ENVD 2040 Final Sample Questions
Terms in this set (59)
From left to right, these are examples of Purism, De Stijl, and Bauhaus design. Name on goal or design principles that these three examples of the Modern Movement have in common.
-universal language for art and architecture
One goal was to create a universal language and avoid nationalism in hopes to avoid war
The devastating impact of WWI on Europe was a factor in shaping the Modern Movement in architecture and design because of
-the need for massive rebuilding
-a new programmatic need related to worker's housing
-the desire to use design as a tool for avoiding future conflict
The combination of 2 inventions made it possible one of the greatest innovations in architecture: the skyscraper
steel skeleton frame
Purism, the modern movement created by the architect Le Corbusier, sought to define:
universal vocabulary of art and architecture
Le Corbusier, the creator of Purism, defined the house as a "machine for living." By this, did he mean:
the house was as efficient as a machine that would liberate its inhabitants to lead a dignified, productive life
This is a photo of the Ville Savoye, designed by Le Corbusier, 30 years after it was built in 1928. Explain one reason that this house aged so badly.
-used new and inexpensive materials for mass production
-expensive to maintain
Greek Revival was the first universal architectural style in the US: it was used in every region of the country. However, Greek Revival houses did not all look the same, and differed from region to region. Name one way that in which the style was adapted at the local level to reflect regional differences
-a steeper roof allowed for snow to fall off easier to protect roof
-In southern homes, porches were deep to provide shade in the heat of the summer
What 15th century European invention was indirectly responsible for the dissemination of the Greek revival style in America?
Name 2 characteristics or principles that Jefferson's Popular Forest and Wright's Usonian homes have in common.
-Innovative use of technology
-house in the garden
Which of the following was NOT an objective of Wright's design for the Usonian house?
b) innovative and economical construction techniques
c) a house based on and appropriate for the American way of life
d) a style based on traditional American architecture
d) a style based on traditional American Architecture
-efficient special organization
-american/build for democracy, from roots
This is a Marine Chronometer H4. What shift does this represent in the scale of precision?
-lock required 100+ precisely made pieces
-took 6 years to make
-made it a curiosity, not just a commodity
Since the scale was so much smaller; it took over 100 precisely made pieces and took extremely skilled craftspeople, which made it expensive. Brought about the need for standard parts and increased precision
This is a metal lathe from the 18th century. What important contribution did this make to assembly?
The metal lathe allows you to make screws, which allowed for inexpensive assembly (when labor costs are low)
T/F Eli Whitney patented his invention of the cotton gin in 1794. The proceeds from this invention allowed him to build a manufacturing empire.
False; he never made any money from the cotton gin despite his patent
Which of the following is NOT introduced at the Columbian Exhibition of 1893?
a) the automatic dishwasher
b) the zipper
c) PBR beer
d) band-aid brand bandage
e) the ferris wheel
d) the band aid brand package
-ready made pancake mix
-juicy fruit gram
-Country's first postcards and commemorative stamps
-2 new commemorative coins: quarter and dollar
T/F Benjamin Franklin was the first to attract electricity from clouds
False; performed by Jean Francois D'Alibard as Franklin designed it
What style are these pieces?
-first modern international style
-looked to nature for inspirations
-beautiful with intensive materials
In 1922, Leo Baekeland found a way to make Bakelite (a urea based plastic) cons made it possible to think about product structures in a different way. This new way was:
monocoque structure, meaning "single shell". The body is structural and components are fastened to the body instead of a separate sub-structure - literally "one frame"
What was Ford's goal for the Model T? How did this influence the solution?
-paid workers $5/day which was twice the standard wage so his workers could afford it
-tried to decrease production time and cost
List two characteristics of streamlining
-aerodynamic shapes (teardrop, forward leaning, smooth surface)
-frequently used materials included (stainless steel, aluminum, chrome, enamel)
-lines and shapes suggested speed
Give one example from class that shows how showmanship is important:
Whitney overcame obstacles of disbelief by convincingly demonstrating to President John Adams the workability of the inter-changeable parts concept
Harold Van Doren, an industrial designer who started his office in the 1930s said that there are two types of streamlining: True and Borrowed. What is the difference between the two? Give an example of each
-designing an object so that it meets with the smallest amount of resistance in passing through the atmosphere
-response to progress and speed
-ex. burlington zephyr
-applies to the shapes required for streamlining to slow moving or stationary objects
-ex. sterling streamline iron
Below are two measured drawings of the Church of Hagia Sophia.
Which one of them is a plan, A or B?
Which one of them is a section, A or B?
plan: B (bird's eye view)
section: A (looks like someone cut it in half)
The plan of an early Christian church was laid out with the entrance on the west side and the apse and altar on the east side. This orientation was a related to the movement of the sun in the sky.
Give one example of the symbolic meaning of the movement down the nave from west to east.
Entrance to the west: darkness
Altar to the east of the nave: light
Procession down nave: journey to salvation, light, rebirth
Moving from dark to light, ignorance to salvation or the journey of faith
This church, San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy, was built by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian in 6th century. Like most Byzantine churches, it uses principles of internalization and dematerialization to give the building meaning.
In one line, explain either principle (internalization or dematerialization)
Internalization: placing greater importance on the interior of a building than on the exterior in order to emphasize the interior world of the spirit
Dematerialization: treatment of the interior surfaces with brightly colored, fluid, surfaces that reflects the light and make the walls seem insubstantial (weak, flimsy, thin)
The dome of the Pantheon in Rome is supported on by continuous circular wall called a drum.
T/F The dome of the church of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul is NOT supported by a continuous circular wall called a drum.
