nail
Free edge
portion of the nail not attached to the nail bed, extends beyond the tip of the finger or toe
Lunula
a pale half-moon shaped region at every nail root, which is generally most easily seen in the thumbnail and is the active area of the nail where new keratin cells form
Cuticle
a narrow band of epidermis attached to the surface of the nail just in front of the root, protecting the new keratin cells as they form
Nail root
fastens the nail to the finger or toe by fitting into a groove in the skin
Plastic surgeon
a physician who specializes in the surgical restoration and reconstruction of the body structures
Cosmetic surgeon
plastic surgeons who perform operations such as breast augmentation, liposuction, and facelifts that are usually done for aesthetic rather than medical reasons
Acne vulgaris
commonly known as acne, is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pustular eruptions of the skin caused by an overproduction of sebum around the hair shaft
Comedo
a noninfected lesion formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a hair follicle often associated with acne vulgaris
Sebaceous cyst
a closed sac associated with a sebaceous gland that is found just under the skin, they contain yellow, fatty material and are usually found on the face, neck, or trunk
Seborrhea
overactivity of the sebaceous gland that results in the production of an excessive amount of sebum
Seborrheic dermatitis
an inflammation sometimes resulting from seborrhea that causes scaling and itching of the upper layers of the skin or scalp
Seborrheic keratosis
a benign skin growth that has a waxy or "pasted-on" look. These groths can vary in color from light tan to black, and occur most commonly in the elderly
Anhidrosis
the abnormal condition of lacking sweat in response to heat
hidr
means sweat
Diaphoresis
profuse sweating
phor
means movement
-esis
means abnormal condition
Heat rash
aka prickly heat; is an intensely itchy rash caused by blockage of the sweat glands by bacteria and dead cells
Hyperhidrosis
a condition of excessive sweating in one area or over the whole body
Sleep hyperhidrosis
aka night sweats, is the occurence of hyperhidrosis during sleep, which can be caused by menopause, certain medications, and some infectious diseases
Folliculitis
an inflammation of the hair follicles
follicul
means the hair follicle
Trichomycosis axillaris
superficial bacterial infection of the hair shafts in areas with extensive sweat glands, such as the armpits
trich/o
means hair
Axillaris
Latin for axillary
axill
means armpit
Hirsutism
the presence of excessive body and facial hair in women, usually occurring in male pattern
hirsut
means hairy
-ism
means condition
Alopecia
aka baldness, the partial or complete loss of hair, most commonly on the scalp
alopec
means baldness
Alopecia areata
an autoimmune disorder that attacks the hair follicles, causing well defined bald areas on the scalp or elsewhere on the body
areata
means occuring in patches
Alopecia totalis
aka alopecia capitis totalis, an uncommon condition charicterized by the loss of all the hair on the scalp
Alopecia universalis
the total loss of hair on all parts of the body
universalis
means total
Female pattern baldness
a condition in which the hair thins in the front and on the sides of the scalp and sometimes on the crown
Male pattern baldness
is a common hair-loss pattern in men, with the hairline receding from the front to the back until only a horseshoe-shaped area of hair remains in the back and at the temples
Clubbing
the abnormal curving of the nails that is often accompanied by enlargement of the fingertips, can be hereditary, but usually is caused by changes associated with oxygen deficiencies related to coronary or pulmonary disease
Koilonychia
aka spoon nail; is a malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave or scooped out like the bowl of a spoon, often an indication of iron-deficiency anemia
koil
means hollow or concave
onych
means fingernail or toenail
Onychia
aka onychitis; is an inflammation of the matrix of the nail that often results in the loss of the nail
Onychocryptosis
commonly known as an ingrown toenail; the edges of a toenail, usually on the big toe, curve inward and cut into the skin
crypt
means hidden
Onychomycosis
a fungal infection of the nail; depending on the type of fungus involved this condition can cause the nails to turn white, yellow, green, or black and to become thick or brittle
Onychophagia
means nail biting or nail eating
-phagia
means eating or swallowing
Paronychia
an acute or chronic infection of the skin folds around a nail
par-
means near
Age spots
aka solar lentigines or liver spots, are discolorations caused by sun exposure
Albinism
a genetic condition characterized by a deficiency or the absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and irises of the eyes and is the result of a missing enzyme that is necessary for the production of melanin
Chloasma
aka melasma or the mask of pregnancy, is a pigmentation disorder characterized by brownish spots on the face which can occur during pregnancy, especially among women with dark hair and fair skin, and usually disappear after delivery
Vitiligo
a skin condition resulting from the destruction of the malanocytes due to uknown causes; can cause irregular patches of white skin, a process known as depigmentation, hair growing is affected and may turn white
Contusion
an injury to underlying tissues without breaking the skin and is characterized by discoloration and pain; discoloration is caused by an accumulation of blood within the skin
