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Learning and Behavior Chapter 8- Operant Learning: Punishment
Terms in this set (42)
The first formal studies of punishment were probably done by ____.
In positive punishment, a stimulus that serves as a punisher is called a(n) ____.
David Camp and colleagues found that even a delay of only ____ reduced the effectiveness of a punisher.
The one-process theory of punishment goes back to ____.
Murrary Sidman's book on aversive control, including punishment, is called ____.
Coercion and Its Fallout
The word positive in positive reinforcement refers to the face that ____.
something is added
All of the following enhance the effectiveness of punishment except ____.
withholding reinforcement of the punished behavior, increasing the reinforcer deprivation level, punishing immediately, using strong punishers
True/False: Frequent use of weak punishers is more effective than occasional use of intense punishers.
True/False: The term punishment, as used by behavior scientists, has nothing to do with retribution.
If Charles Catania's thinking about reinforcement is applied to punishment, we can say that all of the following are true of punishment except ____.
the decrease in strength must be the result of the behavior's consequence, the behavior must decrease in strength, the consequence of the behavior must be negative, or a behavior must have a consequence
Differential reinforcement is best used in combination with ____ of the undesirable behavior.
reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, extinction
David Camp and his colleagues found that, compared to a two-second delay in punishment, a 30-second delay resulted in ____.
much more response suppression, about half as much response suppression, no response suppression, or slightly greater response suppression
True/False: When using punishment to suppress an undesirable behavior, it is important to provide alternative means of obtaining the reinforcers that have maintained that behavior.
Harriet hears a noise in the kitchen and investigates. She finds the cookie jar in pieces on the floor and 5-year old Willy standing nearby. Harriet knows what happened, but asked Willy anyway. Willy admits that he broke the jar while trying to get cookies. Harriet gives Willy a spanking. Willy could logically learn from the experience that ____.
it doesn't pay to tell the truth
True/False: In using punishment, it is best to begin with a weak punisher and gradually increase its strength as needed.
Positive and negative punishment have in common that they both ____ the frequency of behavior.
weaken or reduce
The main difference between positive and negative punishment is that in negative punishment a stimulus is ____.
removed or reduced
Each time Charles, who has a lisp, says "Mithithippi" or the like, his wife, Evelyn, yells "Idiot!" However, there is no evidence that Evelyn's efforts to reduce the frequency of each mispronunciation have been effective. Based on this, we can reasonably conclude that ____.
Charles is lisping deliberately to annoy Evelyn, Evelyn's efforts to punish Charles's behavior have actually reinforced it, Charle's behavior is due to a neurological problem, Charles's wife's yelling "idiot" has not served as a punisher.
Of the following procedures, the one that focuses on reducing the rate at which a behavior occurs is ____.
DRL, DRA, DRZ, or DRI
When a student repeatedly behaves in an inappropriate way, probably the teacher's initial best practice should be to ____.
try to discover what is reinforcing the behavior, have the child tested by the school psychologist, use differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior, develop a plan for applying punishment
Research has found which of the following to be problems associated with the use of punishment?
escape, apathy, all of the other answers, a tendency to imitate the use of punishment
According to the two-process theory, punishment involves two procedures, ____ and ____.
Punishment is more likely to be effective if the individual has alternative means of obtaining the ____ that maintains the punished behavior.
In using punishment, it is best to begin with a punisher that is ____ (slightly stronger/slightly weaker) than the minimum required to suppress the behavior.
The fact that an annoying behavior occurs implies that is has ____ consequences.
One way of reducing the frequency of an unwanted behavior is to use DRI, which stands for ____.
differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior
Positive and negative punishment are similar in that both ___ the strength of a behavior.
In positive punishment, something is ____; in negative punishment, something is ____.
The more ____ a punisher, the more it ____ the rate of a behavior.
In general, the ____ (smaller/greater) the level of reinforcer deprivation, the ____ (more/less) effective a punisher is.
The five problems that can arise with punishment are ____, ____, ____, ____, and ____.
escape, aggressions, apathy, abuse, imitative use of punishment
In differential reinforcement, an unwanted behavior (or rate of behavior) is ____, and a more desirable behavior (or rate of behavior) is ____.
place on extinction, reinforced
In a DRL 10" schedule, the effect of pressing a lever after eight seconds is to ____.
Differential reinforcement is best used in combination with ____.
Farmer Gable had a problem with motorcyclists riding across his meadow land, tearing up sod and frightening his cattle. He installed barbed wire fencing in the area and no longer had a problem. Gable's approach is best described as an example of ____.
One problem with extinction as a way of reducing the frequency of potentially harmful behavior is that ____.
the behavior on extinction sometimes increases at first
The procedure that reinforces behavior that cannot be performed at the same time as the unwanted behavior is ____.
The one process in the one-process theory of punishment is ____.
Delaying delivery of a punisher is most likely to ____.
reduce its effectiveness
When disciplining their son, Jacob, Mr. and Mrs. Grinch begin with an extremely mild form of punishment and gradually increase its strength if the offenses continue. This procedure is likely to result in ____.
the use of excessively strong aversives
Positive punishment is most often confused with ____.
The work positive in positive punishment refers to the fact that ____.
something is added
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