Terms in this set (...)

Anticipatory Governance
system of institutions, rules, and norms that provide a way to use foresight for the purpose of reducing risk and increase capacity to respond to events at earlier rather than later stages of their development.
Conditions of Water Resource Sustainability
availability of fresh water supply, ability to provide infrastructure, ability to manage power, ability of private-public management.
Colorado River Impacts
an agreement signed in 1926 that allocated to Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and Mexico different portions of the Colorado River's normal and stored river flow.
Reclaim/recharge Water
Reclaimed water or recycled water, is former wastewater (sewage) that is treated to remove solids and impurities, and used in sustainable landscaping irrigation, to recharge groundwater aquifers, to meet commercial and industrial water needs, and for drinking.
Transit Oriented Development
A mixed-use residential or commercial area designed to maximize access to public transport, and often incorporates features to encourage transit ridership
Bus Rapid Transit
Bus rapid transit is a bus-based mass transit system. A true BRT system generally has specialized design, services and infrastructure to improve system quality and remove the typical causes of delay. Sometimes described as a "surface subway", BRT aims to combine the capacity and speed of light rail or metro with the flexibility, lower cost and simplicity of a bus system.

To be considered BRT, buses should operate for a significant part of their journey within a fully dedicated right of way (busway) to avoid traffic congestion. In addition, a true BRT system has most of the following elements:

Alignment in the center of the road (to avoid typical curb-side delays)
Stations with off-board fare collection (to reduce boarding and alighting delay related to paying the driver)
Station platforms level with the bus floor (to reduce boarding and alighting delay caused by steps)
Bus priority at intersections (to avoid intersection signal delay)
Critical Mass
A sufficient number of adopters of an innovation in a social system so that the rate of adoption becomes self-sustaining and creates further growth
Human-ecological systems
human ecology theory, identifies five environmental systems with which an individual interacts. This theory provides the framework from which community psychologists study the relationships with individuals' contexts within communities and the wider society. Ecological systems theory was developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner.The 5 systems:
Microsystem: Refers to the institutions and groups that most immediately and directly impact the child's development including: family, school, religious institutions, neighborhood, and peers.
Mesosystem: Interconnections between the microsystems, Interactions between the family and teachers, Relationship between the child's peers and the family
Exosystem: Involves links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context. For example, a parent's or child's experience at home may be influenced by the other parent's experiences at work. The parent might receive a promotion that requires more travel, which might increase conflict with the other parent and change patterns of interaction with the child.
Macrosystem: Describes the culture in which individuals live. Cultural contexts include developing and industrialized countries, socioeconomic status, poverty, and ethnicity. A child, his or her parent, his or her school, and his or her parent's workplace are all part of a large cultural context. Members of a cultural group share a common identity, heritage, and values. The macrosystem evolves over time, because each successive generation may change the macrosystem, leading to their development in a unique macrosystem.
Chronosystem: The patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances. For example, divorces are one transition. Researchers have found that the negative effects of divorce on children often peak in the first year after the divorce. By two years after the divorce, family interaction is less chaotic and more stable. An example of sociohistorical circumstances is the increase in opportunities for women to pursue a career during the last thirty years.
Mitigation Strategies
to reduce the urban heat island effect
Urban Heat Island Subtypes
an effect of pollution & congestion in which cities create their own heat (subsurface, surface, urban canopy layer, urban boundary layer)
Park Cool Island
Vegetation intercepts radiation and produces shade that also contributes to reduce urban heat release. The decrease and fragmentation of large vegetated areas such as parks, not only reduces these benefits, but also inhibits atmospheric cooling due to horizontal air circulation generated by the temperature gradient between vegetated and urbanized areas (i.e. advection), which is known as the park cool island effect.
Sky View Factor
the ration of the amount of sky seen from a point on the ground that is potentially available. Ranges from 0 (completely obscured) to 1 (completely visible). influences urban heat island effect as buildings are radiating heat to the ground and each other affecting air temperature.
Thermal Admittance
is a measure of a material's ability to absorb heat from, and release it to, a space over time. It is the square root of the product of thermal conductivity and heat capacity.
Energy Landscapes
The social and technical aspects of energy production- energy is a social issue with technical components. Supply impacts acceptance and land use
Highest Carbon Intensity
Coal has the highest carbon intensity among fossil fuels, resulting in coal-fired plants having the highest output rate of CO2 per kWh.
LEED, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, certification system developed by the U.S. Green Building Council as a way of promoting and evaluating environmentally friendly construction projects
Global Transport Concept
What is the Global Transport Concept (GTC)? is a traffic management plan that is updated every 10 years; what are the main goals of Global Transport Concept (GTC)? The main goals are to reduce traffic in the city and support public transit, cyclists, and pedestrians; what is the focus on Global Transport Concept (GTC)? The plan focuses on creating a rational balance between all modes of transportation; what are the GTC contributions to Freiburg? (3) describe them -creation of a bicycle path network (300 miles of bike paths and bike-friendly streets and 8,000 public bike parking spaces)
-Tramway network (light rail), which is the most used transit system in the city; 70% population lives within 550 yards of a tram stop (promoting walking to tram stations); it is the most sustainable because it is powered by renewable energy sources (hydropower, solar and wind energy)
-Conservation of the city center into a pedestrian zone
The 3 Pillars of Freiburg's Energy Policy
sustainability implies an integrated balance between achieving social equity, managing resources or economy, and protecting the environment.
CHP Plant
Combined heat and power plants (CHP),
-these power plants reuse the waste heat from electricity production to generate more electricity and useful heat for buildings.
-CHP plants can be powered by natural gas, biogas, land fill gas, geothermal, wooden chips, and heating oil.
Energy Plus and Zero Energy Buildings
An energy-plus house produces more energy from renewable energy sources, over the course of a year, than it imports from external sources. This is achieved using a combination of microgeneration technology and low-energy building techniques, such as: passive solar building design, insulation and careful site selection and placement. A reduction of modern conveniences can also contribute to energy savings, however many energy-plus houses are almost indistinguishable from a traditional home, preferring instead to use highly energy-efficient appliances, fixtures, etc., throughout the house.
A zero-energy building is a building with zero net energy consumption, meaning the total amount of energy used by the building on an annual basis is roughly equal to the amount of renewable energy created on the site, or in other definitions by renewable energy sources elsewhere. These buildings consequently do not increase the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. They do at times consume non-renewable energy and produce greenhouse gases, but at other times reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas production elsewhere by the same amount.
Food Desert
Urban neighborhoods and rural towns without ready access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food. Instead of supermarkets and grocery stores, these communities may have no food access or are served only by fast food restaurants and convenience stores that offer few healthy, affordable food options.
Food Miles
A measure of the distance food travels from its source to the consumer. This can be given either in units of actual distance or of energy consumed during transport.
Local Food Systems
food that is organically grown and produced within a fairly limited distance from where it is consumed
Food Security
Physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
Life Cycle Assessment
The comprehensive examination of a product's environmental and economical effects throughout its lifetime, including raw material extraction, transportation, manufacturing, use, and disposal
The Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) project is one of 26 LTER sites funded by the National Science Foundation. Launched in 1997 along with the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) as the first urban LTER sites, CAP LTER has been instrumental in establishing urban ecology as a recognized and important area of ecological inquiry
Urban Ecology
an approach to the study of urban life based on an analogy with the adjustment of plants and organisms to the physical environment.
Indian Bend Wash
The Indian Bend Wash Greenbelt is an oasis of parks, lakes, paths and golf courses traversing 11 miles through the heart of Scottsdale. The greenbelt features more than 24 grade-separated crossings, meaning users can avoid major cross traffic. This world-renown flood control project is rated among the top urban "green spaces" in Arizona.
Biophilic Design
incorporating nature into city planning and architecture. Planning currently destroys the environment and also cuts us off from nature and we need to be doing the opposite when planning the places where we will work and live.
Biophilia Hypothesis
humans have an inherited disposition to be drawn to or bond with nature, including other animals. Why we are fascinated with comparative psychology
Smart Growth
planned economic and community development that attempts to curb urban sprawl and worsening environmental conditions
Green Networks
the system of interconnected or related patches and corridors that provide and sustain ecological values within a human dominated landscape
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem services are the transformation of a set of natural assets (soil, plants and animals, air and water) into things that we value.
Anthropogenic heat sources
Urban canopy layer UHI
• where people live
• from the ground to below the tops of trees and roofs
• most commonly observed and referred to
- Boundary layer UHI
• starts from the rooftop and treetop level
• extends up to the point where urban landscapes no longer influence the atmosphere
• typically no more than one mile from the surface
Urban Canyon
effects produced by arrangement of mid- to high- rise buildings along the direction of wind flow help in reducing daytime temperatures
Urban Energy
sum of all incoming shortwave and outgoing longwave radiation
Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development.
Urban Growth Boundary
Growth boundaries are designated boundaries for cities , restricting urban growth beyond boundaries. They are usually enforced through zoning regulations and building codes.
an area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas.
Sustainable Yield
s the ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, i.e. the surplus required to maintain ecosystem services at the same or increasing level over time.
Smart Cities
is an urban development vision to integrate multiple information and communication technology (ICT) solutions in a secure fashion to manage a city's assets - the city's assets include, but not limited to, local departments information systems, schools, libraries, transportation systems, hospitals, power plants, water supply networks, waste management, law enforcement, and other community services
Population Density
is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.
LEED for Neighborhood Development (LEED ND) was engineered to inspire and help create better, more sustainable, well-connected neighborhoods. It looks beyond the scale of buildings to consider entire communities.