contus
means bruise
Purpura
the appearance of multiple purple discolorations on the skin caused by bleeding underneath the skin; these areas are smaller than an ecchymosis and larger than petechiae
purpur
means purple
Ecchymosis
commonly known as a bruise, is a large, irregular area of purplish discoloration due to bleeding under the skin
ecchym
means pouring out of juice
Petechiae
very small, pinpoint hemorrhages that are less than 2 mm in diameter sometimes resulting from high fevers
Hematoma
usually caused by an injury, is a swelling of clotted blood trapped in the tissues which is eventually reabsorbed by the body. A hematoma is often named for the area where it occurs
hemat
means blood
Lesion
a pathologic change of the tissues due to disease or injury
Crust
aka scab, is a collection of dried serum and cellular debris
Erosion
the wearing away of a surface, such as the epidermis of the skin or the outer layer of a mucus membrane; it can also be used to describe the progressive loss of dental enamel
Macule
aka a macula, a discolored flat spot that is less than 1 cm in diameter, freckles or flat moles are examples of macules
Nodule
a solid, raised skin lesion that is larger than .5 cm in diameter and deeper than a papule. In acne vulgaris, nodules can cause scarring
Papule
a small, raised red lesion that is less than .5 cm in diameter and does not contain pus. small pimples and insect bites are types of papules
Plaque
is a scaly, solid raised area of closely spaced papules. For example, the lesions of psoriasis
Scales
are flakes or dry patches made up of excess dead epidermal cells. Some shedding of these scales is normal; however excessive shedding is associated with skin disorders such as psoriasis
Verrucae
aka warts, are small, hard skin lesions caused by the human papillomavirus. Plantar warts are verrucae that develop on the sole of the foot
Wheal
aka welt, is a small bump that itches; can oppear as urticaria or hives as a symptom of an allergic reaction
Abscess
a closed pocket containing pus that is caused by a bacterial infection, it can appear on the skin or within other structures of the body
Purulent
means producing or containing pus
Exudate
is a fluid, such as pus, that leaks out of an infected wound
Cyst
an abnormal sac containing gas, fluid, or a semisolid material. This term can also refer to a sac or vesicle elsewhere in the body
Pustule
aka pimple, is a small, circumscribed lesion containing pus that can be caused by acne vulgaris, impetigo, or other skin infection
Vesicle
a small blister less than .5 cm in diameter containing watery fluid. Ex rash of poison ivy
Bulla
a large blister that is usually more than .5 cm in diameter
Abrasion
an injury in which superficial layers of skin are scraped or rubbed away
Fissure
a groove or crack-like break in the skin (ex breaks in the skin between the toes caused by tinea pedis, or athlete's foot). Term can also describe folds in the contours of the brain.
Laceration
a torn or jagged wound or accidental cut wound
Pressure sore
previously known as a decubitus ulcer or bedsore; is an open ulcerated wound that is caused by prolonged pressure on an area of skin which, without care, can become seriously infected and result in tissue death
Puncture wound
a deep hole made by a sharp object such as a rusty nail or ice pick; this type of percutaneous wound carries a high risk of infection, particularly tetanus
Percutaneous
means through the skin
Needlestick injury
an accidental puncture wound caused by using hypodermic needle, potentially transmitting an infection
Ulcer
an open lesion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss around the edges, they can occur inside the body
Pigmented birthmarks
include nevi, aka moles, as well as cafe-au-lait spots, stork bites, and other irregularities in skin color
Vascular birthmarks
caused by blood vessels close to the skin's surface
Capillary hemangioma
aka strawberry birthmark, is a soft, raised, pink or red vascular birthmark
hemangioma
a benign tissue mass made up of newly formed small blood vessels that in birthmarks are visible through the skin
Port-wine stain
a flat vascular birthmark made up of dilated blood capillaries; creating a large, reddish-purple discoloration on the face or neck
Dermatitis
inflammation of the skin characterized by redness, swelling, and itching
Contact dermatitis
a localized allergic response caused by contact with an irritant, such as diaper rash, it can also be caused by exposure to an allergen, such as poison ivy, or an allergic reaction to latex gloves
Eczema
aka atopic dermatitis is a form of persistent or reoccuring dermatitis usually characterized by redness, itching, and dryness, with possible blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding; most often seen in infants and children, appears to be the result of a malfunction of the body's immune system
Exfoliative dermatitis
a condition in which there is a widespread scaling of the skin, often accompanied by pruritus, erythroderma (redness) and hair loss, may occur in severe cases of many common skin conditions
Pruritus
aka itching; associated with most forms of dermatitis
Erythema
redness of the skin due to capillary dialation
erythem
means flushed
Erythema infectiosum
aka fifth disease, is a mildly contagious viral infection that is common in childhood, produces a red, lace-like rash on the child's face that looks as if the child has been slapped.
Erythema multiforme
a skin disorder resulting from a generalized allergic reaction to an illness, infection, or medication which affects the skin, mucous membranes, or both, and characterized by a rash that may appear as nodules or papules, macules, or vissicles or bullae
Erythema pernio
aka chilblains; is a purple-red inflammation that occurs when the small blood vessels below the skin are damaged
Sunburn
a form of erythema in which skin cells are damaged by exposure toe the ultraviolet rays in sunlight
Erythroderma
abnormal redness of the entire skin surface
Exanthem
refers to a widespread rash, usually in children
Dermatosis
general term used to denote skin lesions or eruptions of any type that are not associated with inflammation
Ichthyosis
a group of hereditary disorders characterized by dry, thickened, and scaly skin; caused by slowing of the skin's natural shedding process or a rapid increas in the production of skin's cells
ichthy
means dry or scaly
Lipedema
aka painful fat syndrome; a chronic abnormal condition that is characterized by the accumulation of fat and fluid in the tissues just under the skin of the hips and legs
Systemic lupus erythematosus
an autoimmune disorder characterized by a red, scaly rash on the face and upper trunk that also attacks connective tissue in other body systems, especially in the joints
Psoriasis
a common skin disorder characterizzed by flare-ups in which red papules covered with silvery scales occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, back, or buttocks
Rosacea
aka adult acne; is characterized by tiny red pimples and broken blood vessels
Rhinophyma
aka bulbous nose; occurs in older men, characterized by hyperplasia of the tissues of the nose and is associated w/ advanced rosacea
Scleroderma
an autoimmune disorder in which the connective tissue become thickened and hardened
Urticaria
aka hives
Xeroderma
aka xerosis, excessively dry skin
Carbuncle
cluster of connected furuncles
Cellulitis
acute, rapidly spreading bacterial infection within the connective tissues that is characterized by malaise, swelling, warmth, and red streaks
Furuncles
aka boils, large, tender, swollen areas caused by a staphylococcal infection around hair follicles or sebaceous glands
Gangrene
tissue necrosis, commonly caused by a loss of circulation to the affected tissues followed by bacterial invasion that causes putrefaction
Putrefaction
decay that produces foul-smelling odors
Impetigo
highly contagious bacterial skin infection that commonly occurs in children
Necrotizing fasciitis
aka flesh-eating bacteria; severe infection caused by Group A strep bacteria
Necrotizing
means causing tissue death
fasciitis
inflammation of fascia
Pyoderma
any acute, inflammatory, pus-forming bacterial skin infection such as impetigo
Tinea
aka ringworm; a fungal infection that can grow on the skin, hair, or nails.
Tinea capitis
found on the scalps of children
capitis
means head
Tinea corporis
fungal infection of the skin on the body
corporis
means body
Tinea cruris
aka jock itch; found in the genital area
Tinea pedis
aka athlete's foot; most commonly found between the toes
pedis
means feet
Tinea versicolor
aka pityraisis verisocolor; fungal infection that causes painless, discolored areas on the skin
Versicolor
means a variety of color
Infestation
the dwelling of microscopic parasites on external surface tissue
Pediculosis
an infestation with lice
pedicul
means lice
Pediculosis capitis
infestation with head lice
Pediculosis corporis
an infestation with body lice
Pediculosis pubis
an infestation with lice in the pubic hair and pubic region
Scabies
a skin infection caused by an infestation of itch mites
Callus
thickening of part of the skin on the hands or feet caused by repeated rubbing
Cicatrix
normal scar resulting from the healing of a wound
Granulation tissue
the tissue that normally forms during the healing of a wound; eventually forms the scar
Granuloma
general term used to describe a small, knot-like swelling of granulation tissue in the epidermis which can result from inflammation, injury, or infection
Keloid
an abnormally raised or thickened scar that expands beyond the boundaries of the original incision
kel
means growth or tumor
-oid
means resembling
Keratosis
any skin growth, such as a wart or callus, in which there is overgrowth and thickening of the skin
kerat
means hard or horny
Lipoma
a benign, slow-growing fatty tumor located between the skin and the muscle layer
lip
means fatty
Nevus
aka mole, a small, dark, skin growth that develops from melanocytes in the skin
Dysplastic nevi
atypical moles that can develop into skin cancer
Papilloma
a benign superficial wart-like growth on the epithelial tissue; or elsewhere in the body
papill
means resembling a nipple
Polyp
