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Introduction to the senses & The Cutaneous Senses
Terms in this set (25)
Chemicals in the environment (taste, smell) or blood (O2, salt)
Cold or heat
Mechanical change of the receptor (touch, hearing, stretch)
damaging stimuli that result in pain
Damaging stimuli can include heat, cold, pressure or chemicals
Perception of pain can be enhanced by emotions and expectations
Visceral and Referred Pain
*Visceral pain results from stimulation of pain receptors in the organs of thorax and abdominal cavity.
*Visceral pain afferent fibers travel along the same pathway as the somatic pain fibers resulting in referred pain.
Found in muscles, tendons and joints. Provide a sense of body position by detecting stretch
Respond to internal stimuli. Found in organs and monitor blood pressure, pH, solute and oxygen concentrations.
Respond to stimuli from outside the body
Deliver information from the skin and include touch, temperature and pain
Sight, hearing, equilibrium, taste and smell
Respond with a burst of activity when stimulus is first applied but quickly adapt to the stimulus by decreasing response. Example, Pacinian corpuscles
Maintain a high firing rate as long as the stimulus is applied. Example, pain receptors, joint capsules.
*May deliver another burst of activity when stimulus is removed.
*Alerts us to changes in the environment
*Allows sensory adaptation = we can ignore constant stimuli until there is a change
Pain, touch (some), vision, hearing
*Receptors behave very similarly to neurons. Stimuli produce depolarizations called Generator potentials
*Light touch on a touch receptor in the skin produces a small generator potential. Increasing the pressure increases the magnitude of the generator potential until threshold is met and action potential occurs.
*Pain, cold and heat receptors are just naked dendrites called Free nerve endings
*Touch and pressure receptors have special cells or structures around their dendrites. Include:
*Merkel cells & discs
Merkel cells & discs:
•Found in epidermis, concentrated in finger tips
*Detects light touch, texture differences
*Found in mid dermis
*Very thin capsule surrounds nerve endings.
*Detect pressure and skin distortion
*Also found in joint cavities to detect movement
*Tonic (due to thin capsule)
Found in upper dermis, especially in sensitive, hairless portions of skin
Complex capsule surrounds nerve endings
Detect light touch
Phasic (due to complex capsule)
Cold and Warm Receptors
There are many more receptors that respond to cold than to hot.
Located close to the epidermis
Some cold receptors also respond to menthol
Located deeper in dermis
The pain experienced by a hot stimulus is sensed by a special nociceptor called a Capsaicin Receptor
Also a receptor for the chemical found in chili peppers
Sensations of spicy heat in food is an example of touch not taste.
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