Carsharing allows people to rent cars on a short-term (hourly or daily), as-needed basis, paying only for the time they use the car and the mileage they drive. The operators of the carsharing program provide vehicle maintenance, repair, and insurance.
Greenfield Development
greenfield project is one that lacks constraints imposed by prior work. The analogy is to that of construction on greenfield land where there is no need to work within the constraints of existing buildings or infrastructure.
Mixed-use development
is a type of urban development that blends residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or industrial uses, where those functions are physically and functionally integrated, and that provides pedestrian connections.
Environmental Externality
refer to the economic concept of uncompensated environmental effects of production and consumption that affect consumer utility and enterprise cost outside the market mechanism. As a consequence of negative externalities, private costs of production tend to be lower than its "social" cost.
Ecological Resilience
was defined as the amount of disturbance that an ecosystem could withstand without changing self-organized processes and structures (defined as alternative stable states).
Ecological Integrity
the healthy compositions, structure, and functioning of an ecosystem consisting of near natural levels of production, biodiversity, soil, and water.
Demand-side management
also known as demand side management (DSM), is the modification of consumer demand for energy through various methods such as financial incentives and behavioral change through education.
Supply-side management
Managing how your organization purchases its energy resources is Supply Side Management. For an energy management strategy to be completely effective in an era of highly volatile energy prices, procurement strategies need to be examined closely.
Biophilic Projects in Singapore
For many years known as a garden city, Singapore has now shifted significantly its aspiration—it now strives to be "a City in a Garden". This is not merely a subtle shift in semantics, but the embracing of a bolder vision—nothing short of reimaging of DNA of cities and the growing of a biophilic culture.
Industrial Agriculture
Intensive farming or intensive agriculture also known as industrial agriculture is characterized by a low fallow ratio and higher use of inputs such as capital and labour per unit land area. This is in contrast to traditional agriculture in which the inputs per unit land are lower.
Sustainable Indicators
Indicators of a sustainable community point to areas where the links between the economy, environment and society are weak. They allow you to see where the problem areas are and help show the way to fix those problems.
Garden City
designed with consideration of environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimization of required inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air pollution - CO2, methane, and water pollution.
Social Indicators
Any indicator that measures and reports on something of social importance in a specific context.
Objective Indicator
an indicator that reports on concrete and observable phenomena. (quantitavtive)
Phases of the Food Systems
They incorporate environmental, social, political and economic determinants encompassing availability, access and utilization and involve varying spatial, temporal, and institutional scales
Benefits of Urbanism
Educational opportunities, specialized goods and services, employment, transportation and shipping hub, the center for financial capital, agglomeration benefits, cultural amenities, preserves open space.
Challenges of Urbanism
Congestion from people and vehicles, pollution from emission, trash and stormweather, high cost of land and rent, urban heat island effect, slums and declining neighborhoods, crime and security, low density development or sprawl.
Environmental Trajectory
is useful conceptual framework that indicates that cities and countries experience the worst environmental conditions when they have recently industrialized and are in the lower-middle income stage. Afterwards urban environmental conditions usually improve as cities as cities transform into service economies. As cities move up in the trajectory more resources become available to address environmental problems/
Average Water Demand in Arizona By Sector
-Agricultural-5,613,800 or 75%
-Municipal 1,495,300 or 20%
-Industrial 403,100 or 5%
Groundwater Management Act 1980
-to reduce extent or quantity severe overdraft of aquifers
-allocate limited groundwater resources
-to preserve the extent of aquifers
-require renewal of groundwater resources
-100 assured water supply
Pre Fordist vs .Fordist city
Forest: describes modern economic and social systems based on industrialized, standardized mass production and mass consumption. The concept (named for Henry Ford) is used in social, economic, and management theory about production, working conditions, consumption, and related phenomena, especially regarding the 20th century

Pre Fordist: describe as the dominant system of economic production, consumption and associated socio-economic phenomena, in most industrialized countries since the late 20th century. It is contrasted with Fordism, the system formulated in Henry Ford's automotive factories, in which workers work on a production line, performing specialized tasks repetitively. Definitions of the nature and scope of post-Fordism vary considerably and are a matter of debate among scholars.
the measure of ease with which something can be reached in an environment
Vehicle Miles Traveled
measure of total travel by all vehicles. If 100 vehicles travel each 100 miles, the total vehicle miles traveled is 10,000.
Characteristics and Principles of Sustainable Cities
Low ecological-environmental impact
Cluster Housing and Densification
Green Employment
Pedestrian and Bicycle- Friendly Environment
Emphasis on Resilience
Place- Making
Political and Policy Support for Sustainable Development
Interconnectivity of Economic, Ecological and Social Dimension
Social Dimension of Sustainable Neighborhood Development
Often receives less attention compared to the environmental and economic side of sustainability. Too often decision- makers tend to focus only on technical aspects such as energy reduction, sustainable building materials or compact settlement structures, without acknowledging the importance of building social capital or social network