40 terms

APUSH Chapter 2

FLVS AP US History through Seminole County Virtual School Chapter 2
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Separatist Puritans
To build a Christian community, free of persecution from the British government; originally settled in the Netherlands, but wanted a settlement that reflected British language and heritage; wanted to separate from Church of England, thus earning the names Separatists.
non-Separatist Puritans
To be free of religious restrictions of British government and policies of Charles I, who was less tolerant than his predecessor, James I; to "purify" the Church of England by purging customs that they felt were too reminiscent of Catholicism.
joint-stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
The North West Passage
A direct water route to Asia. Many explorers tried to find this route, but it didn't exist.
conversion experience
the rebirth of religion for the Purtitans.
social reciprocity
society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminately
the Gold Coast
British colony in Ghana, successful because railroads made it possible to exploit timber, open cocoa farms, and develop gold mines. Provided some jobs for Africans, but disrupted the previously self-sufficient economy
European concept of "degree"
the concern for power and rank that dominated European life between the 15th and 17th centuries.
the family as a "little commonwealth"
meaning the father has complete rule over the family; ie the children should "kneel down" to their father and the mother should not be dominate in the family and the mothers should do house chores.
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
Anabaptists
In the reformation, a member of the protestant group that believed in baptizing only those people who were old enough to decide to be Christian and believed in the separation of church and state
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Church of England
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife(AKA the Anglican Church)
Puritanism
the beliefs and practices characteristic of Puritans (most of whom were Calvinists who wished to purify the Church of England of its Catholic aspects)
the "new slavery"
initiated by Portugal and later adopted by other western Europeans; the unprecendented magnitude of the trade resulted in a demographic catastrophe for West Africa and its people.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa
Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1510 while exploring Panama
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese explorer who reached the Philippines and circumnavigated the world
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Leads exploration through modern day Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas searching for wealth and an empire to conquer.
Hernán Cortés
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain.
Juan Ponce de Léon
Spanish Explorer; in 1513 and in 1521, he explored Florida, thinking it was an island. Looking for gold and the "fountain of youth", he failed in his search for the fountain of youth but established Florida as territory for the Spanish, before being killed by a Native American arrow.
Jacques Cartier
French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec (1567-1635)
Elizabethan "sea dogs"
set up by Elizabeth of England; these were establish to overcome Catholicism and they were military leaders in a sense who led privately owned armed ships
conquistadores
Spanish 'conqueror' or soldier in the New World. They were searching for the 3-G's: gold, God, and glory.
encomiendas
grants awarding Indian labor to wealthy colonists
the "lost colony"
Roanoke, the first English Colony in the Americas
Atlantic slave trade
or trans-atlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of slaves transported to the New World were Africans from the central and western parts of the continent, sold by Africans to European slave traders who then transported them to the colonies in North and South America.
Virginia Company of Plymouth
One of the two groups of merchants that gained charters from James I. Joint stock company. Based in Plymoth and was granted the right to clonize in North America from the Potomac to boarder of present day Maine. Returned to England after hard winter.
Virginia Company of London
Joint stock company, received a charter from King James I of England for a settlement in the New World; wanted to find gold and a passage to the East Indies.
Captain John Smith
Admiral of New England, an English soldier, sailor, and author. This person is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, and his brief association with the Native American girl Pocahontas during an altercation with the Powhatan Confederacy and her father, Chief Powhatan. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony (based at Jamestown) between September 1608 and August 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.
Jamestown
first permanent colony by Britain; Est by John Smith; had very harsh conditions especially in the winter
Pocahontas
a Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life (1595-1617)
Opechancanough
Powhatan's brother who at first sought to accommodate the English, but relentless English expansion provoked Indian discontent and the rise of a powerful leader, Nemattenew
Fort Nassau
a fort that was created by Dutch Traders that led to be the colony of New Netherland
New Amsterdam
the name the Dutch gave to Manhattan Island
New Netherland
a Dutch colony in North America along the Hudson and lower Delaware rivers although the colony centered in New Amsterdam; annexed by the English in 1664
Mayflower Compact
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
Squanto
Native American who helped the English colonists in Massachusetts develop agricultural techniques and served as an interpreter between the colonists and the Wampanoag.
Samoset
was the first Native American to make contact with the Pilgrims. On March 16, 1621, the settlers were more than surprised when Samoset strolled straight through the middle of the encampment at Plymouth Colony and greeted them in English, which he had begun to learn from an earlier group of Englishmen to arrive in what is now Maine