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rad test-lect #0-ch 5 (wkbk ?s) part A
wkbk ?s from all lectures
Terms in this set (76)
What is a physical property of x-rays?
travel in straight lines
As the wavelength of x-ray photons shortens, the energy of the x-ray beam will
The kVp setting on an x-ray machine controls the
quality of the x-ray beam
The milliampere-seconds (mAs) setting on an x-ray machine controls the
quantity of x-rays emitted
During an exposure, electrons in the x-ray tube travel from the
cathode to the anode
To produce x-rays, a great deal of energy in an x-ray tube is converted into heat. The ratio of heat generated to x-ray production is generally considered to be
The acceleration of the electrons and their ultimate striking energy is determined by the
When depressing the "prep" switch on a rotating anode x-ray machine, you are effectively
heating up the filament and spinning the rotating anode
Regarding the production of x-rays in the x-ray tube, the cathode includes....
the filament and the focusing cup
What transformer in an x-ray machine controls the temp of the filament?
The heel effect is going to be more noticeable with....
larger film, shorter focal-film distance, and lower kVp
Full-wave rectification means that...
120 pulses of x-rays are produced per second
The cells that are most susceptible to the hazards of ionizing radiation are
the rapidly dividing cells of the intestinal lining, neoplastic cells, and gonad cells
A sievert (Sv) is the...
unit of radiation that contains lithium fluoride compounds
A radiation badge worn at the collar level...
monitors exposure of the thyroid gland and lenses of the eyes
When taking radiographs, you should whenever possible use....
decreased exposure time, increased distance from radiation sources, and increased shielding
There is a gloved hand visible on a radiograph. This is....
a real concern, because the hand has been exposed to radiation
A small filament produces an image of...
greater detail than a large filament
You are preparing to take a radiograph, and you want to confirm that you have set the correct mAs of 15. What scenario will give you 15 mAs?
300 mA and 1/20 sec
If you were going to decrease the focal-film distance from 100cm to 50cm, what should your new mAs be if the old was 16?
Scatter radiation on a film is more noticeable if there is....
higher kVp, thicker pt, and larger field size
To get more density on a film, you should do what to the kVp and mAs?
increase either or both
Sante's rule states that when setting up a technique chart, you should use what base kVp for the abdomen?
(2 x thickness [cm]) + 40
Because of the relationship between milliamp (mA) and mAs, as you increase the mA, you can
decrease the length of the exposure, so that there is less chance of movement
A radiograph in front of you appears dark. You note that the bones are gray. You are best to do what for the next radiograph?
decrease the kVp
Grid cutoff can be described as
incorrect use of the grid, so that the grid absorbs more radiation than it should
A grid w/ a ratio of 10:1 absorbs
more scatter radiation and requires greater exposure factors than a 5:1 grid
The term dorsomedial-plantarolateral oblique is in reference to the
The term dorsomedial-plantarolateral oblique means that the x-ray beam is directed at the
dorsal limb aspect, and the film is against the lateral side of the limb
Positive contrast media are considered to be
radiopague, which means it will be dark on a processed film
Which of the following is a false statement regarding portable x-ray units? (a. commonly used in large animal practice, b. can be carried easily from one location to another, c. use long exposure times because of low mA capability, d. have a rotating anode tube and single focal spot)
have a rotating anode tube and single focal spot
The exposure factor that is responsible for accelerating the electrons from the cathode to the anode
The temp of the cathode filament is controlled by what exposure factor?
Elongating and foreshortening of anatomic structure are associated with
A tabletop (nongrid) technique is used to radiograph the
Sante's rule is used to calculate
If the mA is set at 300, and the time is set at 1/60, the mAs is
The pH of the fixer chemicals is
The ideal temp of the chemicals for manual radiograph processing is
Which of the following is a false statement regarding film storage? (a. boxes should be stored flat, in a horizontal position, b. film should be away from chemicals and sources of ionizing radiation, c. storage areas should be cool, 10
C to 15
C, d. storage areas should have a relative humidity of 40% to 60%)
boxes should be stored flat, in a horizontal position
The unit of absorbed ionizing radiation dose is
The workplace program that has been developed to ensure radiation exposures are kept as low as possible
If cracks are present in protective appearal, they appear _____ when radiographed.
