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The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of
A(n) ________ is a carrier protein that transports two substances in the same direction across a membrane.
When cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, they lose water and shrivel. This process is called
Which of the following scenarios is an example of bacterial motility?
A bacterium moving towards a food source
A bacterial cell possesses a glycocalyx. Which of the following is NOT true?
It will be engulfed more quickly by defensive cells of the host.
How do axial filaments differ from regular bacterial flagella?
The axial filament is located between the cell membrane and the outer membrane.
What is the advantage to spirochetes of the corkscrew movement provided by axial filaments?
It allows the cells to move more easily through viscous human tissues and fluids, such as mucus.
Which of the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?
both fimbriae and glycocalyces
Which of the following statements concerning pili is FALSE?
Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella.
What is a hallmark of passive transport across cell membranes?
It occurs along an electrochemical gradient, and may involve the use of transport proteins.
A positively charged sodium ion
would require the use of integral protein channels to pass through a cell membrane.
Which of the following statements regarding active transport is false?
It powers the diffusion of water across the cell membrane.
Sodium and potassium ions need to be pumped simultaneously against their concentration gradients. Which one of the transport proteins would be most effective at this?
Why are ATPases associated with active transport proteins?
They provide transport proteins with the energy needed to pump molecules against their concentration gradients.
Efflux pumps can be used to pump antibiotics out of a cell once they enter to protect the cell. This will be done against the concentration gradient of the antibiotic. Which of the active transports would most likely be used?
Which of the following statements concerning prokaryotic flagella is FALSE?
Prokaryotic flagella are composed of tubulin.
Once equilibrium is reached,
molecules move, but there is no net movement in a particular direction.
Which of the following would not move freely across the cytoplasmic membrane?
Positively charged hydrogen ions
How is osmosis different from simple diffusion?
Water movement is driven by the concentration of solutes rather than its own concentration.
What will happen to a cell that is placed in a solution containing a high concentration of sugar, a molecule that cannot pass across the cell membrane?
The cell will lose its interior water, causing it to shrivel up and possibly die.
How is simple diffusion different from other types of passive transport?
Simple diffusion does not require a permease.
How are Gram-positive and Gram-negative flagella different?
A Gram-positive flagellum has only two rings in its basal body; Gram-negatives each have four.
Lipid-soluble molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane by which of the following processes?
Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma are distinguished from other bacterial cells by
the absence of a cell wall.
The presence of a(n) ________ enables bacterial and plant cells to resist the effects of hypotonic solutions.
Which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria?
What makes phospholipid membranes good at keeping some molecules out, and allowing others to freely pass?
They have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.
How does water enter and exit a cell?
By simple diffusion or by use of an integral transport protein
is a type of peripheral protein above that can be used as a receptor or in enzymatic functions.
Lipid __________ is a part of the Gram-negative cell wall that can produce fever, inflammation, and shock when it is released into the bloodstream. (Be sure to use capital letters.)
Which of the following molecules is shared by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms?
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits the formation of peptide cross-links. Amoxicillin, therefore, would most likely inhibit the growth of __________.
both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms
Porins are present in ______________bacteria because, in these organisms, molecules entering the cell must pass through an extra layer of ___________.
Endospores survive a variety of harsh conditions in part because of the presence of
A higher concentration of solutes corresponds to a ________ (higher/lower) concentration of water in a given solution.
The archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways EXCEPT __________.
their ribosomal proteins
Using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. This is an example of
Why is ATP necessary for active transport?
ATP provides energy to transfer material against its concentration gradient.
Which transport protein employs transporters that move molecules only in one direction?
Uniport and Symport
Which molecule shown in the animation, the square or the circle, is moving against its concentration gradient?
Both the circle and the square
Which type of active transport protein uses one protein to pump two different molecules?
Antiport and Symport
The reserve deposits of starch or other compounds found in many prokaryotic cells are called ________.
A bacterial cell stains positive with the acid-fast stain. Which of the following is NOT true?
It has a cell wall that contains endotoxin.
Which of the following statements concerning osmosis is FALSE?
During osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration.
Which of the following molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane rapidly and without the use of transport proteins?
small hydrophobic molecules
Which of the following statements concerning the characteristics of life is FALSE?
reproduction is defined as an increase in the size of an organism.
Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have flagella located at only one end of the cell?
Lophotrichous and monotrichous
A bacterial cell is placed in distilled water. Which of the following will happen?
The cell will gain water.
Which of the following statements about bacterial flagella is true?
Flagella can rotate 360 degrees.
Which of the following terms refers to a bacterium moving towards a light source?
Why are receptors on the cell surface necessary for bacterial movement?
The receptors sense the stimulus and send signals to the flagella.
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