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_________ is the most commn type of Hyperthyroidism. Autoimmune disease which antibodies attack TSH recepter sites & stimulates thyroid cell to increase growth and production of T3 and T4.
Hyposecreation of HGH causes __________ . If diagnosed during infancy, normalized growth can be maintained
Adrenal Cortex Disorder
__________ occurs when underactive adrenal glands produce insufficient cortisol and occasionally aldosterone
Primary Adrenal Insufficiency
Often ____________ is associated with an autoimmune condition in which a patients immune system attacks and destroys its own gland - Causes; Adrenal tumors, tuberculosis, or other infections
Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency
Decreased levels of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), causes drop of adrenal cortisol production. could be cause from pituitary disorder causing Low ACTH or Andrenal disorder in synthesizing cortisol
High levels of glucocorticoids ->over production of cortisol by the adrenal gland (possible over secretion of ACTH). ________ would cause this.
Medication to reduce production or surgery / radiation
________ is the over production of mineralocorticoids by adrenal gland ->
High BP, Headaches, Polyuria, Polydipsia, muscle weakness, cramps
Symptoms of _________ include thyrotoxicosis, goiter, exophthalmos, can lead to infection and blindness
________ Causes portruding eyeballs, may cause infection and blindness ; Associated with Hyperthyroidism
_________ acts on the bones, kidneys, and intestinal cells by increasing the release of calcium into the blood
Para Thyroid Hormone
When _______ levels are high; new bone formation is reduced, bone degradation occurs and calcium and phospate levels increase
Calcitonin and Parathyroid Hormone act together for Calcuim Homeostasis. They are considered to have the _________ effect on each other
PTH indirectly increases body absorption of calcium from food by stimulating the synthesis of _________
The _________ are supporting cells of the seminiferous. Inhibin is sectreted by the _________ to inhibit FSH.
Adrenal Medulla Disorder
_____________ Causes Hyper secretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine and Dopamine caused by a tumor
A tumor in the ________ will cause significant blood pressure rise result in in a stroke or heart failure. Sudden tachycardia, extreme anxiety with sense of impending death, cold perspiration, blurred vision, headache and chest pain
The hormones of the Posterior Pituitary are controled by a __________________ mechanism
_______________ can extert actions by passing through the Plasma membrane and bind to intercellular receptors
Body Temperature, hunger, thirst, fatige, anger, circadium cycles are controlled by ___________
The Hypothalamus in tandem with the ____________ system, controls sexual behavior and defensive reactions such as fear and rage
Abnormal growth resuls in distored apearance due to enlargment of hads, feet, jaw, and other body parts. This growth is caused by a ________ tumor as new bones grow even in adulthood
____________ is a condiation in which the cartilage in the skeleton continues to form newbones during childhood
Adrenal Insufficiency that occurs when underactive adrenal glands produce insufficient cortisol and occasionally aldosterone
___________ is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland. Body fails to recognize the Thyroid gland. Impairs function and destroys gland. May Cause Goiter
Lack of functionion thyroid in newborns. Characterized by low BMR, very slow growth, sexual development and mental retardation
__________ is responsible for the decrease production of T3 and T4 due to malnutrition and excess thyroglobin would cause a simple goiter.
Excessive consumption of iodine MAY cause development of Goiter, Hypothyroidism, ___________, Thyroid Papillary Cancer, and/or iodermia (serious skin reaction.
Darkening of the skin, Weight Loss and craving salty foods is a symptom of what disorder
__________ is caused by increased release of prostaglandins: Symptons include cramp-like feelings, sever debilitating pelvic inflammation.
__________ is the increase in androgen production. Results in coarse hair on face, back, chest and lower abdomen. Usually associated with a tumor or cancer
Rapidly increasing incidence of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, hypertension and stroke
hCG stimulates the _______ to secrete progesterone and estradiol by mechanisms similar to LH
________ Is more active metabolically of the 2 Thyroid Hormones. _______ is also the primary molecule in the negative feedback loop
_________ stores T3 and T4 for later use. Tyrosine and iodine covalently bond to create T1. T2 is produced when 2 iodine bond to Tyrosine
________ in the thyroid contain thyroglobulin, a glycoprotein rich in tyrosine. Iodide is trapped in the thyroid and reacts to tyrosine.
__________ Assay helps distinguish between hyperthyroidism caused elevated T4 and euthyroid patients with increased T4-binding.
Thyroxine Binding Globin
Analysis of presumed hypothyroid populations and Heredity deficiences of TBG are examples of the clinical significance of __________________ Assay
________ is a screening tool for neonates to diagnose any congenital defects. Can be used to rule out Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism.
________ can be be useful in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism but is limited value in diagnosis for hypothyroidism.
_________ is used to rule out thryoid replacement therapyand clarify protein-binding abnormalities. Will be elevated for patients that are pregnant or undergoing estrogen therapy.
Used to stimulate the building of and increase mass and strength of skeletal muscle
Decreased testosterone levels can cause klinefelters syndrome, delayed puberty, gynecomastia and what other codition
___________ occurs when there is a sharp increase in LH, causing a mature follicle to rupture into the fallopian tube
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
___________ stimulates the release of the FSH and LH from the anterior Pituitary Gland
secretion of FSH is increasing and several ovarian follicles begin to develop. The loss of the endometrium occurs.
As FSH stimulates growth of ovarian follicles. LH secretion and estrogen is increasing to promote the growth and maturation of the ovum
The corpus luteum secretes progesterone which further stimulate blood vessels of the endometrium. LH secretion decreases
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