The minimum age, in years, for a person to be involved in radiographic procedures is
One siever (Sv) equals
Which of the following is a false statement regarding scatter radiation? (a. the main source of radiation exposure to the vet tech comes from the area of pt that is exposed during radiography, b. scatter radiation is of concern, because is decreases film quality and increases radiation, c. scatter radiation is composed of high-energy x-ray photons that have undergone a change in direction after interacting w/ structures in the pt's body, d. the best way to decrease radiation exposure is to use beam-limiting devices and pay close attention to technical factors to avoid retakes)
scatter radiation is composed of high-energy x-ray photons that have undergone a change in direction after interacting w/ structures in the pt's body
A noninvasive imaging procedure that uses a small amt of radioactive material administered IV is
Images are displayed in real time in what?
ultrasound and fluoroscopy
The imaging technique that uses x-rays and computers to produce images that show anatomy in a cross section is
The max permissible dose (MPD) for whole-body radiation per year in sieverts is
What activity does not increase the likelihood of personnel exposure to scatter radiation?
use of fast screen/fast film combination
To prevent geometric distrotion when performing radiographs, what guidelinges should be followed?
the primary x-ray beam should be perpendicular to the object of interest, and the pt should be positioned parallel to the film
Tabletop exposures can usually be made under what circumstance?
when the area of interest (or the entire pt) is less than 10cm thick
To take advantage of the "heel effect," a vet tech would do what when positioning an animal for a study?
place the thickest part of the pt toward the cathode side of the x-ray
When evaluating a film, you note that the film is too light. You then determine that the film does not have adequate penetration, because you cannot discern the various forms in the abdomen. The best adjustment to make when repeating the film would be to
increase the kVp
A vet tech notes that a film is too dark, and there is minimal contrast (everything is gray). What is the most appropriate adjustment to be made to improve the quality of the repeat film?
decrease the kVp
When naming a radiographe view, what best describes a DPaMLO of the carpus?
the beam enters the dorsal/medial surface of the carpus and exits the palmer/lateral surface
The tungsten plate (target) is located where on the x-ray machine?
In a x-ray tube, x-rays are formed on the
tungsten target on the anode
Anyone working with, or in the near vacinity of, an x-ray machine should use
a dosimetry badge
The distance between the x-ray tube and the film is the
The focal spot is...
the spot on the tungsten target that the electron beam is aimed at
The unit of radiation exposure "rad" stands for
radiation absorbed dose
What can cause a series of parallel white lines on the developed radiograph?
When positioning an animal for radiographs, it is best to place the thicker portion of the pt toward _____of the tube to produce a radiograph w/ uniform density.
the cathode end
Most x-ray film cassettes now have what kind of screens that glow when irradiated?
High kVp produces...
a long scale of contrast
Low kVp produces....
a short scale of contrast
What would do the most to minimize scatter radiation?
the collimator is narrowed
If the finished radiograph is too light, a probable cause is
focal-film distance is too long
When radiographing a distal extremity, a _____ scale of contrast is best.
Dosimetry badges should be worn...
on the collar outside the apron
How often should chemical (drug) restraint be used during radiologic procedures?
as often as possible
When taking radiographs, the vet tech should
maximize distance between herself/himself and x-ray sources
Extremity radiographs should be taken w/ the film cassette...
on the tabletop
The mA selector
controls the number of electrons produced by the filament
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Radiology Midterm 2
McCurnin Chapter 19
rad quiz-ch 6 (notes/wkbk)
rad test #7-#14 (wkbk)
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