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98 terms

Microbiology Chapter 3

STUDY
PLAY
Some __________ use group translocation as a means of transport.
bacteria
Which of the following is unique to archaea?
hami
The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of
group translocation
__________ may have pili.
Bacteria
A(n) ________ is a carrier protein that transports two substances in the same direction across a membrane.
symport
The cell walls of __________ contain peptidoglycan.
bacteria
A(n) ________ is a type of glycocalyx that is firmly attached to the cell.
capsule
When cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, they lose water and shrivel. This process is called
crenation.
Which of the following scenarios is an example of bacterial motility?
A bacterium moving towards a food source
Axial filaments are found on
spirochetes
A bacterial cell possesses a glycocalyx. Which of the following is NOT true?
It will be engulfed more quickly by defensive cells of the host.
__________ may have flagella.
Archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes
How do axial filaments differ from regular bacterial flagella?
The axial filament is located between the cell membrane and the outer membrane.
What is the advantage to spirochetes of the corkscrew movement provided by axial filaments?
It allows the cells to move more easily through viscous human tissues and fluids, such as mucus.
Axial filaments are composed of
endoflagella
Which of the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?
both fimbriae and glycocalyces
The hami of some archaea are used for which of the following processes?
attachment
Which of the following statements concerning pili is FALSE?
Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella.
The ________ anchors the bacterial flagellum in the cell wall.
basal body
________ are fibrous structures some archaea use for attachment to surfaces.
Hami
Which of the following molecules would be blocked by a cell membrane?
Ions
Hydrophobic molecules would enter a cell
through integral transport proteins.
What is a hallmark of passive transport across cell membranes?
It occurs along an electrochemical gradient, and may involve the use of transport proteins.
A positively charged sodium ion
would require the use of integral protein channels to pass through a cell membrane.
Which of the following statements regarding active transport is false?
It powers the diffusion of water across the cell membrane.
PHB is NOT associated with which of the following words?
ribosome
Bacterial cell walls that are resistant to drying contain
waxes.
Which of the active transport types employs diffusion?
symport
What type of transport uses two transport proteins?
symport
Sodium and potassium ions need to be pumped simultaneously against their concentration gradients. Which one of the transport proteins would be most effective at this?
antiport
Why are ATPases associated with active transport proteins?
They provide transport proteins with the energy needed to pump molecules against their concentration gradients.
Efflux pumps can be used to pump antibiotics out of a cell once they enter to protect the cell. This will be done against the concentration gradient of the antibiotic. Which of the active transports would most likely be used?
uniport
A bacterial cell moving toward light would be an example of
positive phototaxis.
Which of the following statements concerning prokaryotic flagella is FALSE?
Prokaryotic flagella are composed of tubulin.
Bacterial pili can be described as
specialized fimbriae.
Why is no energy required in passive transport?
The concentration gradient drives the movement.
Once equilibrium is reached,
molecules move, but there is no net movement in a particular direction.
Which of the following would not move freely across the cytoplasmic membrane?
Positively charged hydrogen ions
Which of the following may have cell walls containing teichoic acids?
Gram-positive bacteria
Which of the following may have cell walls containing teichoic acids?
Gram-positive bacteria
How is osmosis different from simple diffusion?
Water movement is driven by the concentration of solutes rather than its own concentration.
Nonspecific permeases
allow a variety of molecules to cross the cytoplasmic membrane.
What will happen to a cell that is placed in a solution containing a high concentration of sugar, a molecule that cannot pass across the cell membrane?
The cell will lose its interior water, causing it to shrivel up and possibly die.
How is simple diffusion different from other types of passive transport?
Simple diffusion does not require a permease.
What structural part of a bacterial flagellum is composed of flagellin?
filament
How are Gram-positive and Gram-negative flagella different?
A Gram-positive flagellum has only two rings in its basal body; Gram-negatives each have four.
The rings
anchor the flagellum to the cell wall.
The basal body is comprised of which structural component(s) of flagella?
