Get ahead with a $300 test prep scholarship
| Enter to win by Tuesday 9/24
Social Psychology Chapter 15
Terms in this set (61)
Which is NOT one of the confidence boosters for eyewitnesses found by Wells and Bradfield?
not getting feedback confirmation after identification of a suspect
Research on the memories of young children indicates that they
are especially susceptible to misinformation.
In researching over 1,700 defendants appearing in Texas misdemeanor cases, Downs and Lyons (1991) found that the judges _______ less attractive defendants.
set greater fines for
Nearly all the states in the U.S. now have _______ statutes that prohibit or limit testimony concerning a rape victim's prior sexual activity.
When Fisher and his colleagues (1994) trained detectives to use the "cognitive interview" procedure for questioning eyewitnesses,
the amount of information elicited from eyewitnesses increased 50 percent.
Jurors exhibit a tendency to treat racial outgroups
In Wells and Bradfield's study (1999), participants were asked if feedback from the experimenter had influenced their certainty regarding their identification of the gunman. What percentage of the participants denied any influence of the feedback?
Jurors have difficulty "erasing" the impact of inadmissible evidence
especially when the inadmissible evidence has an emotional impact.
Who among the following is likely to receive the most severe sentence for drunk driving?
Tim, an unattractive auto mechanic with long hair
A prosecuting attorney learns that a crucial eyewitness to a grocery store robbery correctly remembers trivial details of the crime scene. If the prosecutor hopes to convince the jury that the eyewitness is credible, research suggests
he should make the jury aware of the witness's ability to remember trivial details.
Studies have identified the post-identification feedback effect, and suggest that in order to avoid it,
interrogators should be kept ignorant of who is the suspect.
Research experiments by Wells and others (1979) show that incorrect eyewitnesses are believed _____ of the time.
Whose eyewitness testimony is probably the most reliable?
Millie's report given immediately after a grocery store robbery. She was simply asked to tell the police what she saw.
Which is NOT true in relation to jurors in court?
Premature opinions of jurors don't influence how they interpret information.
Studies have reported that Blacks are _____ as defendants or _____ as victims, or both.
The tendency for witnesses to incorporate misleading information into their memories is especially strong when
suggestive questions are repeated.
Which of the following has been suggested as a strategy for reducing misidentifications in police lineups?
Give eyewitnesses a "blank" lineup that contains no suspects and screen out those who make false identifications, Minimize false identifications with instructions that acknowledge that the offender may not be in the lineup, Include one suspect and several known innocent people in the lineup rather than a group of several suspects. (All of the above)
A police interrogator questioning an eyewitness to a robbery hopes to learn whether the assailant was wearing a bright green hat similar to one seen in another robbery. According to research, which of the following questions will elicit the most detailed, undistorted recall from the eyewitness?
"How was the robber dressed?"
Which statement is true?
States with the death penalty do not have lower homicide rates.
Amato (1979) found that when people play the role of juror, they are more sympathetic to a defendant who
shares their political views.
According to the text, what factor helps explain why in acquaintance rape trials, men more often than women judge the defendant not guilty?
Research shows that when a judge rules evidence to be inadmissible and admonishes the jury to ignore it,
jurors have a hard time ignoring the evidence and its influence on their deliberations.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Retelling events commits people to their recollections, accurate or not.
Dunning and Perretta (2002) found that those eyewitnesses who made their identifications _______ were nearly 90 percent accurate.
in less than 10-12 seconds
Stan was initially uncertain about the man he identified as the burglar in a police lineup. His confidence increased, however, after
being asked the same question repeatedly.
Death-qualified jurors are
more likely to convict in criminal cases.
Wells, Ferguson, and Lindsay (1981) had eyewitnesses to a staged theft rehearse their answers to questions before taking the witness stand. Doing so
increased the confidence of those who were wrong.
In an experiment conducted with the help of BBC Television, Wiseman (1998) reported that viewers saw the defendant played by either an attractive or an unattractive actor. How did the viewers react?
More viewers "convicted" the unattractive defendant.
