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Endocrinology, Hormones & Diseases

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Grave's Disease
_________ is the most commn type of Hyperthyroidism. Autoimmune disease which antibodies attack TSH recepter sites & stimulates thyroid cell to increase growth and production of T3 and T4.
PTH
The regulation of _________ is NOT done by the pituitary gland or hypothalamus.
Dwarfism
Hyposecreation of HGH causes __________ . If diagnosed during infancy, normalized growth can be maintained
Adrenal Cortex Disorder
__________ occurs when underactive adrenal glands produce insufficient cortisol and occasionally aldosterone
Primary Adrenal Insufficiency
Often ____________ is associated with an autoimmune condition in which a patients immune system attacks and destroys its own gland - Causes; Adrenal tumors, tuberculosis, or other infections
Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency
Decreased levels of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), causes drop of adrenal cortisol production. could be cause from pituitary disorder causing Low ACTH or Andrenal disorder in synthesizing cortisol
Cushings Disease
High levels of glucocorticoids ->over production of cortisol by the adrenal gland (possible over secretion of ACTH). ________ would cause this.
Medication to reduce production or surgery / radiation
Hyperaldosteronism
________ is the over production of mineralocorticoids by adrenal gland ->
High BP, Headaches, Polyuria, Polydipsia, muscle weakness, cramps
Klinefelters Syndrome
Low levels of testosterone -> High estrogen in males causes _________
Grave's Disease
Symptoms of _________ include thyrotoxicosis, goiter, exophthalmos, can lead to infection and blindness
Exophthalmos
________ Causes portruding eyeballs, may cause infection and blindness ; Associated with Hyperthyroidism
PTH
_________ acts on the bones, kidneys, and intestinal cells by increasing the release of calcium into the blood
Para Thyroid Hormone
When _______ levels are high; new bone formation is reduced, bone degradation occurs and calcium and phospate levels increase
Antagonistic
Calcitonin and Parathyroid Hormone act together for Calcuim Homeostasis. They are considered to have the _________ effect on each other
Vitamin D
PTH indirectly increases body absorption of calcium from food by stimulating the synthesis of _________
Osteoclasts
________ Degrades the bone matrix and release of Ca2 into blood
Parathyroid Hormone
________ Causes the release of Osteoclasts
Calcium Homeostasis
Calcitonin is responsible for ________
Sertoli Cells
The _________ are supporting cells of the seminiferous. Inhibin is sectreted by the _________ to inhibit FSH.
Sertoii Cell
Sperm attach to the __________ until they are nourished until they mature
Inhibin
__________ is a hormone that inhibits secretion of FSH from the Anterior Pituitary Gland
Posterior Pituitary
Hormones synthesized by the Hypothalumus are stored and secreted by __________
Pheochromocytoma
_____________ is caused by Hypersecretion of Catecholamines
Adrenal Medulla Disorder
_____________ Causes Hyper secretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine and Dopamine caused by a tumor
Adrenal Medulla
A tumor in the ________ will cause significant blood pressure rise result in in a stroke or heart failure. Sudden tachycardia, extreme anxiety with sense of impending death, cold perspiration, blurred vision, headache and chest pain
Positive feedback
The hormones of the Posterior Pituitary are controled by a __________________ mechanism
Master
The pituitary gland is considered the _________ gland of the Endocrine system
Nerve Stimulus
Hormones is no longer secreted when __________ facilites the feedback mechanism.
Nerve impulses
Release of Hormones are stimulated by _________ from the Hypothalimus
Steroids
______________ are lipid soluble hormones
Steroid Hormones
_______________ can extert actions by passing through the Plasma membrane and bind to intercellular receptors
Adrenaline
Fight or Flight
Adrenal Cortex
______________ Hormones aldosterone and corisol are steriods
Protein
______________ are water soluble hormones
Glycoproteins
FSH, LH, TSH, and hCG are all ___________
Peptides
Insulin, Glucagon, PTH, hGH, PRL are all __________
Hypothalamus
Body Temperature, hunger, thirst, fatige, anger, circadium cycles are controlled by ___________
Autonomic Nervous
The Hypothalamus in tandem with the ____________ system, controls sexual behavior and defensive reactions such as fear and rage
Pituitary
Abnormal growth resuls in distored apearance due to enlargment of hads, feet, jaw, and other body parts. This growth is caused by a ________ tumor as new bones grow even in adulthood
Acromegaly
____________ is a condiation in which the cartilage in the skeleton continues to form newbones during childhood
Hyposecretion
Pituitary Dwarfism is caused by ___________ of HGH
Hypersecretion
Gigantism is caused by the _____________ of HGH
Mineralocorticoids
______________ are produced in the Zona Glomerulosa
Zona Glomerulosa
Aldosterone is produced in the ___________
Zona Fasciculata
Glucocorticoids are produced in the ____________
Glucocorticoids
__________ are hormones that regular bood glucose Hemeostasis
Zona Reticularis
Gonadocorticoids are produced in the __________
Addisons Disease
Adrenal Insufficiency that occurs when underactive adrenal glands produce insufficient cortisol and occasionally aldosterone
Iodine
________ would inhibit the production of T3 and T4
Hashimotos Thyroiditis
___________ is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland. Body fails to recognize the Thyroid gland. Impairs function and destroys gland. May Cause Goiter
Goiter
________is the enlargment of the Thyroid
Cretinism
Lack of functionion thyroid in newborns. Characterized by low BMR, very slow growth, sexual development and mental retardation
Iodine definciency
__________ is responsible for the decrease production of T3 and T4 due to malnutrition and excess thyroglobin would cause a simple goiter.
