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41 terms

Stretching

stretching- indications, precautions, techniques, etc...
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stretch function
to increase ROM and mobility around a joint or series of joints
stretch
elongate structure around joint
mobility
ability to be moved
flexibility
move through unrestricted pain free ROM
hypomobility
restricted motion caused by adaptive shortening
adaptive shortening
prolonged immob, sedentary lifestyle, poor posture, muscle imbalance, weakness assiciated with muscle disorder, inflamation, pain, deformities
contractures
adaptive shortening that results in resistance to stretch, limitation in ROM and decreased functional ability (designated by action of shortened muscle)
myostatic contracture
shortening of muscle without pathology
pseudomyostatic
apparent contracture, spacticity, muscle guarding
arthogenic/periarticular
intra-articular pathology ie capsular restriction
fibrotic
fiberous changes to soft tissue (scar tissue)
indications for use of stretching
limited ROM due to adhesions, contractures, scar tissue formation/ Restricted motion my lead to otherwise preventable structural deformities/ Muscle shortening due to weakness of opposing tissue/ As part of a total fitness program designed to prevent injury/ Before and after vigorous exercise to minimize post exercise muscle soreness
contraindications for use of stretching
bony block limits, recent fracture, acute inflammtion or infection, sharp or acute pain w/joint movement or muscle elongation, hematoma, hypermobility,if contracture or shortened soft tissues are "functinal", if contractures or shortened tissues provide increased joint stability in lieu of normal structures or neuromuscular control
precautions
don't force beyond normal ROM (and normal ROM varies!), osteoporosis, long period of immobilization, age, prolonged steroid use, newly united fractures, edema, overstretching weak muscles
stretch reflex
muscle spindle - golgi tendon organ
muscle spindle belly of muscle
reports velocity and changes in lenght of muscle to brain facilitates reflexive contraction to protect from injury
golgi tendon organ
senses change in tension a muscle tendon junction inhibits motor neuron activity (relax tells motor nerve to shut down so no contraction)
stress strain curve
visual representation of what happens to soft tissues under a stress (toe, elastic range, plastic range, neck, failure)
alignment
positioning of the body or segment to ensure stretch is applied to appropriate muscle group
stabilization
fixing one end of the segment
intensity
how much force is used (low load optimal lengthening)
duration
amount of time stretch force is applied
long
static or prolonged 30 second is avg
static progressive
lengthen, muscle gives lengthen more
short
cycles- slow repeated low intensity and ballistic- bouncing rapid forceful high intensity (bad)
speed
slow and sustained force applied gradually
frequency
# of sessions per day/week, base on cause of limitation, avg 2 to 5 sessions a week
mode
manual, self, mechanical, neuromuscular inhibition
mechanical
use tool or device
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Faciliation (PNF)
Hold-relax (HR) or contract-relax (CR); Agonist contraction (AC); Hold-relax with agonist contraction (HR-AC)
HR hold relax
the tight muscle (antatgonist) is lengthened isometrically contracts (5 second) followed by period of relaxation and passive elongation
CR contract relax
the tight muscle (antagonist) is lengthened concentrically contracts through out the ROM followed by a period of relaxation and passive elongation
HR-AC
HR technique followed by AC tech
self stretch
pt. carries out independently after careful instruction
manual stretch
therapist applies external force to move involved body segment slightly beyond the point of tissue resistance and available ROM
AC agonist contraction
pt. concentrically contracts (shortens) muscle opposite the range limiting muscle then holds the end-of-range position for several seconds
static
soft tissues are elongated just past point of tissue resistance and held in lengthened position w/sustained stretch for 30-60 sec.
cyclic
short duration stretch force repeatedly but gradually applied, released, reapplied...with stretches held between 5-10 sec.
ballistic
rapid,forceful intermittent high-speed and high-intensity stretch by the use of quick bouncing movements
What is the difference between 'stretching' and 'ROM'?
Stretching takes soft tissue beyond their available length to INICREASE ROM. ROM exercises stay within the limits of tissue extensibility to MAINTAIN available length.
"Ideal" stretch
low load and prolonged