Terms in this set (28)
Existing Trade Routes
Silk Roads, Mediterranean Sea, Trans-Saharan, and Indian Ocean basin
Communication Developments in the Americas
Mississippi River Valley, Andes
Products of Improved Transportation Technologies and Commercial Practices
an increased volume of trade, expanded the geographical range of existing, and newly active trade networks
• Silk and cotton textiles
• Precious metals and gems
• Exotic animals
New Forms of Credit and Monetization
• Bills of exchange
• Banking houses
Commercial growth was also facilitated by state practices; including the Inca road system; trading organizations, including the Hanseatic League; and state sponsored commercial infrastructures, including the Grand Canal in China.
• Minting of coins
-Use of paper money
The expansion of empires facilitated Afro-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors' economies and trade networks.
The movement of peoples caused environmental and linguistic effects.
The expansion and intensification of long-distance trade routes often depended on environmental knowledge and technological adaptations to it.
• The way Scandinavian Vikings used their longships to travel in coastal and open waters as well as in rivers and estuaries
• The way the Arabs and Berbers adapted camels to travel across and around the Sahara
• The way Central Asian pastoral groups used horses to travel in the steppes
Some migrations had a significant environmental impact, including:
• The migration of Bantu-speaking peoples who facilitated transmission of iron technologies and agricultural techniques in Sub-Saharan Africa
• The maritime migrations of the Polynesian peoples who cultivated transplanted foods and domesticated animals as they moved to new islands
Some migrations and commercial contacts led to the diffusion of languages throughout a new region or the emergence of new languages.
• The spread of Bantu languages -The spread of Turkic and Arabic languages
Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing, or the creation of new, networks of trade and communication.
The beliefs and practices of Islam reflected interactions among Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians with the local Arabian peoples. Muslim rule expanded to many parts of Afro-Eurasia due to military expansion, and Islam subsequently expanded through the activities of merchants and missionaries.
In key places along important trade routes, merchants set up diasporic communities where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture.
• Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean region
• Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia
• Sogdian merchant communities throughout Central Asia
• Jewish communities in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean basin, or along the Silk Roads
Travelers within Afro-Eurasia that wrote about their travels
• Ibn Battuta
Diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions:
• The spread of Christianity throughout Europe
• The influence of Neoconfucianism and Buddhism in East Asia
• The spread of Hinduism and Buddhism into Southeast Asia
• The spread of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia
• The influence of Toltec/Mexica and Inca traditions in Mesoamerica and Andean America
Diffusion of scientific and technological innovations:
• The influence of Greek and Indian mathematics on Muslim scholars
• The return of Greek science and philosophy to Western Europe via Muslim a lAndalus in Iberia
• The spread of printing and gunpowder technologies from East Asia into the Islamic empires and Western Europe
There was continued diffusion of crops and pathogens, including epidemic diseases like the bubonic plague, throughout the Eastern Hemisphere along the trade routes.
• Bananas in Africa
- New rice varieties in East Asia
• The spread of cotton, sugar, and citrus throughout Dar al-Islam and the Mediterranean basin
Traditional sources of power and legitimacy:
• Land-owning elites
• New methods of taxation
• Tributary systems
• Adaptation of religious institutions
• Muslim Iberia
• Delhi Sultanates
• In the Italian peninsula
• In East Africa
• In Southeast Asia
• In the Americas
Some states synthesized local with foreign traditions.
• Persian traditions that influenced Islamic states -Chinese traditions that influenced states in Japan
Interregional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers
• Paper-making techniques between Tang China and the Abbasids
• Gunpowder during the Mongol Empire
• Neoconfucianism from China to Korea and Japan
Agricultural production increased significantly due to technological innovations.
• The chinampa field systems
• Waru waru agricultural techniques in the Andean areas
• Improved terracing techniques
• The horse collar
The fate of cities varied greatly, with periods of significant decline, and with periods of increased urbanization buoyed by rising productivity and expanding trade networks.
Multiple factors contributed to the decline of urban areas in this period, including invasions, disease, and the decline of agricultural productivity.
Despite significant continuities in social structures and in methods of production, there were also some important changes in labor management and in the effect of religious conversion on gender relations and family life.
Forms of labor organization included free peasant agriculture, nomadic pastoralism, craft production and guild organization, various forms of coerced and unfree labor, government-imposed labor taxes, and military obligations.
As in the previous period, social structures were shaped largely by class and caste hierarchies.
Women exercised more power and influence, most notably among the Mongols and in West Africa, Japan, and Southeast Asia.
The demand for slaves for both military and domestic purposes increased, particularly in central Eurasia, parts of Africa, and the eastern Mediterranean.
- The Byzantine Empire
The diffusion of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Neoconfucianism often led to significant changes in gender relations and family structure.
• Divorce for both men and women in some Muslim states
- The practice of foot binding in Song China
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