Hyperthyroidism
Excessive consumption of iodine MAY cause development of Goiter, Hypothyroidism, ___________, Thyroid Papillary Cancer, and/or iodermia (serious skin reaction.
Cold Intolerance
___________ is a symptom of Hypothyroidism
Heat Intolerance
____________ is a sympton of Hyperthyroidism
Hyperaldosteronism
____________ would cause polyuria and polydipsia
LH
_____________ is produced in the Pituitary Gland
lactation
Prolactin is prmarily associated with __________
Adrenal Cortex
Darkening of the skin, Weight Loss and craving salty foods is a symptom of what disorder
Secondary Hpothyroidism
Failure of the Pituitary or the Hypothalmus could cause _____________
Hypoparathyroidism
________ causes Hyperphosphatemia and Hypocalcemia
Hyperparathyroidism
_________ causes Hypercalcemia and Hypophosphatemia
Dysmenorrhea
__________ is caused by increased release of prostaglandins: Symptons include cramp-like feelings, sever debilitating pelvic inflammation.
Hirsutism
__________ is the increase in androgen production. Results in coarse hair on face, back, chest and lower abdomen. Usually associated with a tumor or cancer
PMS
Symptoms Include irratability, fatigue, nervousness, and depression
Menopause
Rapidly increasing incidence of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, hypertension and stroke
Hypertension
Menopuase can cause _______
androgens
After Menopause adrenal _______ becomes the predominant source of estrogen
hCG
A test showing high levels of _________ would indicate pregnancy
Corpus Luteum
hCG stimulates the _______ to secrete progesterone and estradiol by mechanisms similar to LH
T3
________ Is more active metabolically of the 2 Thyroid Hormones. _______ is also the primary molecule in the negative feedback loop
T4
is the most abundant of the 2 Thyroid Hormones
TBG
_________ is the main serum transport for T3 and T4
Liver
Conversion of T3 to T4 is primary done in the ___________
Thyroglobin
_________ stores T3 and T4 for later use. Tyrosine and iodine covalently bond to create T1. T2 is produced when 2 iodine bond to Tyrosine
Follicular Cells
________ in the thyroid contain thyroglobulin, a glycoprotein rich in tyrosine. Iodide is trapped in the thyroid and reacts to tyrosine.
TBG
__________ Assay helps distinguish between hyperthyroidism caused elevated T4 and euthyroid patients with increased T4-binding.
Thyroxine Binding Globin
Analysis of presumed hypothyroid populations and Heredity deficiences of TBG are examples of the clinical significance of __________________ Assay
Total T4
________ is a screening tool for neonates to diagnose any congenital defects. Can be used to rule out Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism.
Total T3
________ can be be useful in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism but is limited value in diagnosis for hypothyroidism.
FT3
_________ is used to rule out thryoid replacement therapyand clarify protein-binding abnormalities. Will be elevated for patients that are pregnant or undergoing estrogen therapy.
anabolic steriods
Used to stimulate the building of and increase mass and strength of skeletal muscle
Hypogonadism
Decreased testosterone levels can cause klinefelters syndrome, delayed puberty, gynecomastia and what other codition
GnRH
Low testosterone levels would indirecly induce stimulation to secrete this hormone
Protein
____________ Hormones require 2 messengers to communicate instructions inside the cell.
Ovulation
___________ occurs when there is a sharp increase in LH, causing a mature follicle to rupture into the fallopian tube
Exocrine Gland
Secretes its product via a duct onto a laminal surface
Paracrine
Hormones released that interact with nearby cells or cells on the same organ
TSH
Hormone that regulates the function of the thyroid gland
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
___________ stimulates the release of the FSH and LH from the anterior Pituitary Gland
GHIH
Inhibits the secretion of HGH
GHIH
Somatostatin and ___________ are synonymous
Menstrual phase
secretion of FSH is increasing and several ovarian follicles begin to develop. The loss of the endometrium occurs.
Follicular phase
As FSH stimulates growth of ovarian follicles. LH secretion and estrogen is increasing to promote the growth and maturation of the ovum
Endometrium
vascular lining of the uterus that forms the maternal portiin of the placenta
Luteal phase
The corpus luteum secretes progesterone which further stimulate blood vessels of the endometrium. LH secretion decreases
PIH
This Hormone inhibits the production of Prolactin
ADH
hyposecretion of what would cause polydipsia and polyuria. This can cause diabetes insipidous