41 terms

ch 22 test bio

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algae / green algae
refers to any synthetic eukaryote other than a land plant. Some are classified as protists some as plants. Those grouped with plants are called ...
green algae
the first plants to exist
aquatic/ fresh
green algae are mostly ________ . They can be found in _____ and salt water, and in some moist areas on land.
filaments
green algae have branching _______ that collect water , and don't have specialize tissues like other plants
haploid and diploid / sexual
green algae do not always alternate between _____ and _______ phases in the life cycle. I f environmental conditions become unfavorable they may switch to ______ reproduction
bryophytes
mosses belong to this group
liverworts and hornworts
the three phylums of bryophytes are : mosses , _____ , and _______
soft/ moist
mosses are short ____ plants like a carpet that grow along ____ ground in cool shady places with nearby sources such as in a forest
thin waxy
mosses have _____ coatings to prevent them from drying out
Rhizoids
________ anchor the moss to the ground and absorb water from surrounding soil
Vascular tissue
_______ is made of lignin and is hardened tubes responsible for carrying water
Bryophytes
______ do not have vascular tissue and therefore must live close to the ground in moist shaded places. They also cannot support the weight of tall plant bodies and therefore remain small and short
gametophyte
in the life cycle ____ phase is the dominant phase of the cycle and carries out most of the plant's photosynthesis
Archegonia
produce eggs
Antheridia
produce sperm
diploid/ sporophyte
in order for eggs to be fertilized the sperm must be able to swim in the surrounding water to find the egg- these fuze together to form a ______ zygote. The zygote then enters a __________ phase where it grows into an embryo and depends on this phase to supply water and nutrients
Sporangium
spore capsule
Vascular plants(ferns)
this plants began forming along with the mosses and they contained new structure that were sturdy enough to grow taller and able to transport water
tracheophytes
vascular plants are called _____
Tracheids
hollow tubelike cells with a thick cell wall and strengthened by a lignin
Xylem
a tissue that carries water upward from roots to all other plant parts(moves up)
Phloem
a secondary transport tissue, moves nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis(moves down from leaves to roots)
seed
a plant embryo and a food supply encased in a protective covering
an embryo
is protected by a seed and a seed coat
gymnosperms
make seeds on the scales of cones(conifers)
angiosperms
make seeds in flowers(flowering plants)
naked seed
gymnosperm means "___ _____" bus its outside the cone and not inside it such as in flowering plants
pollen
direct transfer of _____ from male to female occurs easily without the need of water
ovules
_______ form at the base of each scale on the cone and contain the female gametophyte
Angiosperms
flower producing plants
flower
the reproductive organ which contains ovaries to surround and protect the seed
angiosperms
reproduce sexually by means of flowers
fruit
a structure containing one or more matured ovaries
cotyledons
seed leaves in the embryo
monocot
1 seed leaf in embryo
dicot
two seed leaves in embryo
annuals
grow and die after 1 season
biennials
they live 2 seasons
perennials
live season after season by replenishing itself
heartwood
xylem at the very center of a tree trunk that no longer transports water
sapwood
xylem that actively transports water from roots to the rest of the plant
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