Terms in this set (198)
Make own food from in-organics
energy source: chemoautotrophs- in-organics
-some bacteria, plants, algae
must have outside source of organics
complex of organic and inorganic compounds
source of: energy, raw materials, essential nutrients
What are the 5 components of food?
raw material, no energy
cellular respiration of organics in food releases energy to make ATP--> work
measurement of energy
gcal=cal or gram-calorie
1 Calorie=How many Joules?
kcal= Cal= 1000 gcal or kilocalorie
basal metabolic rate plus activities
= energy needs at rest
varies with body size, age, sex
=500 kcal/day (student)
=1000-1500 kcal/day (office worker)
= up to 5000 kcal/day (athlete)
What are the major classes of nutrients?
cannot be made in body, must be supplied in diet
needed in >0.1 g (100 milligrams)/day
carbohydrates, phosphorous, calcium
needed in <0.1 g/day
vitamins, iron, zinc, iodine
simple and complex sugars
energy source and storage
-stored as glycogen in animals
-starch in plants
-"Carbohydrate pack" before a race
eat pasta-source of starch
-starch is converted to glycogen
-Starch> digestion (hydrolysis)>glucose
-Glucose>absorption>synthesis>glycogen in muscle
-"Hit the wall" at about 20 miles in a marathon
Glycogen stores in muscle run out
95% neutral fats, 5% sterols and phospholipids
energy source and storage; insulation
-storage in animals
lightweight compared to carbohydrates
What is the importance of lipids in diet?
linoleic acid is essential
-dissolve fat-soluble vitamins
-only absorbed properly if fats are in diet
Some fats must be in the diet
-no fat fad diets a poor choice
20 amino acids: 8-9 essential
all 20 needed to make protein
has all essential amino acids
-dairy, meats, etc.
lacks one or more essential amino acids plant sources
vegetarians-eat a variety of plant foods for balance.
beans- lack lysine, have methionine
corn-lacks methionine, has lysine
-not a direct source of energy
What are the 2 classes of vitamins?
fat soluble and water soluble
stored in body
A, D, E, K
B complex, C
exception: D made in skin under UV light
inorganic, cofactors and structural
-not a direct source of energy
examples: iron (Fe), in blood
Calcium (Ca), in bone
Zinc (Zn), in enzyme
Minerals that are micronutrients
Fe, I, Zn
Minerals that are macronutrients
Ca, P, N
What are the nutritional effects of Alcohol?
metabolized faster than sugars
the "beer gut" is due to the replacement of sugars as energy source. food energy stored instead of used.
lack of a required nutrient
most ban be reversed by supplying the lacking nutrient
may occur despite large food supply
Lack of complete protein
bloated belly in children
-due to fluid retention and loss of function of body cavity walls
-may lead to mental retardation
-reversible if caught in time
-general food deficiency
-reversed by gradually giving food to starving person
Vitamin D deficiency
Vitamin C deficiency, bloated limbs, bleeding gums, limes, British sailors, long sea voyages
It is also possible to overdose on vitamins, especially fat soluble vitamins
-vitamin D- vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding, kidney damage
blood disease, lack of iron, hemoglobin levels reduced
weakening of bones, most common in post menopausal women. lack of calcium
Relationship of Energy vs. Weight
more calories eaten than used-> gain weight, excess stored as fat.
fewer calories eaten than used
->lose weight, caloric deficit drawn from fat reserves
metabolism slows with too few calories.
Balance= neither gain nor lose
nutrient g/day source
protein 32-42 1 chkn breast
Carbs 250-300 breads, rice, pasta
fats 15-25- 66-83 oils, meats
fats should be no more than 30% of total daily caloric intake
Recommended Daily Allowance
-set by FDA
Dietary Reference Intakes
-Revised versions of recommended daily allowance
What on a food label?
calories, calories from fat, total and saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, ingredients
recommended diet information
What is on the current food pyramid?
Grains: 6 oz. Half of all grains consumed should be whole grains.
Vegetables: vary the types of vegetables you eat 2.5 cups
Fruits: 2 cups Eat a variety of fruits. go easy on the juices
Milk: 3 cups, eat low-fat or fat free dairy products
Meat and beans: 5.5 oz eat lean cuts, seafood and beans. Avoid frying
-eating binge than purging with vomiting or laxatives
20% of college-age women
stomach acid from vomiting destroys teeth
loss of nutrients in gastric juice
-loss of essential nutrients
-GI tract damage
stop eating or eat very little
-distorted body image
physiological changes, snowballs
-symptoms of marasmus
Both bulimia and anorexia nervosa
generally treated on a psychological basis
-behavior modification treatment
can be fatal
loss of nutrients->heart failure
-sodium and potassium are lost with constant purging
-effects heart electrical activity
digested food entering blood stream
no nutrients from digestion
-pools of reserves supplying nutrients
-about 12 hours after last food eaten
negative feedback interplay between hormones insulin and glucagon
pancreas makes insulin
-body cells take up sugar
-blood sugar level reduced
sugar removed by kidney--> urine
test: sugar in urine; blood sugar level
pancreas makes glucagon
-liver breaks down glycogen to glucose
-glucose enters blood stream
-blood sugar level increased
What do plants require for nutrition?
inorganic nutrients, water, light energy
Photosynthesis forms raw materials for all organics needed
-energy from light
-CO2 and Oc from air
-water and minerals from soil
macronutrients for plants
What is on a fertilizer bag
N, P, K
fertilizer labeled in numbers
%N, %P, %K
greening established lawn
root growth in new lawn
important in flowering
optimal pH usually near neutral
affects nutrient availability
Plant nutrition deficiency disease
Symptoms specific to mineral disease
Chlorosis- yellowing of the leaf
Treatment for mineral disease
provide mineral fertilizer
What are the basic functions of the circulatory system
bulk transport of gases, wasters, nutrients, hormones and other substances.
other functions include: wound repair, defense (immunity) and heating/cooling of the organism
open vs. closed circulatory systems
Open system: many invertebrates
-vessels carry fluid to sinuses
-fluids flow over organs
examples: grasshopper, crayfish
Closed system: most vertebrates
-blood contained in vessels
examples: human, octopus
Circulatory system of a fish
single circuit circulatory system with a heart that has two chambers. Blood is pumped over a gill bed for oxygenation then to the body and back to the heart.
Circulatory system of an Amphibian and reptile
three chambered or modified three-chambered heart. This reflects the requirement for more pressure in the system to pump blood first to lungs then to the body
Circulatory system of a mammal and bird
four-chambered heart and double loop system that separates oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. This separation provides maximum oxygen and nutrients to the body cells for metabolism and for the energy requirements of being endothermic
What are the structures of the heart?
It is a muscular pump composed of connective tissues, the cardiac muscle, valves that prevent backvflow of blood as it moves through the heart.
How many chambers are in the heart?
two atria (auricles)
-smaller, receive blood from the veins and contract to force blood into the ventricles
two ventricles: larger, function to pump blood through the arteries to the lungs and body
What are the three types of vessels?
veins, arteries, capillaries
vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
-thinner wall than the arteries.
layer of connective tissue
veins, like the heart have valves
Is pressure lower or higher in veins
it is lower in veins, so flexing skeletal muscle helps move blood.
flexing skeletal muscle helps move blood
-valves prevent back-flow
-pressure causes the "downstream" valve to close and the "upstream" valve to open
-valves can become incompetent. this allows back-flow-->blood pools in vein, this causes varicose veins.
carries blood away from the heart
-thicker wall, withstands higher pressure
can develop fatty plaques that narrow or close the artery--> this is called atherosclerosis
fatty plaques that narrow or close the artery
These arteries feed the heart, if blocked this can lead to chest pain, referred to as angina.
when arteries that feed the heart become blocked and chest pain occurs.
Symptoms of Angina
pressure, squeezing, burning, or tightness in the chest, which usually starts in the chest behind the breastbone.
-also occurs in the arms, shoulders, neck, jaw, throat, or back and may feel like indigestion
blocked blood flow completely, heart tissue dies
inserted in the artery, usually from the groin and a dye is injected in the heart, this detects heart blockages and atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries.
Treatment for atherosclerosis
diet and exercise or angiosplasty where a catheter is inserted in the artery.
-small ballon which opens next to plaque
-this compresses the plaque
-which opens blocked artery
sometimes a stent placed in artery: mesh tube to hold artery open
smallest vessels, lie between the arteries and veins.
1-2 cell layers thick and composed a basement membrane of connective tissue and an epithelium
-only allow one blood cell through at a time
maximizes exchange between blood cells and body tissues and between blood and the atmosphere in the lungs
How is blood distribution in the body regulated?
smooth muscle at base of capillary beds, closing and opening of the smooth muscle rings regulates blood flow into the capillary bed.
-this permits distribution to various parts of the body depending on needs or conditions
Explain the double loop circulatory system
1. Blood is pumped from the right ventricle, through the semilunar valve, onto the 2 pulmonary artery (notice that this artery carries deoxygenated blood) to the lungs. 3 Gas exchange occurs in the lungs. 4. The pulmonary veins (notice these veins carry oxygenated blood) carry blood to 5. the left atrium. Blood is pumped by the left atrium through the atrioventricular valve to the 6. left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood through the semilunar valve to the 7. aorta, which carries blood to the body. 8. gas exchange occurs across the capillaries in the body and 9. deoxygenated blood is carried back to the heart by the vena cavae to the 10. right atrium. The right atrium pumps blood through the antrioventricular valve to the 1. right ventricle completing the double loop
The Left Ventricle
pumps blood to the body, has a much larger task therefore it has a thicker, more muscular wall.
The right Ventricle
pumps blood to the lungs is a smaller task, therefore it has a thinner wall.
What is blood pressure?
the pressure on vessel walls. It is related to the force of heartbeat and the fluid volume in vessels.
Where is blood pressure greatest?
Blood pressure is greatest in arteries, then drops in capillaries and becomes even lower in veins.
Why are their valves in veins to prevent back flow?
There is little pressure on the fluid to force it forward.
Where is fluid velocity at its highest?
Where is fluid the lowest?
Where does the fluid pick back up again? What does this allow?
The veins, this allows the blood to flow slowly past the tissues in the capillary beds for maximum exchange time
contraction of heart
-due to force on blood
relaxation of heart
-due to volume of liquid in vessel
-Like the pressure in a water balloon
What is used to measure blood pressure?
-measures response of vessels to pressure
What is considered normal blood pressure?
120/80 but varies
What is considered high blood pressure?
consistently 140/90 or higher
serious condition--> tissue damage
Low blood pressure is much less serious
-unless due to loss of blood, poor nutrition, thyroid condition
The Cardiac Cycle
1. Heart relaxed AV valves open
2. Atria contract
3. Ventricles contract; semilunar valves open
Stages of the heartbeat
1. atria contract
2. This causes blood to be forced into the ventricles
3. then the ventricles contract, forcing blood to the lungs and body.
4. the atrioventricular valves snap shut, making "lub" sound
5. blood to lungs and body
6. ventricles relax
7. semilunar valves snap shut= "dub"
-heart murmur = backflow in valve
lub-dub swish sound
Electrical Control of the Heartbeat
electrical activity triggers the heartbeat
The muscle cell is polarized across its cell membrane in its relaxed, resting state
(this is the state that the cardiac muslce cell is in during diastole)
Imbalance of Potassium K+ and Sodium Na+
Across the cell membrane, the outside is positive + and the inside is negative -
= + ions enter cell---> contraction
= + ions pumped out of cell---> restores to resting state
the period of re-polarization that the cardiac muscle cell undergoes
(can contract again only after polarization
Depolarizing muscle cell vs. mouse trap
When the mouse trap is set, this is analogous to the resting, polarized cardiac muscle cell. Tripping the mouse trop is like depolarizing the muscle cell. The tripped trap is like the depolarized cell. The act of re-setting the trap is analogous to the refractory period.
(importance of the refractory period is that it allows coordination so that the heartbeat occurs from a central trigger
The sinoatrial (SA) node
pacemaker of the heart
-located in the right atrium
-originates electrical activity
sets off chain reaction of depolarization
-one cardiac cell contracts and sets off contraction of the adjacent cells
spreads through heart, triggering contraction
-the SA node is self starting
-if supplied with nutrients an isolated heart can beat on its own.
-explains transplanted heart (why it can beat even though nerves to it are severed)
-signaled by nervous system or hormones for faster or slower heartbeat
The Electrical Control of the Heartbeat cont...
1. Pacemaker generates wave of signals to contract<--- SA node (pacemaker)
2. Signals delayed at AV node
3. Signals pass to heart apex
4. Signals spread throughout ventricles
How is measurement of the heart's electrical activity measured?
ECG, or Electrocardiogram
-Leads attach to body to detect electrical activity
-Deflects a pen on a moving piece of paper
What are the 3 major parts of the ECG
1. The P wave shows the electrical activity associated with atrial contraction or depolarization
2. QRS complex is the ventricular contraction or depolarization
3. The T wave is ventricular relaxation or re-polarization.
-this is the waveform of "normal sinuous rhythm."
random contraction throughout the heart muscle
-heart quivers, doesn't pump blood
-ECG shows peak and valleys
shock heart to cause all cells to contract and then rest at same time
-restores control of SA node
consists of cels suspended in plasma
45% formed elements=cellular components
What are the 3 major types of formed elements in blood?
1. Red Blood Cells (RBC's) or erythrocytes are the most common at 5-6 million
-contain hemoglobin and transport o2 and Co2 in the blood.
2. Leucocytes, or White Blood Cells occur at a density of about 5000-10000
-immunity and defense
3.Platelets are cell fragments at about 250,000- 40,000 per cc blood.
-important in blood clotting
platelets for a patch for small cut in capillary
-A cascade of reaction occurs for larger cuts.
-Platelet clotting factors bind with clacium to form a factor that converts inactive prothrombin, to thrombin, the active form
-clot is a mesh of fibrin, this forms a scab
Land Plants require what? What problems arise?
require light, carbon dioxide, water and minerals
Problem: light and CO2 from air
-aerial plant parts
-water and minerals from soil
-underground plant parts
Describe the dual existence of plants
above ground: light and dry
-requires water and minerals
Below ground: dark and moist
-requires sugars for metabolism
cells thick-walled, dead at maturity
-transports water and minerals from root to stem and leaf
-large openings allow water flow from cell to cell
Xylem Transport Cell
pits in secondary wall connect to adjacent cells
Xylem Transport Cells
-vessel tube elements: barrel shaped, open at ends, stacked
transports sugars from leaves to roots
continuous from root through stem to leaf
Cohesion Tension Theory
driving force: evaporation of water from leaves creates a water deficit that pulls water through xylem
What does TACT stand for?
transpiration, adhesion, cohesion and tension
evaporation of water from leaf through stomata
allows CO2 to diffuse i; O2, H2O diffuse out
-closed at night and when dry
How the Stomata works
Potassium (K+) is pumped into the guard cells
-Osmosis causes water to flow in, guard cells become turgid
-Stoma closes when K+ is pumped out
Transpiration---> water deficit in leaf crates tension in leaf tissues
-tension pulls water from leaf xylem by adhesion/cohesion
-leaf xylem pulls water from stem xylem
root xylem pulls water from root tissues and soil
Roots take up water
-Buildup of pressure
water moves up xylem
specialized vein endings and stomata in leaves
made in leaf, transported to roots and growing points
Mechanism: pressure-flow Hypothesis
sink= roots, growing points
Sieve tube elements thin-walled, live at maturity no nucleus
-companion cells, nucleus
Transport sugars from leaf to growing parts and roots
What is the source of photosynthesis?
How does photosynthesis occur
sucrose enters phloem by active transport
-high sucrose conc. in phloem
-Pressurized flow of phloem sap
root is sink
-unloading of sugar at root
-storage as starch; metabolism
-low sucrose concentration in phloem
What is the evidence for the pressure flow hypothesis?
xylem under inward pressure
-air embolism-air in xylem breaks water chain permanently
-flowers with bases cut underwater last longer
-prevents air from entering xylem
a condition of an organism that impairs normal physiological functioning
an agent, especially an organism, that causes disease
What are the different types of diseases?
comes from a bacterial pathogen
Ex. tuberculosis, syphilis, strep throat, botulism
-antibiotics acts against cell wall (penicillin), unique bacterial ribosomes (streptomycin)-don't affect you
comes from a viral pathogen
Ex. AIDS, influenza, colds, mumps, measles
-candidadiasis, jock itch
comes from a protoctistan parasite
Ex. malaria, amoebic dysentery
comes from an animal parasite
Ex. fluke, tapeworm, Guinea worm
Ex. kwashiorkor, scurvy, rickets
variety of causes: genetic, nutritional, physiological
Ex. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression
-immune system attacks healthy tissue
-immune system reacts to nonthreatening substances
Environmental causes of immune disease
-other poisons- household cleaners etc.
