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FCHS World History 2 SOL Picture Review

flash cards to help you reivew for the whole year
STUDY
PLAY
Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)
communist who won China's Civil War
Margaret Thatcher
British prime minister who advocated free trade and less government regulation of business and had a close relationship with United States
Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel
ceiling that shows key Biblical scenes
Deng Xiaoping
allowed free market reform in China in the 1980s
World War I
Allies - France, US, Britain, Russia, and Italy
Central Powers - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese nationalist and communist
NATO and the Warsaw Pact
division of Europe during the Cold War
Korean War
first time the U.N. fielded an army, war ended in a stalemate
Reign of Terror
radical phase of the French Revolution led by Maximillien Robespierre
Thirty Years War
religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics
Berlin Conference
partitioned Africa, leaving only Ethiopia and Liberia independent
U.S. government's response to terrorist threat
the war in Afghanistan, screenings, ID badges, and the Patriot Act are all examples of the government's response to terrorism
Napoleon's Empire
Napoleon at one time controlled most of Europe
Gamal Abdel Nasser
nationalized the Suez Canal and built the Aswan High Dam
developed/developing countries
Developed and developing countries are not only divided in terms of wealth, family size, and quality of life. They are also geographically divided, with few developed countries in the Southern Hemisphere.
Meiji Restoration
era in 19th century Japan when the nation rapidly modernized and westernized
Golda Meir
first female Israeli prime minister; helped Israel win the Yom Kippur War
Nelson Mandela
arrested for fighting apartheid; first winner of a "one person, one vote" election in South Africa
Versailles
palace built by absolutist French monarch Louis XIV
WWII
Allies - Free French, USA, Britain, USSR
Axis - Germany, Italy, Japan
Cuban Missile Crisis
closest the world has ever come to nuclear war
Bessemer process
makes quality steel more cheaply and efficiently
spheres of influence
countries demand special trading privileges or rights such as extraterritoriality from their spheres of influence
three estates in pre-revolutionary France
1st estate - clergy
2nd estate - nobility
3rd estate - everybody else
Bolshevik Revolution
proletarian workers kick out the bourgeois capitalists in Russia
Great Purge
Stalin was ruthless and paranoid. He tried to kill his potential rivals.
apartheid
system of strictly enforced racial segregation that was law in South Africa from 1948 to 1991
child labor
one of the worst features of the Industrial Revolution
Vladimir Lenin
led the Bolshevik Revolution and made Russia communist
Louis XVI
absolutist king who was killed during the French Revolution
Great Depression
global economic crisis from 1929 - 1941, characterized by high unemployment, a stock market crash, bank failures, foreclosures, etc.
William Harvey
circulation of the blood throughout the body
Indira Gandhi
first female prime minister of India
Douglas MacArthur
commander of US forces in the Pacific, island hopping strategiest, occupier of Japan, general in Korea
heliocentric theory
theory that the sun is at the center
collectivization
Stalin's forcible seizure of small farms for the purpose of combining them into huge farms
North American Free Trade Association
organization that promotes trade among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico
Eisenhower
commander of Allied forces in Europe, led D-Day invasion
multinational corporations
companies found in several countries around the globe
Nagasaki
US dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and ________in August 1945
Fidel Castro
communist leader of Cuba
Jomo Kenyatta
African leader of an armed independence struggle against Britain
Suez Canal
shortened the sea transportation route from Europe to Asia
Woodrow Wilson
U.S. President during WWI; wrote the 14 Points as his plan to prevent future wars
Taj Mahal
most famous legacy of the Mughal Empire
Tokugawa Japan
extremely isolated era of Japan, attacked Christians and almost completely closed off to foreigners
militarism, alliances, imperialism, nationalism
militarism = glorification of war; alliances = Central vs. Allies; imperialism = winners get to take losers' colonies; nationalism = intense love of country
domino theory
principle that undergirded U.S. foreign policy in Asia during the Cold War
Ottoman Emire
empire that started in Turkey, conquered Constantinople, was led by Suleiman, and lasted until the end of WWI
Zimmermann Telegram
Germany's plan to keep the US out of WWI backfired, and when the US learned of Germany's secret plan quickly entered the war
Peter the Great
Romanov tsar who greatly admired French culture and attempted to modernize Russia
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
his assassination started WWI
Spanish Armada
Spain's navy, defeated by England in 1588
Elizabeth I put Francis Drake in command of the English navy
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt
U.S. president during the Great Depression and most of WWII
Johannes Kepler
discovered the law of planetary motion
Christopher Columbus
explorer who is credited with "discovering" the Americas
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
Hitler met with Stalin before starting WWII by invading Poland. They made a deal in which Hitler promised not to invade the USSR and they agreed to divide Poland.
Suleiman the Magnificent
greatest Ottoman emperor
mandate system
League of Nations gave administrative control of former Ottoman colonies in the Middle East to Britain and France after WWI
Britain took Iraq, Transjordan, and Palestine
France took Lebanon and Syria
reparations
money one pays to make amends; the Treaty of Versailles made Germany pay after WWI
Vasco da Gama
this route would enable to Portuguese to get spices much more cheaply than going through Ottoman controlled Istanbul
smallpox, measles, influenza
diseases that killed 75% of the indigenous population of the Americas
Voltaire
Enlightenment philosophe and author of Candide; believed religious toleration should triumph over fanaticism and that church and state should be separate
Isaac Newton
physicist who co-invented calculus and discovered the law of gravity
Marshall Plan
U.S. spent $13 billion to rebuild Europe after WWII for the three As - altruism, alliances, and avoiding communism
Fall of France
France quickly fell to the Nazis; the Free French under De Gaulle resisted but some forces in Vichy collaborated
Jacques Cartier
explored the St. Lawrence River in Canada and claimed Canada for France, calling it "New France"
cotton gin
invented by Eli Whitney; increased the extent of slavery in the U.S. as short-staple cotton could now be grown at a profit in the Deep South
Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx
authors of The Communist Manifesto, which calls for proletarian evolution , the abolition of private property, redistribution of wealth, and govt ownership of the means of production
storming of the Bastille
start of the French Revolution
Enlightenment
European intellectual movement that focused on the spread of political rights, representative government, and religious freedom. Philosophes discussed their ideas over dinner in fancy salons.
Middle Passage
brutal ocean voyage of slaves taken against their will to the plantations of the Americas
Nazi invasion of Poland
start of WWII
containment
U.S. Cold War strategy of preventing the spread of communism, even going to war if necessary
appeasement
giving in to an aggressor - British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain appeased Hitler at Munich by saying he would not protest when Germany annexed the Sudetenland
Inquisition
Catholic court that punished heretics
concentration camp
places like Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Birkenau, Dachau, Treblinka, where Nazis tried to carry out their Final Solution to kill all Jews and "undesirables"
95 Theses
Martin Luther's list of criticisms of the Catholic Church; his nailing them to the door of a church in Germany started the Protestant Reformation
mercantilism
economic policy that states colonies exist for the benefit of the mother country
Jesuits (AKA Society of Jesus)
Catholic religious order that tried to promote Catholicism by founding schools and spreading Catholicism in the Americas
Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941
"a day which will live in infamy" - FDR
Montesquieu
Enlightenment philosophe whose book Spirit of the Laws inspired the U.S. to establish a government with three separate branches that could check and balance each other
trench warfare
style of fighting common on the Western Front in WWI; tends to lead to massive casualties and territorial stalemate
social contract
theory that says people join a society - e.g., give up absolute freedom - in order to gain security; Hobbes first articulated the theory and Rousseau literally wrote the book on it
Songhai
civilization that grew wealthy as part of its participation in the Trans-Saharan Caravan trade
Osama bin Laden
Al-Queda terrorist who planned 9/11
guest workers
economically strong countries like the former West Germany sometimes invite people in from other countries to do jobs they don't want to do
Christianity
monotheistic religion that teaches Jesus is the Messiah and Son of God; New Testament tells story of Jesus' life
Persia
ancient name for Iran
Hinduism
religion of India that based on karma and reincarnation and teaches that there are many forms of one deity
International Monetary Fund
purpose of this agency is to lend money to developing nations
Huguenots
group of French Calvinists who were given religious toleration by the Edict of Nantes
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Haitian freedom fighter
Islam
monotheistic religion founded by Muhammad, holy book is the Qu'ran, Mecca and Medina are the holiest cities
Jenner
invented smallpox vaccine
Monroe Doctrine
U.S. recognized Latin American nations that declared independence from Spain in the early 1800s and told Europe the Western Hemisphere was closed to further colonization
Don Quixote
novel by Miguel Cervantes -- Read it, I promise you'll love it!
Latin American industries
sugar production and mineral exports are the biggest industries in colonial New Spain
Der Fuhrer
Adolf Hitler, National Socialist (Nazi) leader, author of Mein Kampf, proponent of a "master race" ideology
Papal States
last region to join a unified Italy
Napoleon Bonaparte
emperor of France, author of the Civil Code, conqueror of much on Europe
printing press
movable type machine invented by Johannes Gutenberg
Elizabeth
English queen who defeated the Spanish Armada, made Anglican the official Church of England, and tolerated Dissenters
Simon Bolivar
Creole liberator of South America who freed Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia from Spain
Tsar Nicholas II and Kaiser Wilhelm II
first cousins and personal friends, monarchs of Russia and Germany, enemies in WWI, forced to abdicate for their wartime incompetence
Grito de Dolores
fiery speech given by priest Father Miguel Hidalgo in 1810, started Mexico's independence movement
Alsace-Lorraine
region of France taken by Prussia during the Franco-Prussian War, France entered WWI hoping to get it back from Germany
Columbian Exchange
transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres
Abraham
founder of Judaism, patriarch of Christianity, and Prophet of Islam
Five Year Plans
Stalin's idea for improving the Soviet Union's agriculture and industrial output
Otto von Bismarck
first chancellor of a unified Germany; man who said he would unify modern Germany through "blood and iron"
The Balkans
former Yugoslavia, broke apart after the collapse of communism,, Serbian Milosevic tried to "ethnically cleanse" Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 1990s - e.g., kill all the Catholics and Muslims
Glorious Revolution
brought William and Mary to power without violence, they had to agree to co-rule with Parliament and the sign the English Bill of Rights
Final Solution
Hitler's term for the Holocaust of Jews during WWII, 6 million were killed in concentration camps like Auschwitz and Dachau
Six Day War
In this preemptive war Israel took the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights, Gaza, and the West Bank
shogun
actual commander of feudal Japan, the emperor's power was ceremonial
causes of WWII
anger over the Versailles Treaty led to the rise of fascist Nazism in Germany which was a main cause of WWII in Germany
Terrorism
11 Israeli athletes and coaches were killed at the Munich Olympics in 1972
Buddhism
religion that began in India but quickly spread to East and Southeast Asia, teaches the Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path as the path to Enlightenment
Mikhail Gorbachev
last leader of the Soviet Union, introduced policies of glasnost and perestroika
Edict of Nantes
royal proclamation that gave religious tolerance to Huguenots
Berlin Wall
built by Soviets to keep East Berliners from escaping communism, torn down in November 1989 when communism fell
Age of Imperialism
era in the late 19th and early 20th centuries when (mostly) European countries took over territories in Asia, Africa, and Australia
mestizo
a person of mixed indigenous American and European ancestry
natural rights
these can never be taken away, according to John Locke; if a govt does take them away, the citizens, who are sovereign, have a right to rebel
Protestant Reformation
religious split that occurred when the Catholic Church introduced the sale of indulgences
redistribution of wealth
communist principle that takes all wealth and divides it among the citizens equally
Michelangelo's David
most important Renaissance sculpture, first free-standing nude in the round sculpted since medieval times
assembly line
how goods are manufactured in the factory system
Spanish influence of colonies
colonies in New Spain mirrored religion, culture, art, and architecture of Spain
cottage industry
AKA domestic system, putting out system
how goods were made before the Industrial Revolution
Mussolini
Il Duce, founder of the Fascist Party and dictator of Italy during WWII
Revolutions of 1848
liberal and radical revolutions in Central Europe that called for universal manhood suffrage, greater workers' rights, etc.
Age of Discovery
era of exploration and colonization of the Americas, motivated by the 3 Gs and made possible by the new technologies of the astrolabe, caravel, compass, and Mercator map
Catholicism
religion the Spanish, Portuguese, and many French settlers forced on the indigenous peoples of the Americas
Brazil
Portuguese-speaking colony of South America, religion, art, architecture, and government mirrored that of Portugal
Act of Supremacy
Parliamentary law that made Henry VIII the head of the Church of England and therefore, ended papal authority in England
Erasmus
Christian humanist and author of the Praise of Folly
Bolivar
creole from Venezuela who gained independence for Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela from Spain
Garibaldi
guerrilla leader of the Red Shirts; unified Southern Italy and then joined his forces to Northern Italy
collective bargaining
when a union peacefully negotiates for a contract that provides more pay, better hours, safer working conditions, etc.
suffrage expansion
women started working in large numbers during the Industrial Revolution and soon demanded the right to vote
British East India Company
dominated trade in India until it became a British colony in 1858
entrepreneurs
people who take risks when forming companies and form the backbone of capitalism
Istanbul
formerly known as Constantinople, conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1453; the fact that Ottomans charged tariffs and fees on trade for Asian goods inspired Europeans to launch the Age of Exploration
The Columbian Exchange
horses from Europe revolutionized the indigenous culture of the Americas
Churchill
British prime minister during most of WWII
England
birthplace of the Industrial Revolution
Commodore Matthew Perry
U.S. naval commander who forced Japan to open to international trade in the mid-19th century
Scientific Revolution
time period that encouraged people to observe and experiment on their own, rather than accepting the findings of ancient authorities
Fall of Communism
communism fell in Eastern Europe and the USSR between 1989 and 1991; Gorbachev's glasnost and perestroika policies played a role
Versailles Treaty
Hitler claimed after WWI German Jewish diplomats stabbed Germany in the back ("Dolchstoss")
Indian National Congress
AKA Congress Party, group that worked toward self-rule for India
Boxer Rebellion
anti-foreign, anti-technology opponents of those who had carved China into spheres of influence
Mona Lisa
famous portrait by Leonardo da Vinci, who also painted The Last Supper
protectorate
form of imperialism where local leaders are left in place
Louis Pasteur
discovered bacteria and developed a process for killing microorganisms in milk
Romanticism
artistic and literary movement in Europe in the 19th century, emphasizes emotion, the supernatural, and the common man
strike
work stoppage with the goal of better pay or better working conditions
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince who founded a school for explorers and sailed around the west coast of Africa
Paris Peace Conference
meeting at which Treaty of Versailles was negotiated; this cartoon strongly suggests that the treaty will lead to a future war that will kill many
Mohandas Gandhi
Indian independence leader who believed in passive resistance and civil disobedience
Hirohito
Japanese emperor from 1926-1989
Charles I
British king killed by Oliver Cromwell during the English Civil War
Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)
leader of the Kuomintang Nationalists; when he lost the Chinese Civil War he had to flee to Taiwan
communism
along with The Communist Manifesto, one of the two founding works of the theory of communism
D-Day
Allied invasion of Europe; coordinated by Eisenhower
isolationism
U.S. policy before WWII
James Watt
inventor who perfected the steam engine
Puritans
Anglicans who believe their church must be "purified" of Catholic-style elements -- flowers, candles, incense, gold, etc.
militarism
glorification of war
Council of Trent
Catholic meeting that reaffirmed traditional teachings and advising correcting moral abuses as a way to slow the growth of Protestantism
Manchuria
region of China invaded by Japan in 1931 for its resources; turned into a puppet state and renamed Manchukuo
Battle of Britain
London was bombed every night for two months during this battle
Jewaharlal Nehru
India's first president
Irish Republican Army
terrorist organization that wants Northern Ireland rejoined with Ireland
Thomas Hobbes
author of Leviathan, a book about life in the state of nature and people's wish to join a social contract
William Shakespeare
wrote sonnets, essays, and plays in English, including Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, Henry V, Romeo and Juliet, etc.
missionaries
people who spread a religion, many Europeans claimed they wanted African territory to Christianize it but personally your teacher believes it was all about economics and religion was just their excuse
political parties
emerged for the first time after William and Mary agreed to co-rule with Parliament
rwanda
place where a terrible genocide by Hutus against Tutsis was carried out in 1994
Oliver Cromwell
winner of the English Civil War, claimed he was going to rule England as a commonwealth but really ruled it as a dictatorship
Russo-Japanese War
To everyone's surprise, in the early 1900s, the Japanese navy decimated Russia's fleet.
UN
founded in 1945 to promote peace and international cooperation
HIdeki Tojo
prime minister of Japan during WWII
viceroy
governed in the name of the king in the colonies of New Spain
caste system
outlawed when India became independent; India was the world's second most populous nation and most populous democracy
predestination
Calvinist principle, along with the idea of righteousness being revealed through a good life and a hard work ethic
satellites
nations in Eastern Europe under the hegemony (control) of the Soviet dictatorship
Vietnam
divided between a noncommunist south and a communist north; the Viet Cong infiltrated the south and the country went communist in April 1975
deterrence
idea that nuclear weapons are so dangerous no side will actually use them against another nuclear power for fear of retaliation
Horn of Africa
area that has experienced near constant civil war since 1956
civil disobedience
intentionally breaking an unjust law; here is Gandhi illegally making salt in the Salt March
Sri Lanka
island off the coast of India; gained independence in 1948
Last Supper
painting by Leonardo da Vinci portraying the night before Jesus was crucified
textiles
first business to industrialize
refugees
people forced to flee their country in a time of war
Algeria
African nation that fought a violent war for independence against France
Ghana
West African nation that had a peaceful transition to independence from Britain in 1957