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55 terms

Chemistry 1

first section of chemistry, we are studying matter and water
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element
an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up
energy
an exertion of force
gas
the state of matter distinguished from the solid and liquid states by: relatively low density and viscosity
kinetic energy
The energy of motion.
liquid
a substance in the fluid state of matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume
matter
that which has mass and occupies space
mixture
(chemistry) a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)
organic compound
any compound of carbon and another element or a radical
potiental energy
energy that is stored and waiting to be used later
solid
it's molecules are dense and vibrate next to each other
state of matter
..., (chemistry) the three traditional states of matter are solids (fixed shape and volume) and liquids (fixed volume and shaped by the container) and gases (filling the container)
acid
pH of 0 to 7
acidity
the property of being acidic
base
pH of 7 to 14
hydrogen bond
a chemical bond consisting of a hydrogen atom between two electronegative atoms (e.g., oxygen or nitrogen) with one side be a covalent bond and the other being an ionic bond
ion
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
neutralization
a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact with the formation of a salt
pH
a value that indicates the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.
polarity
property of a molecule with oppositely charged ends. because of it, water is able to dissolve many different substances
solubility
the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure
solute
the dissolved substance in a solution
solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solvent
the substance in which the solute dissolves
amino acid
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
carbohydrate
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
cholesterol
a type of fat made by the body from saturated fat; a minor part of fat in foods
complex carbohydrate
A long chain, or polymer, of simple carbohydrates
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
disaccharide
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis
double helix
Two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA
essential amino acid
eight(out of 20) of the amino acids that the human body can not produce on its own and must consume
fatty acid
an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
esstential fatty acids
lipids that the human body can not make
functional group
group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules
lipid
an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents
monosaccharide
a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate
nucleic acid
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
nucleotide
in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
peptide
the kind of bond formed when two amino acid units are jointed end to end
phospholipid
any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base
polysaccharide
long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers
protein
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
RNA
ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.
unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
steroid
a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action
trans fatty acid
a fatty acid with an odd molecule shape that forms when oils are partially hydrogenated
triglyceride
a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule
activation energy
the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
chemical reaction
the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
endothermic reaction
A reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat.
exothermic reaction
a reaction that releases energy in the form of heat
enzyme
a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
product
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
reactant
a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction