How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

23 terms

Phonetics: consonants chart

Chapter 5: Consonants
STUDY
PLAY
Resonant/sonorant
Consonants produced with resonance throughout entire vocal tract; little turbulence in airstream; low-frequency spectra (pitch).
Non-resonant/obstruent
Consonants produced with constriction in oral cavity; turbulence in airstream; higher frequency spectra (pitch).
Manner of production
Way in which airstream is modified as it passes through the vocal tract.
Place of articulation
Which articulators are employed in production of a phoneme; location of constriction in vocal tract in production of consonant.
Voiced
Vocal folds vibrate during phoneme production; all vowels; only certain consonants.
Stop/Plosive
Consonant characterized by: (1) complete obstruction of the outgoing airstream; (2) increased intraoral pressure; and (3) release of the pressure. Closure of oral cavity and VP is due to constriction at the lips, alveolar ridge, or velum.
Fricative
Consonant produced by forcing breath stream through narrow channel formed by two separate articulators in vocal tract.
Palatal
Consonant produced with constriction formed by tongue blade and the hard palate, slightly posterior to constriction formed during production of alveolar consonants.
Affricate
Consonant characterized as having both a fricative and a stop manner of production.
Approximant
Consonant produced with obstruction in vocal tract; less obstruction than that associated with obstruents or nasals, but greater than that associated with vowels; glide or liquid.
Glide
Consonant characterized by continued, gliding motion of the articulators into the following vowel; also "semi-vowel."
Liquid
Generic label used to classify two English approximant consonants (l and r).
Type of articulation
Bilabial, labiodental, interdental, alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal.
Types of production
Stop, fricative, affricate, nasal, glide, liquid
Bilabial
Both lips.
Labiodental
Light contact between upper teeth and bottom lip.
Interdental
Blade of tongue and lower edge of upper incisors.
Alveolar
Blad of tongue on or close to alveolar ridge.
Velar
Tongue and velum (soft area behind hard palate).
Glottal
Air is stopped at glottis.
Nasal
Sound comes out of nose, not oral cavity.
Classes of sonorant consonants
Nasal, liquid, glide
Classes of nonresonant consonants
Stop, fricative, affricate