Gyri (Gyrus) - Ridges or folds in the brain
Sluci (sulcus) - grooves in the brain
Longitudinal Fissure - Midline that separates the cerebral hemispheres
Transverse cerebral fissure - Separates the cerebellum with the cerebral hemispheres
Central Sulcus - extends across the lateral surface of the cerebrum from superior to inferior (about midway along the length of the brain)
Precentral gyrus - Primary motor cortex, anterior of the central sulcus
Postcentral gyrus - Primary somatosensory cortex
Frontal Lobe - Voluntary motor function, concentration verbal communication, decision making, motivation, aggression, sense of smell, planning, personality and mood
Parietal Lobe - Major center for receiving and evaluating most sensory information (except olfaction, hearing and vision)
Occipital lobe - receiving and integrating visual input and storing visual memories
Temporal lobe - Receives and evaluates input for smell and hearing. Abstract thought and judgement
Insula - Social emotions (lust, disgust, pride, humiliation, guilt & atonement) Lights up when people crave drugs, feel pain and processes taste (gustatory)
Midbrain (mesencephalon) - Cerebral Peduncles: motor tracts. Sustantia Nigra: produces dopamine, affects movement, emotion, pleasure & pain. Parkinson's is the result of degeneration of this area. RESTING TREMORS. Tegmentum: covering structure, houses the "Red Nuclei" and reticular formation. Integrates information from the cerebrum and cerebellum to issue voluntary motor commands. Tectum: roof. Corpora Quadrigemina. 2 Superior Colliculi: reflex of head, eyes and body toward visual, auditory or tactile stimuli. 2 Inferior Colliculi: Involved in hearing
Pons - contains fiber tracts that complete conduction pathways between brain and spinal cord. Pontine sleep center: initiates REM. Pontine Respiratory center: controls breathing pattern.
Medulla Oblongata - Pyramids: houses motor projections, which often cross to the opposite side (decussation). Cranial nerve nuclei. Part of reticular formation. Cardiac Center: regulates heart rate. Vasomotor center: regulates blood pressure. Medullary respiratory center : regulates respiratory rate. Nuclei involved with Coughing, sneezing, salivation, swallowing, gagging and vomiting.
Sensory memory - when we form important associations based on sensory input from the environment, sights, sounds, smells. ONLY LASTS for SECONDS
Short-Term Memory - "working memory" memorization of a few units of information for a short period of time (electrical activity)
Long-Term Memory - allows for memorization of potentially limitless amounts of information for very long periods (structural changes)
Declarative Memory - facts, learning information, numbers, names etc, related to ability to manipulate symbols
Nondeclarative memory - Involves motor skills, often stored without details, reinforced via performance.
Procedural memory - Skills, Prefrontal cortex
Motor memory - Cerebellum
Emotional Memory - Amygdala