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6 - Motivation, values, lifestyle
Terms in this set (68)
Important to understand why consumers do what they do. From a psychological perspective motivation occurs when a need is aroused that the consumer wishes to satisfy, causing them to try and eliminate the need. (Hedonic or utilitarian)
a tension that urges the consumer the need to reduce it.
focuses on biological needs that product unpleasant states of arousal, so we are motivated to reduce the tension caused by this arousal. Contradiction: people can go against it by increasing their drive state like when going out for a big dinner and not eating before even if hungry.
suggests that behaviour is largely pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes - positive incentives - rather than being pushed from within.
refers to the continual striving to use time constructively, trying new things is a way to check them off our checklist of experiences we want to achieve before moving on to others
a process that scours the social media universe to collect and analyse the words people use when they describe a particular product or company, the researches then created a library to code the data.
a person must choose between two desirable alternatives
Theory of cognitive dissonance
based on the premise that people have a need for order in their lives and that a state of tension occurs when beliefs conflict with one other, so reduction of this can unlimited the tension. Choosing between two products by looking at pros and cons, leading to getting the bad of the one chosen and loosing out on the good of the one not chosen. For marketing, they want to have both: fat free food WITH the flavour.
Approach avoidance conflict
When we desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time: buy a box of chocolates or a fur coat. To resolve this, we have faux fur and low calorie chocolate.
facing a choice between two undesirable alternatives, and marketers dress these with messages that stress the unforeseen benefits of choosing one option (special credit to ease pain of new car payments)
Classification of consumer needs
need for: achievement affiliation, power, uniqueness, autonomy, play
Maslows hierarchy of needs
marketers use this to know what consumers need next: physiological, safety, belonginess, ego needs, self actualisation . We can satisfy these online by searching for medical questions, social media, invitations to exclusive communities,etc
the idea that much of human behaviour stems from a fundamental conflict between a person desire to gratify their physical needs and the necessity to function as a responsible member of society
The party animal of the mind, oriented toward immediate gratification, selfish and illogical, directing a persons energy towards pleasurable acts without regard for the consequences
A persons conscience that internalised society rules (especially as communicated by parents) and works to prevent selfishness
the system that mediates between the id and the superego, temptation vs virtue
Motivational research criticism
1. doesn't work
2. works too well
Positive side of motivational research
cheap, help in marketing to provide a powerful hook that appeals to consumers deepest needs
identifies and measures the degree to which certain personality traits exist from individual to individual. Is used by marketers to predict what type of consumers they have: those who watch gossip girl are looking for social status and good brand matches are jimmy choo and jaguar.
when one denies short term purchasing whims - brining lunch from home instead of buying it
Problems with the trait theory
- hard to actually predict traits
- hard to measure
-dilute validity to make it fit what they want
- general and don't actually reflect purchasing decisions
the set of traits people attribute to a product if it were a person
the extent to which a consumer holds strong and favourable associations with a brand in memory to the extent that they pay more for it than a generic version.
the common cultural practice whereby people attribute to inmate objects qualities that make them somehow alive
we attribute human characteristics to a product like the green giant or michelin man.
a persons perceived relevance of the object based on their inherent needs, values, and interests, can be viewed as the motivation to process information
- as felt involvement with a product increases, the consumer devotes more attention to the ads related to it more
Levels of involvement
low end of involvement, decisions are made out go habit because the consumer lacks the motivation to consider alternatives
the high end of involvement with intensity reserved for people and objects that carry great meaning for the individual.
when consumers are truly involved with a product/ad/website:
highly focused attention, mental enjoyment, distorted sense of time, etc: online shopping
the consumers level of interest in a product: allowing a consumer to play a role in designing or personalising what they buy is the best way to increase this involvement.
Message-response involvement (advertising involvement)
refers to the consumers interest in processing marketing communications - Tv is low involvement and print is high
when people become immersed in a storyline through some messages leading to high involvement
Strategies to increase involvement
- appeal to the consumers hedonic needs
- use novel stimuli such as cinematography, sudden silences, etc
- use prominent stimuli such as loud music
- celeb endorsements
- provide value that customers appreciate
where freelancers and fans make their own commercials for favourite products (social media)
Social game in which players are rewarded if they respond to a request to watch a commercial, do a survey, to join something
a belief about some desirable end-state that transcends specific situations and guides selection of behaviour. Distinguished from attitude that they do not only apply to specific situations only.
every culture has a set of these that it imparts to is members: health, wisdom, world peace
- Think of italian cleaning after the world war and unilever
Examples of core values
Western: freedom, youthfulness
Japan: trade off independence for security
efficiency, excellence, status, self esteem, play, aesthetics, ethics, spirituality
The Rokeach Value Survey
identified a set of terminal values (apply to many cultures) and instrumental values (actions needed to achieve values)
- list of values (LOV)
Schwartz value survey
An elaborate set of 56 values in ten motivational domains that is more cross culturally valid
The means-end chain model
assumes that people link very specific product attributes indirectly to terminal values: we choose among alternative means to attain some end state that we value such as freedom
think of someone who likes a light beer. This is because they don't like getting drunk, and be moe sociable and result in friendships which is a terminal value for them.
Researchers first generate a map depicting relationships between functional product or service attributes and terminal values. This info is the used to develop ads by identifying elements: message elements, consumer benefit, executional framework, leverage point, and driving force
the importance people attach to worldly possessions, people gauge their worth and that of others in terms of how much they own
- products valued by materialists are more expensive and people tend to be less happy
consumers trying to reduce their reliance on possession, such s the burning man project to step away from corporate america
buying experiences over products
to maintain a stable level of happiness we tend to become used to changes, big or small, good or bad: small purchases for a buzz than one big one.
someone who is a cosmopolitan is open to the world and strives for diverse experiences. They respond well to global brand images
LOHAS, people who care about the environment - lifestyles of health and sustainability
consumers don't believe the claims marketers make and in some case consumers actually avoid brands that promise they are green because it is fake.
a pattern of consumption that reflects a persons choices about how they spend time and money, and also to their attitudes and values attached to these behavioural patterns.
- exist in groups but are individualised
- change over time
the use of psychological, sociological, and anthological factors to determine how the market is segmented. Unlike demographics who show WHO buys, psychographics help us understand WHY they buy
Can take place in forms such as lifestyle profiles (user vs non user), product-specific profiles (target group and profiles them on product decisions), general lifestyle segmentation (large sample based on overall preferences) , product-specific segmentation (tailors question to a product category)
Psychographic attempt using three variables: activities, interests and opinions.
only 20 percent of a products users account for 80 percent of the volume of product a company sells so marketers try and find this segment and their lifestyle to target it
Uses of psychographic data
- define target market
- create a new view of market
-position the product
- better communicate product attributes
- develop product strategy
- to market social and political issues
Lifestyle marketing perspective
recognises people sort themselves into groups on the basis of the things they like to do and spend their time and money, which cream opportunities for market segmentation strategies to match the lifestyle.
asks questions to identify peoples values and attitudes about a wide range of issues and are then located in a space over three aces and then divides the population into ten categories.
16 lifestyles into six mentalities
presenting people with advertisements based on their internet use - asos dress on Facebook.
Product disposal options
2. temporarily dispose
3. permanently dispose
already purchased objects are sold or exchanged to others (second hand), the reclamation business
- revolutionised by the internet such as ebay and etsy
modern day scavengers who live off discards as a political statement against corporations and consumerism
giving away useful but unwanted goods to help people out and keep them out of landfills
taking steps to gradually distance from things one treasures so that they can sell or give it away
The why of consumptopm
consumption motives, goals, and desires
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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5 - Perception and Learning
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