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Ch. 21 - Genomes and Their Evolution
Terms in this set (34)
What is the most basic definition of evolution?
change in allele frequency in a population over time
What is the basic process for mapping the human genome?
cut DNA into overlapping fragments, clone fragments into plasmids or other vectors, sequence each fragment, order sequence into one overall sequence
_______ is the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions.
_______ is the whole-genome analysis of gene expression.
________ is the whole-genome analysis of proteins.
_______ is whole-genome metabolic analysis.
What is the evolutionary significance of the frataxin protein?
it is conserved in the nuclear genomes of all eukaryotes; human and chimpanzee frataxin proteins are nearly identical in sequence
Did humans evolve from chimpanzees?
No, they are sister species that share a common ancestor
True or False: the number of genes in an organism is correlated to genome size
What does alternative splicing of RNA transcripts allow vertebrate genomes to do?
produce more than one polypeptide per gene
True or False: the basis of change at the genomic level is mutation
What does "non-coding DNA" mean?
DNA that does not encode proteins or functional RNAs, introns, or gene regulatory sequences
What is intergenic DNA?
noncoding DNA found between genes
What is unique non-coding DNA?
former genes that have accumulated mutations and are no longer functional
What is repetitive DNA?
noncoding DNA present in multiple copies in the genome
Transposable elements make up about what percent of repetitive DNA?
About what percent of the human genome is made up of repetitive DNA?
About what percent of the human genome is made up of intergenic DNA?
What is a transposable element?
DNA sequence that can change its position within the genome (transposition), sometimes creating mutations and altering gene expression
What typically results from transposition?
duplication of the transposable element
______ are eukaryotic transposable elements that can move within a genome by means of a DNA intermediate
______ are eukaryotic transposable elements that can move within a genome by means of an RNA intermediate and always leave a copy of the TE at the original site.
True or False: over 90% of the transposable elements in the human genome are transposons
False; 90% are retrotransposons
What are multigene families?
collections of identical or very similar genes
The alpha and beta subunits that make up hemoglobin is an example of what?
Why do chimpanzees have one more chromosome than humans despite their genomes being so similar?
Following divergence from a common ancestor, two ancestral chromosomes fused in the human line but not in the chimpanzee line
What are homeotic genes?
genes that regulate anatomical development in animals, plants, and fungi
What is the homeobox sequence found in homeotic genes?
encode transcription factors that regulate the expression of other developmental genes
What is another name for homeotic genes in animals?
Describe the systems biology approach as it relates to defining protein interaction networks
Techniques can be used to disable pairs of genes one pair at a time, creating double mutants; computer software can then map the genes to produce a network-like "functional map" of protein-protein interactions
About how many genes are there in the human genome?
About what percentage of the human genome consists of protein coding sequences (exons)?
About what percentage of the human genome consists of exons?
About what percentage of the human genome consists of introns?
Recommended textbook explanations
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Nelson Science Perspectives 10
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Alton Biggs, Hagins, Holliday
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