Rod and Rings
Pathogenic bacteria
can be identified and classified by differences in their flagellar proteins.
ATP is expended in which of the following processes?
both active transport and group translocation
Lipid-soluble molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane by which of the following processes?
diffusion
Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma are distinguished from other bacterial cells by
the absence of a cell wall.
In a(n) ________ solution, an animal cell can gain so much water that it may burst.
hypotonic
Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial cell walls?
tubulin
The presence of a(n) ________ enables bacterial and plant cells to resist the effects of hypotonic solutions.
cell wall
Which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria?
mycolic acid
What makes phospholipid membranes good at keeping some molecules out, and allowing others to freely pass?
They have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.
Integral proteins are mostly involved in
transport function.
How does water enter and exit a cell?
By simple diffusion or by use of an integral transport protein
A glycoprotein
is a type of peripheral protein above that can be used as a receptor or in enzymatic functions.
The cell walls of __________ contain tetrapeptides.
Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
Lipid __________ is a part of the Gram-negative cell wall that can produce fever, inflammation, and shock when it is released into the bloodstream. (Be sure to use capital letters.)
A
Which of the following molecules is shared by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms?
N-acetylmuramic acid
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits the formation of peptide cross-links. Amoxicillin, therefore, would most likely inhibit the growth of __________.
both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms
Porins are present in ______________bacteria because, in these organisms, molecules entering the cell must pass through an extra layer of ___________.
Gram-negative; membrane
Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial flagella?
tubulin
Which of the following prokaryotic cells contains an outer membrane?
Gram-negative bacteria
Endospores survive a variety of harsh conditions in part because of the presence of
dipicolinic acid.
A higher concentration of solutes corresponds to a ________ (higher/lower) concentration of water in a given solution.
lower
Another name for a channel protein in the cell membrane is ________.
permease
The archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways EXCEPT __________.
their ribosomal proteins
Using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. This is an example of
responsiveness
Why is ATP necessary for active transport?
ATP provides energy to transfer material against its concentration gradient.
Which type of active transport protein moves two molecules into the cell at the same time?
Symport
Which transport protein employs transporters that move molecules only in one direction?
Uniport and Symport
Which molecule shown in the animation, the square or the circle, is moving against its concentration gradient?
Both the circle and the square
Which type of active transport protein uses one protein to pump two different molecules?
Antiport and Symport
The reserve deposits of starch or other compounds found in many prokaryotic cells are called ________.
inclusions
Cytoplasmic membranes of __________ are composed of phospholipids.
both bacteria and eukaryotes
Hopanoids are found in __________ cytoplasmic membranes.
bacterial
A bacterial cell stains positive with the acid-fast stain. Which of the following is NOT true?
It has a cell wall that contains endotoxin.
The cytoplasmic membranes of __________ contain lipids.
All prokaryotes
Which of the following statements concerning osmosis is FALSE?
During osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration.
Which of the following molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane rapidly and without the use of transport proteins?
small hydrophobic molecules
Which of the following statements concerning the characteristics of life is FALSE?
reproduction is defined as an increase in the size of an organism.
Tumbles occur when
the flagella rotate clockwise.
Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have only a single flagellum?
Monotrichous
Peritrichous bacteria make a run when
the flagella turn counterclockwise and become bundled.
Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have flagella located at only one end of the cell?
Lophotrichous and monotrichous
A bacterial cell is placed in distilled water. Which of the following will happen?
The cell will gain water.
Lipid A is also known as
endotoxin.
Some members of the __________ have hami.
archaea
Which of the following statements about bacterial flagella is true?
Flagella can rotate 360 degrees.
Taxis is
movement towards or away from a stimulus.
Which of the following terms refers to a bacterium moving towards a light source?
Positive phototaxis
As a bacterium approaches a food source, one would expect
runs to become more frequent.
Why are receptors on the cell surface necessary for bacterial movement?
The receptors sense the stimulus and send signals to the flagella.
Which of the following have external structures containing a periplasmic space?
Gram-negative bacteria