Survey researchers sometimes assist defense attorneys by using "scientific jury selection" to eliminate individuals likely to be unsympathetic. Results indicated that in the first nine important trials in which the defense relied on such methods, it
Sheppard and Vidmar (1980) had some students serve as witnesses to a fight, while others took the roles of lawyers and judges. When they had been interviewed by the defense lawyer, the witnesses
gave testimony that was favorable to the defendant.
The process of witnessing an event, receiving misleading information about it, and then incorporating the misleading information into one's memory of the event is referred to as the _______ effect.
Which of the following factors is NOT likely to lead to a lighter sentence for the person convicted?
An eyewitness gains confidence from which of the following sources?
being asked the same question repeatedly
Young children's susceptibility to the misinformation effect raises the distinct possibility that
some people have been falsely accused in sex abuse cases.
After hearing a television report falsely indicating that drugs may have contributed to a recent auto accident, several eyewitnesses of the accident begin to remember the driver as traveling at a faster rate of speed than was actually the case. This provides an example of
the misinformation effect.
Research on false memories in children find that children
cannot reliably separate real from false memories.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Eyewitnesses are often more confident than correct.
Loftus (1979) found that when an eyewitness who had testified against the defendant in a hypothetical robbery-murder case was discredited because of having poor vision
the majority of jurors still voted for conviction.
To minimize the effects of inadmissible testimony, Myers suggests that judges are best advised to
videotape the testimony and cut out the inadmissible parts.
Which one of the following is an indicator that can suggest accuracy in lineup identification?
making a very quick identification
As a result of the judge's warning that the jury disregard evidence ruled inadmissible, the stricken evidence may have an even greater impact on the jury's decision than if it had not been ruled out. This is probably due to _______ in the jurors.
A prosecuting attorney is uncertain whether her eyewitness will seem credible to the jury. The eyewitness's testimony could help win a conviction, but the witness might be discredited by the defense attorney. What advice should the prosecutor accept?
Put the eyewitness on the stand, since even a discredited eyewitness is more convincing than no eyewitness at all.
At the University of Washington, Loftus (1979) found that eyewitnesses in a hypothetical robbery-murder case were influential
even when their testimony was discredited.
Of the following eyewitnesses to a crime, who would probably appear most believable to a jury?
Randy, a radio announcer who appears very confident about what he saw
Which of the following is NOT a recommended strategy for increasing the accuracy of eyewitnesses and jurors?
Ask witnesses to scan a lineup of several suspects or mug shots simultaneously rather than one at a time.
A study of more than 3,500 criminal cases and some 4,000 civil cases found that _______ the judge agreed with the jury's decision.
four out of five times
In Wells and Bradfield's study (1999), participants were asked to identify a gunman they had seen on video. After making a false identification but receiving confirming feedback, ___ percent rated their initial certainty as very high.
Irene Blair and her colleagues (2004) reported that over a two-decade period, Black males convicted of murdering a White defendant were doubly likely to be sentenced to death if
they had more stereotypically Afrocentric features.
In the process known as the misinformation effect, individuals
receive wrong information about an event and then incorporate that information into their memory of the event.
In 1986, the U.S. Supreme Court in a split decision
overturned a lower court ruling that death-qualified jurors are a biased sample.
Someone accused of a crime is judged more sympathetically
if he or she appears similar to the one who judges.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A judge's orders to ignore inadmissible testimony can boomerang—adding to the impact of the testimony.
If convicted, _______ people strike people as more dangerous, especially if they are sexual offenders.
In order to promote accurate recall, the "cognitive interview" procedure for questioning eyewitnesses begins with
guiding eyewitnesses to visualize the scene.
Studies of eyewitness testimony indicate that
eyewitnesses who are shown to have poor eyesight have little effect on the jurors' judgment.
Studies of the misinformation effect provide a dramatic demonstration of
The new police interview technique that improves information gathering is called
After the study by Morgan and his team, they found soldiers, during a mock training session on survival, could
correctly identify their high-stress interrogator 30 percent of the time.
In a police lineup, the lineup interviewer's feedback
has a large effect on the witness's confidence.
When Efran (1974) gave students a description of a case of students cheating and showed them a photograph of either an attractive or unattractive person accused of the crime, he found that attractive defendants were
recommended for least punishment.
All of the following are good procedures to follow when dealing with the lineup process EXCEPT
police questions should be spontaneous, not scripted.