a general term used most commonly to describe a mushroom-like growth from the surface of a mucous membrane
Skin tags
small, flesh-colored or light-brown polyps that hang from the body by fine stalks
Skin cancer
a harmful, malignant growth on theskin, which can have many causes
Actinic keratosis
a precancerous skin growth that occurs on sun-damaged skin, looks like a red, tan, or pink scaly patch and feels like sandpaper
Basal cell carcinoma
a malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis, most common and least harmful type of skin cancer; it is slow growing and rarely spreads to other parts of the body
Squamous cell carcinoma
a malignant tumor of the scaly squamous cells of the epithelium; can quickly spread to other body systems
Malignant melanoma
a type of skin cancer that occurs in the melanocytes and is the most serious type of skin cancer and often the first signs are changes in size, shape, or color of a mole
Burn
an injury to body tissues caused by heat, flame, electricity, sun, chemicals, or radiation
Biopsy
the removal of a small piece of living tissue for examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis
bi
means pertaining to life
-opsy
means view of
Incisional biopsy
a piece, but not all, of the tumor or lesion is removed
Excisional biopsy
the entire tumor or lesion and a margin of surrounding tissue are removed
Needle biopsy
a hollow needle is used to remove a core of tissue for examination
Exfoliative cytology
is a technique in which cells are scraped from the tissue and examined under a microscope
Exfoliation
the removal of dead epidermal cells
Sunscreen
blocks out harmful ultraviolet B rays
Cauterization
the destruction of tissue by burning
Chemabrasion
aka a chemical peel, is the use of chemicals to remove the outer layer of the skin to treat achne scarring, fine wrinkling, and keratoses
Cryosurgery
the destruction or elimination of abnormal cells, such as warts or tumors, through the application of extreme cold by using liquid nitrogen
cry/o
means cold
-surgery
means operative procedure
Curettage
is the removal of material from the surface by scraping
Debridement
the removal of dirt, foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cellular debris from a wound to prevent infection and to promote healing
Irrigatiton and debridement
procedure, pressurized fluid is used to clean out wound debris
Dermabrasion
is a form of abrasion involving the use of a revolving wire brush or sandpaper to remove acne and chickenpox scares as well as for facial skin rejuvination
Microdermabrasion
removes a fine layer of skin, so the results are temporary
Electrodesiccation
a surgical technique in which tissue is destroyed using an electris spark
Incision
a cut made with a surgical instrument
Incision and drainage
I&D; an incision of a lesion, and the draining of the contents
Moh's surgery
a technique where layers of cancerous tissue are removed and examined under a microscope one at a time until a margin that is clear of all cancerous tissue has been achieved
Photodynamic therapy
(PTD) a technique used to treat damaged and precancerous skin, as well as various types of cancer
Retinoids
a class of chemical compounds derived from vitamin A that are used in skin care and treatment because of their effect on epithelial cell growth
Isoretinoin
aka Accutane; a powerful retinoid taken in pill form to treat severe acne
Tretinoin
active ingredient in Retin-A and Renova which are used to treat sun-damaged skin, acne, and wrinkles
Topical steroids
used in the treatment of various skin disorders and diseases
Blepharoplasty
aka lid lift; the surgical reduction of the upper and lower eyelids by removing sagging skin
blephar/o
means eyelid
Botox
sterile injections of botulinum toxin are administered to the muscles of the forehead to reduce moderate or severe frown lines between the eyebrows
Collagen replacement therapy
a form of soft-tissue augmentation used to soften facial lines or scars, or to make lips appear fuller
Dermatoplasty
aka skin graft; the replacement of damaged skin with healthy tissue taken from a donar site on the patient's body
Electrolysis
the use of electric current to destroy hair follicles in order to produce the relatively permenant removal of undesired hair
electr/o
means electric
-lysis
means destruction
Lipectomy
the surgical removal of fat beneath the skin to improve physical appearance
Liposuction
aka suction-assistaed lipectomy; the surgical removal of fat beneath the skin w/ the aid of suction
Rhytidectomy
aka facelift; is the surgical removal of excess skin and fat from the face to eliminate wrinkles
rhytid
means wrinkles
Sclerotherapy
the treatment of spider veins by injecting a saline sclerosing solution into the vein which irritates the tissue causing the veins to collapse and disappear