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Bio 209 Final
Terms in this set (63)
Which type(s) of organisms are studied in microbiology?
Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa
Who was the first to observe microorganisms with a microscope?
Which of the following is a characteristic of bacteria?
it does not contain a nucleus, it has a cell wall made of peptidogylcan, and it does not have membrane-bound organelles
Which molecule is composed of a chain of amino acids?
Nucleic acids are polymers of
Fred Griffith performed a series of experiments on mice using 2 different strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. He knew that strains with a capsule were deadly to the mice, while non-encapsulated strains were not harmful. How does the capsule contribute to the pathogenicity of the deadly strain?
Capsules protect the cell from phagocytes
If bacteria living in salty seawater were displaced to a freshwater environment, the cell structure that would prevent the cells from rupturing is the
As a triage nurse in the ER you begin the assessment of an elderly patient complaining of bloody diarrhea and sever stomach cramps. You find the patient has a fever of 104 as well, and is showing signs of dehydration. IV fluids are administered while further analysis of the patient continues. Gram stain reveals the presence of gram-negative bacilli in the patient's stool. Thinking about the patient's spike in temperature, you understand now how this bacterium could cause a fever. Which of the following is the correct explanation?
Gram-negative bacteria have lipopolysaccharides in their outer membrane, and the lipid A portion counters their ability to cause fever.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the plasma membrane?
Maintains cell shape
Which of the following statements concerning fimbriae is TRUE?
Bacteria use fimbriae to attach to surfaces
The CDC estimates that 70% of hospital acquired infections involve biofilms, most of which form on medical catheters. Which prokaryotic structure plays a role in biofilm formation?
Which does NOT apply to bacterial endospores?
Endospores are made by all species of bacteria
Which of the following is true regarding chemotaxis by bacteria?
Bacteria have more runs than tumbles to move towards an attractant
Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to build a polypeptide would be called
Each of the following is true of enzymes except
They can be used only once
Sulfanilamide is an antimicrobial drug that mimics the shape of an important substrate for a particular bacterial enzyme, thereby inhibiting the enzyme. This type of inhibition is known as
uses 2 ATP's, produces 4 ATP's, without using oxygen
Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs during
Glycolysis and Krebs cycle
The formation of citrate from oxaloacetate and an acetyl-CoA begins
The Krebs cycle
During which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?
Which of the following is NOT true of anaerobic cellular respiration?
Uses the same final electron acceptors as aerobic respiration
The reactions of fermentation function to produce _____ molecules for use in glycolysis pyruvic acid
The bacterial chromosome is
both circular and found in the nucleoid
During replication, each parent DNA strand serves as a ______ for synthesis of new DNA strands
Semiconservative DNA replication means that
each daughter DNA molecule is composed of one original strand and one new strand
Bacteria acquire naked DNA from the environment in the process of
Codons are recognized by
All of the following pertain to transcription except
occurs on a ribosome in the cytoplasm
Which of the following is not present during translation?
When considering a bacterial growth curve, during which phase of bacterial growth are antibiotics most effective at killing the bacteria?
Physical control of microbial growth includes
Which of the following is NOT a mechanism of action by which chemical disinfectants may inhibit the growth of the microbes?
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Which of the following can be used to disinfect air?
Both UV light and HEPA filters
Objects to be disinfected or sterilized need to be cleaned first because
Organic materials can interfere with these procedures
Alcohols are used for
both antisepsis and disinfection
Which of the following methods of moist heat is the most reliable for elimination of bacterial endospores?
What is the most important characteristic for a successful antimicrobial agent that is used internally?
Which type of microbe is the most resistant to killing by physical and chemical means?
Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called
There are fewer antifungal, antiprotozoan, and antihelminth drugs compared to antibacterial drugs because fungi, protozoa, and helminths
are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity is difficult
An antiviral that is a guanine analog would have an antiviral mode of action that
inhibits DNA replication
Which of the following modes of action would not be antibacterial?
Which of the following drugs has a very broad spectrum of activity?
The mechanism of actions of aminoglycosides is to cause misreading of the mRNA at the ribosome. This inhibits which cellular process?
B-lactam antibiotics include which of the following?
Penicillins and cephalosporins
Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are considered an urgent threat by the CDC. Which of the following contributes to the seriousness of this threat?
Patients with weakned immune system, patients taking a lot of antibiotics, and bacterial tendency to share resistance genes
Klebsiella pnumoniae-Carbapenemase is an example of a CRE. Knowing that carbapenems are B-lactam antibiotics, how does the carbapenmase enzyme contribute to resistance?
Cleavage of B-lactam ring
The use of which of the following drugs results in the highest risk of superinfection in a treated patient?
Antimicrobial resistance can be controlled in a healthcare setting by
preventing infections, diagnosing and treating infections appropriately, preventing spread of infections by handwashing, and using antibiotics correctly
Chitin is a component of the fungal
Which of not a eukaryotic microorganism?
The _______is the entire interwoven mass of one multicellular fungal organism
Which of these diseases is NOT acquired through contaminated water supplies?
Which of the following is not a systemic mycosis that targets the lungs?
The drug often used to treat systemic fungal infections is
Which of these is associated with Plasmodium infections?
Anopheles, anemia, and sweating, chills, rapid spike in fever
Snails are the intermediate host for which type of multicellular parasite?
Primary ameobic meningoencephalitis is a
Antimicrobial resistance occurs
When antibiotics are used indiscriminately
Viruses have all of the following except
Host cells of viruses include
humans and other animals, plants and fungi, and bacteria
HIV has two envelope gylcoproteins gp120 and gp140 which only attach to the CD4 and CXCR5 receptors on human T cells. The glycoproteins determine the virus's
host range and tissue tropism
A cell is infected with a virus carrying an oncogene sequence in its genome. What process may occur if the oncogene is expressed in the infected cell?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Bio 209 Ch 3
Bio 209 Ch 5
Bio 209 Ch 7
Bio 209 Chapter 1
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