Pragmatics (with examples)
the study of various aspects of language use in particular situations, dealing with the ways in which language users use and interpret words and utterances
the environment of a given word in an utterance
THE RESTAURANT IS ON THE RIGHT bank OF THE RIVER.
the physical product of language use in a particular situation consisting of all the utterances made in the same situation
John gave the sheriff the gun the man had dropped. The sheriff killed the man with the gun.
the real life situation in which language is used
pronominal and adverbial expressions which can only be interpreted if the speaker's immediate physical context is known
the use of deictic elements
a proposition that follows from both a positive sentence and its negative counterpart, and which both the speaker and the hearer assume to be true
Your brother wants to see you. Your brother doesn't want to see you. --> YOU HAVE A BROTHER.
any of the functions in which language can be used: cognitive, expressive, directive, phatic, metalinguistic, poetic
cognitive function, a.k.a. propositional fuction or descriptive function
the communication of a state of affairs
Today is Monday.
expressive function, a.k.a. affective function
the expression of the speaker's attitudes, emotions and feelings
influencing the hearer's behaviour or attitude
establishing and maintaining contact with the hearer
talking about language in order to clarify certain aspects of it
The word 'run' is a verb.
poetic function, a.k.a. aesthetic function
the use of language for its own sake, that is for the pleasure it gives speaker and hearer, rather than for perfoming any other function
Pat a cake, pat a cake, baker's man.
speech act theory
Austin and Searle's theory of illocutionary acts
the act the speaker performs in and while saying an utterance realising his communicative intention (e.g. stating, asserting, reporting, ordering, requesting etc.)
verb which explicitly performs an illocutionary act
I hereby CERTIFY that ...
direct speech act
a speech act realised by a syntactic structure which is most obviously associated with that speech act
Go away! / Leave! / Do you have a house?
indirect speech act
a speech act using syntactic structures that are more usually associated with other speech acts
It's time you left. / You'd better leave. (instead of 'Leave!')
implications following from an utterance on the basis of Grice's maxims
'it is raining.' --> WE'D BETTER CLOSE THE WINDOW
Grice's maxim 1
Make your contribution as informative as required but not more informative than is required.
A: Have you cleaned your room and done the shopping?
B: I have cleaned my room. --> B hasn't done the shopping.
Grice's maxim 2
A: The doorbell rang.
B: I'm in the bath. --> B means: I can't go, please, go yourself.
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