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40 terms

ESC1000 Chapter 7/8 Plate Tectonics

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Theory of Plate Tectonics
Theory that says Earth's outer shell is made of individual plates that move across its surface and interact with each other.
6 inches per year
Speed of the Pacific plate
quarter inch per year
Speed of the North American Plate
Theory of Continental Drift
Theory that says Earth's continents move across its surface and may interact with each other, proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1915.
Pangaea
Name of the ancient supercontinent proposed by Alfred Wegener
fit of coastlines
Four lines of evidence for continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener: 1) ______; 2) similarities in fossils from different areas; 3) similarities in rock types and structural features on different continents; 4) Paleoclimatic evidence
similarities in fossils from different areas
Four lines of evidence for continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener: 1) fit of coastlines; 2) ______; 3) similarities in rock types and structural features on different continents; 4) Paleoclimatic evidence
similarities in rock types and structural features on different continents
Four lines of evidence for continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener: 1) fit of coastlines; 2) similarities in fossils from different areas; 3) ______; 4) Paleoclimatic evidence
Paleoclimatic evidence
Four lines of evidence for continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener: 1) fit of coastlines; 2) similarities in fossils from different areas; 3) similarities in rock types and structural features on different continents; 4) ______
dating rocks from deep-sea drilling
Four modern lines of evidence for continental drift proposed after Alfred Wegener: 1) ______; 2) volcanic hotspots like Hawaii; 3) paleomagnetism; 4) measurement by satellite and radio telescope.
volcanic hotspots like Hawaii
Four modern lines of evidence for continental drift proposed after Alfred Wegener: 1) dating rocks from deep-sea drilling; 2) ______; 3) paleomagnetism; 4) measurement by satellite and radio telescope.
paleomagnetism
Four modern lines of evidence for continental drift proposed after Alfred Wegener: 1) dating rocks from deep-sea drilling; 2) volcanic hotspots like Hawaii; 3) ______; 4) measurement by satellite and radio telescope.
measurement by satellite and radio telescope
Four modern lines of evidence for continental drift proposed after Alfred Wegener: 1) dating rocks from deep-sea drilling; 2) volcanic hotspots like Hawaii; 3) paleomagnetism; 4) ______.
divergent boundary
Three types of plate boundaries: 1) _____; 2) convergent boundary; 3) transform boundary
convergent boundary
Three types of plate boundaries: 1) divergent boundary; 2) _____; 3) transform boundary
transform boundary
Three types of plate boundaries: 1) divergent boundary; 2) convergent boundary; 3) _____
divergent boundary
Zone where two or more plates are moving away from each other
convergent boundary
Zone where two or more plates are running into each other
transform boundary
Zone where two plates are moving past each other.
rising mantle plumes
What causes a divergent boundary?
Mid Atlantic ridge
Example of a divergent boundary
120
Degree angles of the split on a triple junction
plate collisions
What causes a convergent boundary?
continental-oceanic
Which type of plate collision creates a subduction zone and volcanic arc?
subduction zone and volcanic arc
What does a collision of continental and oceanic plates create?
subduction zone
Feature created when an oceanic plate descends into the asthenosphere
volcanic arc
Linear group of volcanoes that form due to subduction of an oceanic plate under a continental plate
Andes and Cascades
Two examples of an oceanic and continental plate colliding (alphabetical order)
specific gravity
What determines which continent goes under in the subduction zone?
oceanic-oceanic
Which type of plate collision creates a subduction zone and volcanic island arc?
folded mountains
What does a collision of two continental plates create?
volcanic island arc
Linear group of volcanoes that form due to subduction of an oceanic plate under another oceanic plate
Aleutian Islands, Indonesia, Japan
Three examples of volcanic island arcs (alphabetical order)
older basalt has higher SG
What determines which oceanic plate goes under the other?
continental-continental
Which type of plate collision creates folded mountains?
Himalaya Mountains
Example of continental-continental plate collision
no subduction zone
Why are there no volcanoes in a continental-continental plate collision?
terranes
Portions of crust that become accreted to the edge of a continent which are often different in nature from the main continent.
San Andreas Fault
Example of a transform boundary
transform boundary
Large fault that moves laterally.