29 terms

Psychology in everyday life, 2nd ed. Myers

Ch. 1
the science of behavior and mental processes
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
humanistic psychology
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth
cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
biopsychosocial approach
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural perspectives
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
dual processing
the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
positive psychology
The scientific study of optimal human functioning; with the goals of discovering and promoting conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we could have predicted it (I-knew-it-all-along)
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition
A statement of the procedures used to define research variables
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study
a descriptive technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles
a descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of a population
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
naturalistic observation
a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a measure of the extent to which two events vary together, and thus of how well either one predicts the other
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between groups
experimental group
in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
control group
in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
inactive substance or condition that is sometimes given to control group members in place of the treatment given to experimental group
double-blind procedure
procedure in which both the research participant and the research staff are ignorant about whether the participants have received the treatment or the placebo
placebo effect
results caused by expectations alone
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable