How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

58 terms

Mod B Unit 2

Chapter 3,4
STUDY
PLAY
Infection control
Established policies and procedures that must be followed to minimize the risk of spreading disease producing microorganisms.....Sanitized, Disinfect, Sterilize
Pathogens
Disease-producing(pathogenic)microorganisms.
Spores
Bacteria with a hard wall capsule that is resistant to heat.(Bacilli)
Bacteria
Are single-celled microorganisms that multiply rapidly, classified according to shape and arrangement
Fungi
Include yeast & molds, live on decomposing matter & within or on the body(e.g. vaginal yeast infections, athlete's foot)
Viruses
Can reproduce only if they are within a LIVING CELL, SMALLEST of all microorganisms, visible only viewed under an ELECTRON MICROSCOPE.
Parasites
RICKETTSIAE, infectious organism that need a HOST to SURVIVE, so they cannot live outside the body, smaller than bacteria, CARRIED by fleas, lice, ticks, & mites.
Aerobic
Microorganisms that need oxygen to grow
Anaerobes
Microorganisms that do not require oxygen to grow.
Sanitization
Process that REDUCES the # of microorganisms on an item, is the lowest level of infection control DOES NOT destroy all microorganisms or spores.(washing)
Disinfection
Destruction or inhibition of the activity of pathogens, BUT NOT spores, occurs when scrubbing or soaking an item with a chemical cleaning agent.(10% bleach solution)
Sterilization
Preocess that DESTROYS ALL microorganisms INCLUDING spores, occurs by using heat, steam under pressure, gas ultraviolet light or chemicals.
Chain of infection
Infectious agent(Germ) - Carrier(persom who has the disease) - Route of exit(way the germ will leave the body) - Method of transmission(direct or indirect contact) - Route of entry(way the germ get into another person's body) - Susceptible host(person that can be infected usually in poor health)
PPE
Personal protective equipment, protective items used to PREVENT EXPOSURE to blood & body fluids.(gowns, face shields, goggles, gloves)
"right to know" Law
OSHA's hazard communication standars that allows each employee to know of potential exposure problems.(chemicals she/he is working with)
Incision
the cutting of or into body tissues or organs (especially by a surgeon as part of an operation)
Ratchet
Part of an instrument used to keep it closed by interlocking both sides,
Relationship between jewelry and soap(handwashing)
It most be remove (ring, watch)..Jewelry traps microorganisms & dirt, which will not be washed away if jewelry is left on, preventing thorought handwashing.
Curette
Surgical instrument, is a long-handled with a metal loop on one end, used for scraping the inside os a cavity.
Serosanguineous
Wound drainage, consists of SERUM & BLOOD.
Classification of wounds
Open wound, Superficial wound, Deep wound, Closed wound.
Open Wound
is a break in the sking or mucous membranes & can be classified as either superficial or deep.
Superficial Wound
Do not extend beyond the subcutaneous layers.
Deep Wound
extend beyond the subcutaneous layer
Closed Wound
Does not show a break in the skin, tissues are bruised or bleed internally,caused by trauma to the body.
Scalpel
Surgical instrument used with a knife blade used to make an incision, sizes range from 10 to 25
Retractors
are instruments used to hold back the adges os a wound or incision to expose the operative area(keeps the wound open)
Forceps
Are 2-pronged instruments for grasping or holding body tissue, foreign bodies, or surfical materials.
Surgical asepsis
Is removing ALL microorganisms, BOTH pathogenic & non pathogenic, from an object.
Sutures
are foreign materials used to approximate skin edges or ligate(tie off) blood vessels until healing is compete.
Which sutures dissolve the fastest?
Catgut
What factors affect wound healing
1)General state of the PT's health. 2)Good nutrition. 3)Adequate blood supply and normal clotting. 3)Use of proper aseptic technique during surgery and dressing changes.
Lacerations
tears or deep cuts in the skin, damage to the epidermis & dermis
Lacerations repair
A wound is cleaned and debrided, local anesthetic is used, sutures bring the edges of the wound together,sterile dressing is applied.
Skin Closures
Are long, narrow ADHESIVE STRIPS that are used to CLOSE small wound areas INSTEAD of sutures, are applied at 1/8-inch intervals until the wound is approximated together...TO REMOVE: each tape is peeled off from the outside toward the wound.
Suture needles
Can be straight or curved in various degrees, they have different types of pointed ends.Sharp Point (cutting) needle cuts tissues.Round Pointed needle(tapered)separastes tissues.
Local Anesthetics
produce a limited & brief loss of sensation in the area of injection, freezing or application.
Epinephrine
Is added to some LOCAL ANESTHETICS, it causes the BLOOD VESSELS to constrict, thereby holding the anesthetic in the tissues longer and minimizing bleeding.
General anesthesia
produce unconsciousness by depressing the central nervous system, used for major surgery , PT is usually required to have no food or water(NPO) after 9am or midnight the night before.
Normal Flora
Microorganisms on the epidermis and deeper layers of the skin that are usually non pathogenic.
Transient Flora
Refers to microorganisms that grow on the surface of the skin and are picked up easily by the hands. ( Pathogenic)
Steam Sterilization
An AUTOCLAVE is used to produce steam under pressure, primary method used in the medical office
scalpels
(knife handle) A straight, pointed blade is used for incision and drainage.
Scalpel blades range in size from
10 to 25
Hand hygiene
on of the most effective ways to reduce pathogenic transmission (hand washing) it includes Antiseptic hand rub(alcohol-containing)Handwashing(soap & water)Antiseptic (water & a soap containing an antiseptic)Surgical(antiseptic preparation for an extended time following a certain protocol)
Abrasion
Damage to the superficial layer of the skin (epidermis)
Sterile package can be store for how long
pouch 21 day & muslin wrappers 30 day
Primary wound closure
open and close the same day.
Second wound closure
large wound is not closed same day, heals from the bottom up.
Delayed wound closure
tertiary healing, occurs when the wound is left open because of infection, require debridement.
Medical asepsis
Clean technique, reduces the # of microorganisms.
Surgical asepsis
sterile technique , used to prevent the spread of microorganism when skin or mucous membranes have been broken
Guidelines for preventing contamination
1) maintain 1 inch border around sterile field. 2) Do not turn your back to a sterile field.
cutting & dissecting
cut body tissues, Scissors, Scalpels, Biopsy punches, Curettes
Grasping & clamping
hold body tissues, Forceps, Needle holder
Retracting
hold back edges of the body tissues, Agricola lid retractor, Volkmann finger retractor
Probing & dilating
explore body cavities, Pratt rectal probe, Walther female urethral dilator
Suturing
close a wound, Mayo Hegar needle holder, Thumb forceps