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Grave's Disease

_________ is the most commn type of Hyperthyroidism. Autoimmune disease which antibodies attack TSH recepter sites & stimulates thyroid cell to increase growth and production of T3 and T4.


The regulation of _________ is NOT done by the pituitary gland or hypothalamus.


Hyposecreation of HGH causes __________ . If diagnosed during infancy, normalized growth can be maintained

Adrenal Cortex Disorder

__________ occurs when underactive adrenal glands produce insufficient cortisol and occasionally aldosterone

Primary Adrenal Insufficiency

Often ____________ is associated with an autoimmune condition in which a patients immune system attacks and destroys its own gland - Causes; Adrenal tumors, tuberculosis, or other infections

Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

Decreased levels of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), causes drop of adrenal cortisol production. could be cause from pituitary disorder causing Low ACTH or Andrenal disorder in synthesizing cortisol

Cushings Disease

High levels of glucocorticoids ->over production of cortisol by the adrenal gland (possible over secretion of ACTH). ________ would cause this.
Medication to reduce production or surgery / radiation


________ is the over production of mineralocorticoids by adrenal gland ->
High BP, Headaches, Polyuria, Polydipsia, muscle weakness, cramps

Klinefelters Syndrome

Low levels of testosterone -> High estrogen in males causes _________

Grave's Disease

Symptoms of _________ include thyrotoxicosis, goiter, exophthalmos, can lead to infection and blindness


________ Causes portruding eyeballs, may cause infection and blindness ; Associated with Hyperthyroidism


_________ acts on the bones, kidneys, and intestinal cells by increasing the release of calcium into the blood

Para Thyroid Hormone

When _______ levels are high; new bone formation is reduced, bone degradation occurs and calcium and phospate levels increase


Calcitonin and Parathyroid Hormone act together for Calcuim Homeostasis. They are considered to have the _________ effect on each other

Vitamin D

PTH indirectly increases body absorption of calcium from food by stimulating the synthesis of _________


________ Degrades the bone matrix and release of Ca2 into blood

Parathyroid Hormone

________ Causes the release of Osteoclasts

Calcium Homeostasis

Calcitonin is responsible for ________

Sertoli Cells

The _________ are supporting cells of the seminiferous. Inhibin is sectreted by the _________ to inhibit FSH.

Sertoii Cell

Sperm attach to the __________ until they are nourished until they mature


__________ is a hormone that inhibits secretion of FSH from the Anterior Pituitary Gland

Posterior Pituitary

Hormones synthesized by the Hypothalumus are stored and secreted by __________


_____________ is caused by Hypersecretion of Catecholamines

Adrenal Medulla Disorder

_____________ Causes Hyper secretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine and Dopamine caused by a tumor

Adrenal Medulla

A tumor in the ________ will cause significant blood pressure rise result in in a stroke or heart failure. Sudden tachycardia, extreme anxiety with sense of impending death, cold perspiration, blurred vision, headache and chest pain

Positive feedback

The hormones of the Posterior Pituitary are controled by a __________________ mechanism


The pituitary gland is considered the _________ gland of the Endocrine system

Nerve Stimulus

Hormones is no longer secreted when __________ facilites the feedback mechanism.

Nerve impulses

Release of Hormones are stimulated by _________ from the Hypothalimus


______________ are lipid soluble hormones

Steroid Hormones

_______________ can extert actions by passing through the Plasma membrane and bind to intercellular receptors


Fight or Flight

Adrenal Cortex

______________ Hormones aldosterone and corisol are steriods


______________ are water soluble hormones


FSH, LH, TSH, and hCG are all ___________


Insulin, Glucagon, PTH, hGH, PRL are all __________


Body Temperature, hunger, thirst, fatige, anger, circadium cycles are controlled by ___________

Autonomic Nervous

The Hypothalamus in tandem with the ____________ system, controls sexual behavior and defensive reactions such as fear and rage


Abnormal growth resuls in distored apearance due to enlargment of hads, feet, jaw, and other body parts. This growth is caused by a ________ tumor as new bones grow even in adulthood


____________ is a condiation in which the cartilage in the skeleton continues to form newbones during childhood


Pituitary Dwarfism is caused by ___________ of HGH


Gigantism is caused by the _____________ of HGH


______________ are produced in the Zona Glomerulosa

Zona Glomerulosa

Aldosterone is produced in the ___________

Zona Fasciculata

Glucocorticoids are produced in the ____________


__________ are hormones that regular bood glucose Hemeostasis

Zona Reticularis

Gonadocorticoids are produced in the __________

Addisons Disease

Adrenal Insufficiency that occurs when underactive adrenal glands produce insufficient cortisol and occasionally aldosterone


________ would inhibit the production of T3 and T4

Hashimotos Thyroiditis

___________ is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland. Body fails to recognize the Thyroid gland. Impairs function and destroys gland. May Cause Goiter


________is the enlargment of the Thyroid


Lack of functionion thyroid in newborns. Characterized by low BMR, very slow growth, sexual development and mental retardation

Iodine definciency

__________ is responsible for the decrease production of T3 and T4 due to malnutrition and excess thyroglobin would cause a simple goiter.


