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the state of matter distinguished from the solid and liquid states by: relatively low density and viscosity
(chemistry) a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)
state of matter
..., (chemistry) the three traditional states of matter are solids (fixed shape and volume) and liquids (fixed volume and shaped by the container) and gases (filling the container)
a chemical bond consisting of a hydrogen atom between two electronegative atoms (e.g., oxygen or nitrogen) with one side be a covalent bond and the other being an ionic bond
a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact with the formation of a salt
a value that indicates the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.
property of a molecule with oppositely charged ends. because of it, water is able to dissolve many different substances
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
essential amino acid
eight(out of 20) of the amino acids that the human body can not produce on its own and must consume
group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.
unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action
trans fatty acid
a fatty acid with an odd molecule shape that forms when oils are partially hydrogenated
the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
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