What is the structure of a virus?
-consist of a protein coat=capsid
-nucleic acid core
double stranded DNA
single stranded RNA
double stranded RNA-only in viruses
single stranded DNA only in viruses
there is a gray area between living and nonliving
may be surrounded by host cell membrane
-contains viral proteins
What is the viral "life cycle"
-obligate intracellular parasite
uses host cell's own physiology to replicate virus
makes antibiotics useless against viral biology
antibiotics act agains unique bacterial physiology
-viral nucleic acid enters cell
protein coat left outside cell or degraded
-viral nucleic acid inserts into cellular genome
-viral nucleic acid takes over, directing cell to make viral particles
cell bursts killing cell and releasing viruses
-released viruses infect other cells
virus directs cell to make viral particles
-uses cell's own physiology to replicate viruses
-cell bursts and is killed or viruses bleb off in host membrane
viral DNA inserts into cell DNA
by cell division, viral DNA is duplicated and all progeny cells have viral DNA
defense against invading parasites and abnormal cells
What are the two types of responses?
Nonspecific responses, Specific responses
1. branching network of vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, tonsils, appendix, spleen, bond marrow
3. fluid and WBC's leak from capillaries, taken up by lymphatic system
4. lymph carries microbes
5. vessels run through lymph nodes
-contain lymphocytes and macrophages
immune cells destroy invaders
-cell numbers increase with an infection
6. Lymph then drains to vessels that open into blood-carrying veins in chest
7. blockage of lymph vessels
due to fluid buildup
-bubonic plague (bacterial)
8. lymphoma-cancer of lymphatic tissue
Nonspecific Responses: Barriers
1. intact skin
-your primary defense agains parasitic invaders
2. ciliated tracts sweep out bacteria
3.enzyme containing secretions
-tears contain lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme
4. gastric fluid pH of ca. 1.0
5. normal healthy flora in gut and on skin
-outcompete pathogens (competitive exclusion)
Nonspecific Responses: Antimicrobial Proteins
-complement other factors, cascade effect
general antiviral proteins
Nonspecific Responses: Inflammatory response
1. skin and blood cells release histamines
2. histamines cause:
c) fluid flow from capillaries
3 types of white blood cell
scattered in body
-battle invading bacteria
symptoms of an inflammatory response
cells involves are called lymphocytes
1. about 1 trillion in body
2. carry receptors on cell surface that can recognize foreign proteins (antigens)
receptors specific to particular antigen
3. formed in bone marrow
4. maturation results in specificity
5. recognize self from nonself
What are the two different cells in specific responses?
B cells- do not pass through thymus
-humoral or antibody-mediated immunity
T cells-pass through thymus to mature
-cell mediated immunity
Describe the structure of Antibodies
proteins that combine with specific antigen
Y-shaped with specific sticky points at tips of "Y", can "hook" two antigens
How do Antibodies and Antigens interact?
a specific substance that invokes an immune response, usually a protein
How does a specific response function?
flag foreign invader
chirrping of invader
dissolve some infective agents
Describe the formation and action of specific responses
T and B cells make antibodies
-B cell antibodies released to circulate; T-cells retain antibodies on their surface
-B cells produce antibodies only if antigen present and if helper T cells stimulate them
Describe the clonal selection and "Chinese Menu" theory
hypothesizes that it takes several genes to form parts of antibodies
-mixture and order of peptides imparts specificity
-somewhat random-million of combinations
Describe a primary immune response
1. first exposure to antigen
2. involves both humoral and cell-mediated immunity
3. primary response slow
4. disease symptoms from invader result
5. chemical 'call to arms'
b) interferon-viral attack
6. suppresser T-cells slow response when invasion controlled
-T cells kill by punching holes in non-self cell
Describe a secondary immune response
1. subsequent exposure to antigen
2. both humoral and cell-mediated response involved
3. much faster response against antigen
4. no disease symptoms
1) inactive virus
2) other antigen
induces a primary response
primed for secondary response
antibodies from another source collected and used
-horses given venom; antibodies derived from bloods
2) breast feeding
acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
effects of AIDS
virus attacks helper T-cells
immune system compromised
opportunistic infection then able to attack
1) Kapoki's sarcoma
2) Preumocystis pneumonia
coated virus- covered by host cell membrane with embedded viral proteins
-enzyme reverse transcriptase
1) in virus
2) reverse transcribes RNA to DNA
Treatment for AIDS
treatment- NOT CURES
AZT-against reverse transcriptase
1) very promising
2)works agains viral enzyme
3) has reduced levels of HIV in infected individuals to non detectable levels
4) requires strict regimen
How is AIDS transmitted?