True, it is pendentive (a concave triangular member that supports a dome over a square space to replace the drum. Allows lateral arches to span the distance between piers)
The addition of galleries (2nd floor aisles) made the interior of Romanesque churches darker. Why?
The roof was made of stone vaults, which were much heavier and needed more supports. The solution was thicker walls and piers, rather than just columns alone, to support the interior spaces resulting in darker interiors
Galleries cause the light to enter indirectly so the interior receives less light
Several modifications were made to the plan of the early Christian church in order to accommodate pilgrimage in medieval churches. Name one modification
-longer, wider nave and aisles
Aisles were made larger to go all the way around to accommodate pilgrims
In response to pilgrimage, Medieval churches employed the design principle of externalization, or placing greater importance on the exterior of building than earlier churches had done.
Name one way in which this principle of externalization can be seen in Medieval pilgrimage churches.
-entrance portals with relief sculpture/lessons drawn on the exterior of the building
Three structural elements came together in Gothic architecture: the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress.
The conjunction of these three elements made possible several important characteristics of Gothic Cathedrals
-achieve greater height in the nave
-open the exterior walls to let in more light through the stain glass windows
The quality of light that is admitted through the stained glass windows of a Gothic cathedral was described as lux nova (new light).
The gem-like quality of the light makes specific reference to descriptions of _____ in the Bible?
What do the Buddhist stupa and Chinese building have in common?
What do these two buildings have in common?
circumambulation or associating with the four cardinal directions
To circumambulate means to walk around a building or an object or a circular path. The proper way of moving thought a stupa is circumambulation.
Name another building where the proper way of moving is circumambulation.
This figure is called a mandala, and is used as the basic diagram for the plan of a stupa. What does this figure represent?
Universe and buddhist cosmology
Movement through the church on the left, indicated by the red arrow, is linear, symbolic of a journey to salvation. Movement through the stupa on the right is circular, symbolic of Buddha's path through life and a journey to _____.
-movement through church (linear): salvation
-movement through stupa (circular): enlightenment
Which spatial requirements of the mosque does the courtyard fulfill?
Which spatial requirements of the mosque does the prayer hall fulfill?
What is the purpose of the mihrab and the qibla wall?
What is the purpose of the minaret?
call to prayer
What functions did the city of Cordoba serve for Prince And al Rahman as the site of his new mosque? Name 2
ease of expansion
This prehistoric hut provided shelter. Did it provide stability? Did it provide permanence?
Prehistoric huts provided shelter, but not stability or permanence
These are the Great Pyramids at Giza. Did they provide shelter? Stability? Permanence?
Provided: stability and permanence
Did not provide: shelter
This is the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas designed by Louis Kahn.
T/F This building uses an arcaded structure system based on parallel barrel vaults
The building is an example of Calatrava designs structural systems that are at once stable and:
T/F In deconstruction, architects designed their buildings deliberately to look unstable
Meaning shaped the temple of El Castillo in the Mayan City of Chichen Itza by:
it represents a calendar and marks the spring solstice
Relationship between the stupa and the pagoda
the pagoda evolved out of the stupa
Meaning shaped the Taipei 101 building in Taiwan
the tallness of the building symbolized community. It is influenced by the pagoda and made it look like a bamboo stalk
Members of the community come together for 2 days each spring to:
repair and maintain the building
Three structural elements that were combined in order to make great height and openness of Gothic Cathedrals
What effects on the interior space of the cathedral were the gothic master builders attempting to achieve with the greater height and openness of the building?
-openness of walls
The quality of light that was meaningful in the Gothic cathedral was described as
jewel like or lux nova
Name a building you admire, and in one brief sentence, describe how you think the determinant of meaning might have shaped that building
Sears tower in Chicago. Since it was built in the 70s the meaning was the deconstructive nature of the building
This is the Great Serpent Mound in Adams County, Ohio, built by American Indians in c. 1070. This is an example of how architecture can define place by marking place.
Name on way in which the design of the Serpent Mound marks place
It goes with the bend of the river
This is the Art Center of Design in Pasadena, CA designed by Craig Ellwood in 1975. This building is an example of how the design of a building defines place by responding to place. Name 2 different ways in which this building responds to the natural landscape.
-contrasting man-made minimalist form with landscape
-it was built over the ravine instead of either side
This is the Dominus Estate Winery in Napa Valley, CA, designed by Herzog and de Neuron. This is an example of how the determinant of place was used to design the building to respond to the natural landscape by blending with the natural landscape.
Explain one way in which the architects achieved this
Used the stones from the site to create the walls, it frames the landscape, and quality of light that comes in creates an intimate relationship between outside and inside
This is the Nk'Mip Desert Cultural Center in Osoyoos, Canada, designed by Hotson Bakker Boniface Haden Architects and Urbanistes. This is an example of how the determinant of place was used to design the building to respond to the natural landscape by blending with the natural landscape. Explain one way in which the architects achieved this.
materials used from the site built into the landscape and has a green roof which uses existing landscape
This is the Hancock Tower in Boston, designed by IM Pei and Partners. This building is an example of how the determinant of place is employed to respond to a complex urban site by designing a building that responds to its context and respects its neighbors.
Reflective glass that reflects sky and historic building, the huge building looks slender, reflects urban life of square, presence is known from far
This is Taos Pueblo in New Mexico. Pueblo Villages and Pueblo architecture are deeply imbedded with a sense of place, both by responding to place and by making a very particular kind of place.
Name one way in which a Pueblo village responds to place (the natural landscape).
Name one way in which the pueblo village is designed to make a very particular kind of place
-the bulblike site in the natural landscape, building echoes mountains
-plazas are sacred places activated by dances with multi-storied buildings and kivas