Excessive consumption of iodine MAY cause development of Goiter, Hypothyroidism, ___________, Thyroid Papillary Cancer, and/or iodermia (serious skin reaction.

Cold Intolerance

___________ is a symptom of Hypothyroidism

Heat Intolerance

____________ is a sympton of Hyperthyroidism


____________ would cause polyuria and polydipsia


_____________ is produced in the Pituitary Gland


Prolactin is prmarily associated with __________

Adrenal Cortex

Darkening of the skin, Weight Loss and craving salty foods is a symptom of what disorder

Secondary Hpothyroidism

Failure of the Pituitary or the Hypothalmus could cause _____________


________ causes Hyperphosphatemia and Hypocalcemia


_________ causes Hypercalcemia and Hypophosphatemia


__________ is caused by increased release of prostaglandins: Symptons include cramp-like feelings, sever debilitating pelvic inflammation.


__________ is the increase in androgen production. Results in coarse hair on face, back, chest and lower abdomen. Usually associated with a tumor or cancer


Symptoms Include irratability, fatigue, nervousness, and depression


Rapidly increasing incidence of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, hypertension and stroke


Menopuase can cause _______


After Menopause adrenal _______ becomes the predominant source of estrogen


A test showing high levels of _________ would indicate pregnancy

Corpus Luteum

hCG stimulates the _______ to secrete progesterone and estradiol by mechanisms similar to LH


________ Is more active metabolically of the 2 Thyroid Hormones. _______ is also the primary molecule in the negative feedback loop


is the most abundant of the 2 Thyroid Hormones


_________ is the main serum transport for T3 and T4


Conversion of T3 to T4 is primary done in the ___________


_________ stores T3 and T4 for later use. Tyrosine and iodine covalently bond to create T1. T2 is produced when 2 iodine bond to Tyrosine

Follicular Cells

________ in the thyroid contain thyroglobulin, a glycoprotein rich in tyrosine. Iodide is trapped in the thyroid and reacts to tyrosine.


__________ Assay helps distinguish between hyperthyroidism caused elevated T4 and euthyroid patients with increased T4-binding.

Thyroxine Binding Globin

Analysis of presumed hypothyroid populations and Heredity deficiences of TBG are examples of the clinical significance of __________________ Assay

Total T4

________ is a screening tool for neonates to diagnose any congenital defects. Can be used to rule out Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism.

Total T3

________ can be be useful in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism but is limited value in diagnosis for hypothyroidism.


_________ is used to rule out thryoid replacement therapyand clarify protein-binding abnormalities. Will be elevated for patients that are pregnant or undergoing estrogen therapy.

anabolic steriods

Used to stimulate the building of and increase mass and strength of skeletal muscle


Decreased testosterone levels can cause klinefelters syndrome, delayed puberty, gynecomastia and what other codition


Low testosterone levels would indirecly induce stimulation to secrete this hormone


____________ Hormones require 2 messengers to communicate instructions inside the cell.


___________ occurs when there is a sharp increase in LH, causing a mature follicle to rupture into the fallopian tube

Exocrine Gland

Secretes its product via a duct onto a laminal surface


Hormones released that interact with nearby cells or cells on the same organ


Hormone that regulates the function of the thyroid gland

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone

___________ stimulates the release of the FSH and LH from the anterior Pituitary Gland


Inhibits the secretion of HGH


Somatostatin and ___________ are synonymous

Menstrual phase

secretion of FSH is increasing and several ovarian follicles begin to develop. The loss of the endometrium occurs.

Follicular phase

As FSH stimulates growth of ovarian follicles. LH secretion and estrogen is increasing to promote the growth and maturation of the ovum


vascular lining of the uterus that forms the maternal portiin of the placenta

Luteal phase

The corpus luteum secretes progesterone which further stimulate blood vessels of the endometrium. LH secretion decreases


This Hormone inhibits the production of Prolactin


hyposecretion of what would cause polydipsia and polyuria. This can cause diabetes insipidous

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