virus in semen, vaginal secretions, blood and breast milk
-sexual contact- high risk behaviors
1. anal intercourse
2. vaginal intercourse
3. oral sex
4. other acts that share body fluids
-sharing needles/drug works
-across placenta from infected mother
blood transfusions, however very rare in US
Describe the screening process for AIDS
blood tested for antibodies to HIV (and other pathogens)
-screening of donors
HIV is NOT transmitted by:
casual contact with infected person
being around an infected person using toilets
What is the general timeline of HIV/AIDS
time of infection--> window period 3-6 months- test negative but infectious--> Latent Period 8-11 yrs (test positive, infectious, no symptoms)--->AIDS Symptoms
How to prevent AIDS
abstinence from all sexual contact
long term monogamy, with a partner who is not infected
-LATEX condoms used from start to finish of sexual act
-Natural skin (lamb skin) condoms DO NOT prevent transmission
dental dams (piece of latex rubber sheet) for oral sex on females
- do not share needles/works
clean syringes with two washes of 1 part chlorine bleach to 7 parts water solution followed by a water rinse
AZT reduces transmission across placenta
health workers- use masks and latex gloves
irrational attack against normally harmless antigen
Ex. pollen, dust mite feces, pet fur, many others
symptoms of allergies
release of histamine
-swelling of tissues
-can lead to shock (only in serious conditions, possibly fatal)
How to treat allergies
-small amount of antigen
-lessening of symptoms
-exact mechanism unknown
immune system attacks "self" tissue
-may occur after attack by invader with antigen similar to receptor proteins on self tissue
rheumatoid arthritis- bone and cartilage
What is a Rh factor, What are the genetics of the Rh factor?
Rh is an antigen on RBC's
genetics: 1. Rh+=protein present, dominant trait
2. Rh-= protein absent recessive trait
3. Inherited in simple Mendelian patterns
How does the Rh factor relate to pregnancy?
problem: mother Rh-, father Rh+
1. mother can develop antibodies against Rh+ protein
2. if baby is Rh+, few problems with first birth because maternal and fetal blood do not mix
3. at birth, mixing of blood due to messiness of birth process
4. mother can develop immunity to Rh+ protein
-in itself, not a problem
second pregnancy, mother's antibodies attack Rh+ RBC's of fetus
treatment for this is an antibody to Rh+ protein given to mother during and within 48 hrs. after pregnancy
-binds protein, mother does not develop memory cells
What are the antigens of the ABO blood types
type A=A antigen only
type B=B antigen only
type AB= both A and B antigens
type O= neither A nor B antigen
What are the antibodies in blood plasma
type A=anti-B antibodies
type B= anti-A antibodies
type AB=neither antibody
type O=both anti-A and anti-B antibodies
What are problems with the transfusion of blood?
1. antibodies stick to their antigen and cause clumping of red blood cells
2. clumps block arterioles/arteries--> tissue damage/death
What is the universal donor?
Type O, no antigens on RBC's
What is the universal recipient?
Type AB, universal recipient, no antibodies in blood
these are best because, it is a match of the Rh factor and of ABO type
What causes the tissue rejection in transplantation?
Immune system "keys" to protein receptors on cell surfaces
self vs. non-self measured by these proteins
tissue from another individual probably has "wrong" proteins--> attack by immune system
host vs. graft- donor tissue seen as foreign
graft vs. host- host tissue seen as foreign
-bone marrow transplant
How is a bone marrow transplant done?
stem cells for immune system in bone marrow
-transplant replaces an impaired immune system
-also: sickle cell anemia (stem cells--> RBC's)
1. kill off existing bone marrow
2. introduce donor bone marrow
3. introduced cells migrate into bone, establish
mush be a close match to avoid rejection
often a close relative due to genetic similarity
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